Evaluations Of National Campaigns

The most comprehensive data on breastfeeding trends come from 3 nationally representative sets of surveys. The World Fertility Surveys (WFS), conducted throughout the 1970s in many developing countries, measured the duration ofbreastfeeding. More detailed measures of specific breastfeeding behaviors are available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which replaced the WFS in the 1980s and continue today. Since the 1980s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has also...

Role Of Milk Whey In Cmv Detection During Lactation

Cells Human Milk

Human cytomegalovirus can be detected in different compartments of breast milk. Viral DNA has been detected by means of PCR in Supernatants ofhuman milk 14. A detailed protocol for preparation of milk whey and milk cells was used to describe CMV excretion of breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants during lactation 15. The resulting whey fraction is cell free Sequences of HLA-DRBI were used to detect cellular contamination of whey preparations by PCR. The presence of CMV DNAlactia was verified...

References

1, Jackson, A.A. (1996) Perinatal nutrition the impact on postnatal growth and development. In Pediatrics and Perinatology edited by Gluckman, P.D. and Heymann, M.A.London Arnold, p. 298-303. 2. Jackson, A.A. (1985) Nutritional adaptation in disease and recovery. In Nutritional adaptation in man. edited by Blaxter, K. and Waterlow, J.C.London John Libbey, p. 111-126. 3. Jackson, A.A. (1992) How can early diet influence later disease BNFNutr Bull 17 2330. 4. Barker, D.J.P. (1994) Mothers, babies...

Breastmilk Transmission Of Hiv1 Among Women With Established Infection

Most babies who are exposed to HIV-1 are infants of women with established HIV-1 infection. Evidence for breastmilk transmission has been from birth cohort studies ofinfants ofHIV-1 infected women. Within these cohorts, HIV infection rates have been higher in infants exposed to breastmilk compared to those who were formula fed (Ryder et al. 1991, European collaborative study 1992, Gabiano et al. 1992, Mayaux et al. 1995,). Several problems have been experienced in determining the magnitude of...

Feeding In The First Days Of Life

The cultural - and scientific -history of the past centuries was often surrounded by a haze of superstitious imaginations and beliefs. Until the middle of the 18th century, for instance, breastfeeding an infant during the first three days of life was not allowed not only because children first had to be baptised in many regions, but also because colostrum was thought to be harmful to the infant and not compatible with meconium 3. For this reason, different purges were in use to remove the...

Adverse effects of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

Our knowledge on adverse effects of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons stems from animal experiments and from human data both due to acute poisoning and to chronic exposure. The effects presumably are the result of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated mechanisms but also of other mechanisms as interactions with neurotransmitter systems, signal transduction pathways, thyroid hormone metabolism and with hormone receptors both in an agonistic and antagonistic fashion. Developmental...

Animal Models

It has been known for many years that both in animals and humans poor protein nutrition could lead to a loss of glucose tolerance and reduction in insulin secretion and that these changes may be irreversible (reviewed in 1 ). In a more recent example of this approach applied to the pregnant rat dam it was found that the P cell growth, replication, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance of offspring of such pregnancies - particularly if the protein deficient diet was also fed to the offspring...

Background

Human milk is composed of50-70 g 1 lactose and 5-8 g 1 lactose derived oligosaccharides1. It seems likely that among other components milk oligosaccharides play an important role in the infant's defense against bacterial and viral adhesion in particular within the gastrointestinal tract2-3-45 . A prerequisite for systemic effects is that milk oligosaccharides are absorbed and distributed via the blood to different organs and cells. To increase our knowledge with regard to oligosaccharide...

Cell culture and adhesion assays

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were prepared as previously described 7. Briefly, endothelial cells were removed from human umbilical cords by collagenase II digestion, resuspended in MCDB131 medium with 20 FCS and antibiotics and grown in primary cultures for 2448 hours until they reached 90-95 confluence. For flow cytometry and leucocyte adhesion assays, HUVEC monolayers from primary cultures were dispersed with trypsin EDTA and re-cultured onto ECAF coated tissue culture...

Conclusion

It is clear from these experiments in animal models that early programming of glucose metabolism, insulin action and longevity does occur in the rat. The changes which occur are quite complex and widespread. They may include structural changes in differentiated tissues but probably occur at the stage of differentiation. The changes in metabolism are the consequence of changes in expression of hormone receptors, components ofhormone signalling pathways and the expression of key regulatory...

Conclusions

The nutritional determinant ofthe function of a mother and her fetus have to allow for at least four different levels of interaction genetic endowment and intergenerational influences early programming, shape, size and body composition at birth growth and development interacting with lifetime experience current plane ofnutrition, lifestyle and diet. Her shape and size are a reflection ofher genetic endowment, but may also represent the effect ofinter-generational influences. In addition her...

Continuing Concerns

There continues to be concern about how to provide women with the information necessary to make a fully informed choice. To do so requires investment in education of both health educators and the public, for which resources would need to be identified. To support mothers in their choice, should they wish to give replacement feeds, would in many situations require alternatives to breastmilk to be made available, instruction in their safe use to be provided, and their distribution carefully...

Design FollowUp and Data Validation

Kramer MS,12 Chalmers B,3 Hodnett ED,3 Sevkovskaya Z4 Dzikovich I,6 Shapiro S,2Collet J-P,12 Vanilovich I,6Mezen I,5Ducruet T,2Shishko G,6 Zubovich V,6 Mknuik D,4 Gluchanina E,4 Dombrovsky V,4 Ustinovitch A,4 KO T,4 Bogdanovich N,4 Ovchinikova L,4and Helsing E7for the PROBIT Study Group From the Departments of Pediatrics' and of Epidemiology & Biostatistics,2 McGill University Faculty ofMedicine Centrefor Research in Women's Health, University of Toronto 3 Departments of Maternal and Child...

Discussion

Empirical data suggest that the longer it takes for women to perceive OL the more likely it is that they will become stressed and begin using breast milk substitutes. This may further delay OL leading to an early termination of BF. The sharp drop in progesterone subsequent to the removal of the placenta is considered a major trigger of OL. Delayed BF initiation, lack ofrooming-in, stress during labor and delivery, emergency Cesarean deliveries, maternal obesity, and IDDM are risk factors for a...

Exposition To And Health Effects Of Residues In Human Milk

Hildegard Przyrembel, Barbara Heinrich-Hirsch, Baerbel Vieth Federal Institutefor Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Thielallee 88-92 D-14195 Berlin, Germany Key words environmental pollutants human milk adverse effects polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons dioxins polychlorinated biphenyls pesticides exposure prenatal postnatal Abstract A great variety of drugs, cosmetics, food ingredients as well as environmental contaminants are secreted with human milk as a result of...

Introduction

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk are derived from dietary intake, from endogenous conversion and from maternal body stores. The diet of rural Mexico is low in fat (17 of energy) and although the arachidonic acid (AA) intake in women from these regions is low, the amount of AA in the milk is similar to values reported for women from developed countries.12 The aim ofthis study was to estimate the contribution ofdietary and endogenously synthesised AAto milk in this women .

Mechanisms Of Oral Tolerance

Oral tolerance is a systemic unresponsiveness to orally administered nonpathogenic antigen. Immunological mechanism of oral tolerance is dependent on the dose of antigen6. High doses of antigen result the clonal anergy and ordeletion whereas low-dose antigen feeding is characterised by the induction of regulatory T cells producing suppressor cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF - ). A recent study clues that the latter mechanism may occur in breastfed infants receiving dietary...

Methods

An oral bolus of U-13C-linoleic acid (LA, 2.5 mg kg) was given to 10 lactating women Milk and breath samples were collected before and until 72h after tracer administration. The 13C enrichment in CO2 and milk fatty acids was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, while milk fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography. Breast milk intake was measured for 48 h by test weighing of the infant.2 The total amounts of LA and AA transferred directly from diet into milk fat were calculated...

Occurrence of Synthetic Musk in Human Milk

Carefully controlled sampling and analytxal procedures are required to determine musk compounds in biological samples quantitatively25-35-23. Due to the widespread occurrence of musk compounds many possibilties of secondary contamination in the course of sample collection and analysis are given, e.g. from glassware, hands, nipples, soaps, solvents, aerosoles etc The method employed for fat extraction must be suitable to handle sufficiently large sample volumina which are required to obtain...

Patients

We followed prospectively 6209 healthy, full-tern infants, whose mothers volunteered to participate to the study immediately after delivery.17 Although breast-feeding was strongly encouraged in the 3 hospitals, 5385 (87 ) of the infants required supplementary milk at hospital. According to the month of birth and delivery hospital, these infants were randomly assigned to receive blindly one of 3 study supplements liquid CM formula (Tutteli Valio, Finland) pasteurized human milk (a mixture of...

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supply With Human Milk

Physiological aspects and in vivo studies of metabolism Thorsten U. Sauenvald, Hans Demmelmair, Natasa Fidler, Berthold Koletzko Division ofMetabolic Disorders and Nutrition, Kinderklinik and Kinderpoliklinik, LudwigMaximilians- University ofMunich, Germany Key words lactation, diet, fatty acid metabolism, oxidation, transfer, stable isotopes Abstract The origin of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in human milk has not been studied in detail. Diet, liberation from maternal stores and...

Potential To Affect Microbes Or Host Responses To Them

An adult human being produces approximately 2-3 g ofsecretory IgAper day. The fully breast-fed infant is supplemented with 0.5-1 g per day. Thus, the breast-fed infant's mucosal membranes are equally effectively covered by secretory IgA as are those of an adult, despite a very low production of secretory IgA by the newborn infant. Secretory IgA in the milk derives from dimeric IgA produced by plasma cells in the mammary gland which acquires secretory component during passage through the mammary...

Programming Of The Hypothalamopituitaryadrenal Axis

McCance and Widdowson had suggested that the critical influence exerted by nutrition during fetal life would be upon hypothalamic function30. Edwards and colleagues have suggested that blood pressure might be critically determined through the maternal glucocorticoid axis45. In dams given low protein diets, the activity of placental 11 POH-steroid dehydrogenase was reduced by about one third, which would increase the likelihood of fetal over-exposure to maternal glucocorticoids46. The extent to...

Results And Discussion

Milk's nutrients and energy intakes at 1 and 3 mo were not significantly different (p> 0.05) respect to area and age (Table 1). Fat breast-milk from mothers in N region was higher (p< 0.05) than in C region with 46 and 50 mg mL vs 29 and 31 mg mL, at 1 and 3 mo, respectively. At 3 mo, energy intake from fat and body fat were higher (p< 0.05) in the infants of the N region and the higher fat content ofmilk was correlated to a higher mother's body fat (r 0.48, p< 0.001). There were no...

Results

Median (range) duration of lactation of Pakistani and Dutch mothers was 12.5 (4.5-21) and 3 (2.5-3.5)months, respectively. The milk ofthe Pakistani mothers contained significantly lower amounts ofall FA ofthe 03 series and the main ro6-fatty acids LA, and AA (Table 1). Breastmilk DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (20 5 < a 3 EPA) were correlated with infant RBC DHA Table 1. Fatty acids in mature human milk of Pakistani mothers breast-feeding malnourished children as compared with Dutch controls...

Study Design

The study design is shown in figure 2. Fifteen breastfeeding women (3rd - 4th month of lactation) received directly after their breakfast an oral Gal bolus (25 g Gal + 2 g 13C-GalD-Gal 1-13C,99 ). During the following 24 - 36 h they collected 5 - 10 ml milk at each nursing and urine (in 4 h fractions). Most of the mothers also collected breath at each nursing. The milk volume was determined by weighing the infant immediately before and after suckling. We also collected urine from 2 infants...

TGF p In Breastmilk

HumanmilkcontainsTGF- pi andTGF- p28. Inadditionto oral tolerance, TGF- p has been shown to have an important impact on the other essential part of the mucosal immune system, namely IgA production9. Both the number of IgA-containing cells and the production of TGF- p in intestinal mucosa increase with age1011' Therefore, the impact ofTGF- p in breastmilk may culminate at an early age, when new antigens are first encountered by the enteral route and the production of endogenous TGF- p and IgA in...

Toxicological assessment

For the evaluation of possible toxicants so-called ADI TDI values are frequently used. For residues, e.g. from pesticides, but also for food additives, FAO WHO recommended Acceptable Daily Intake values. Likewise, for contaminants so-called Tolerable Daily Intake values can be derived. An ADI is defined as the amount of toxicant in mg kg body weight day which is not anticipated to result in any adverse effects after chronic exposure to the general population of humans, including sensitive...

Trends Of Residue Levels In Human Milk Over Time

There is a downward trend in residues of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons tobe observed in industrialised countries. Figures 3 and 4 show the German observations for mean concentrations of PCB and two pesticides since 1980 and for dioxins in human milk samples since 1985. 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Figure 3. Trends for mean concentrations of PCB, DDT and HCB in human milk in Germany 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Figure 3. Trends for mean...

Vitamin A In Milk Can Potentially Reduce The Replication Of Enveloped Viruses In Infants

Isaacs, C.E.1, Xu, W.1, Kascsak, R.2,Pullarkat, R.1 'Department of Developmental Biochemistry, 2Department of Virology, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA Vitamin A (retinol and its derivatives) and provitamin A carotenoids are fat soluble compounds which play a role in maintenance and restoration of epithelial barriers, stimulation of immune function and provide increased resistance to gastrointestinal and respiratory...

Laboratory analyses

Milk sodium and potassium were measured by flame photometry as described previously.10 Milk IL8 was measured using a commercial ELISA kit (CLB, Eurogenetics, Middlesex, UK). Lactulose and mannitol in urine were measured enzymatically using an autoanalyser.22 Milk viral load was measured in the aqueous cell free fraction by RNA PCR (Amplicor, Roche Diagnostics). The method had a detection limit of200 copies ml. Infant HIV infection was determined by positive blood antibody tests at 9 months or...

Methods Results And Discussion

In the first study a nation wide random sample of 702 mothers with a child between 6 and 36 years of age were interviewed about duration of breast-feeding, current feeding practices, and factors which potentially could influence breast-feeding duration. The ongoing study is carried out in the capital Vilnius. Infants are followed from birth to 12 months with home visits at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. At each visit the mother is asked about breast-feeding and when complementary foods were introduced....

Translocation And Inflammation

In germ-free animals that are monocolonized with, e.g.,E. coli, livebac-teria pass across the intestinal barrier to reach the mesenteric lymph nodes, blood stream and other organs, a process termed translocation42 Translocation depends strongly on the population numbers in the intestine ofbacteria with capacity to translocate, such as E. coli, enterococci, lactobacilli and staphylococci. Above a population level of 109 per gram feces ofa certain species, translocation of such bacteria is...

Microbial Influences

Rook and Stanford recently suggested two major syndromes that could be the result of inadequate microbial stimulation early in life inadequate priming of T helper cells, leading to an incorrect cytokine balance and a failure to fine-tune the T cell repertoire in relation to epitopes that are cross-reactive between self and microorganisms22. The authors coined the expressions input deprivation syndrome and uneducated T-cell regulation syndrome. Infections can have long-lasting non-specific...

The Influence Of Maternal Immunity

The immune system of the newborn infant is influenced by maternal immunity, both transplacentally and via the breast milk. Thus, there is a close immunological interaction between the mother and her baby during gestation and during the period of breast-feeding, where the mother may provide protective factors and immune modifying components, as well as antigenic stimulation. As already discussed, the fetomaternal interface is surrounded by high levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 2,...

Long Term Effects Of Breastfeeding

By now several studies have provided evidence that breastfeeding provides enhanced protection against infection also for years after the termination ofbreastfeeding49. This has been suggested for otitis media53, respiratory tract infections54 Haemophilus influenzae type b infections55-56, diarrhoea57 and wheezing bronchitis in non-atopic children58, 59, This enhanced protection may last from 3-10 years and the protection seems to be increased foreachweekof breastfeeding. There is also evidence...

Breastfeeding And The Development Of Cows Milk Protein Allergy

Juntunen-Backman,M.D.,2A-L. Jarvenpaa,M.D., 63P.Klemetti, M.D., 4P.Kuitunen,M.D., 4L.Lope, M.D., 5M. Renlund, M.D., 6M. Siivola, PhD.,3O.Vaarala,M.D. and'E. Savilahti,M.D. 'Hospitalfor Children and Adolescents, University ofHelsinki 'Helsinki City Maternity Hospital 3NationalPublic Health Institute, Helsinki 4Jorvi Hospital, Espoo 5 Deptartment of Obstetrics, Helsinki University Central Hospital 6Departmentof Public Health, University of Helsinki Helsinki and Espoo,...

Study Outcomes End Points

The hypothesis tested was whether the BFHI-based intervention is effective in creating sufficient support for breastfeeding mothers and infants (relative to those sites not receiving the intervention) to prolong the duration ofbreastfeeding and, as a consequence, reduce infectious morbidity during the first 12 months oflife. The primary study outcome was the risk of one or more episodes of gastrointestinal infection. Secondary outcomes included the risk of 2 or more episodes of any respiratory...

Data Collection

Data collection included information obtained both during the postpartum stay and following discharge, until each study infant reached 12 months of age. Study investigators at each maternity hospital completed an enrollment form indicating name, sociodemographic information (age, marital status, number ofchildren < 5 years living in the household, maternal and paternal education and occupation, and maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy), general medical and obstetric history, details on...

Principles Of Neonatal Colonization And Establishment Of A Complex Intestinal Microflora

The gastrointestinal tract which is sterile at birth becomes colonized by a successively larger number ofbacterial species during the first years of life. The pattern of such colonization has recently been reviewed23Within a few days, enterobacteria such as E. coli, Klebsiella orEnterobacter, enterococci or staphylococci can be cultured from the rectum ofmost infants. During the first week(s) such bacterial species, collectively called facultative bacteria because they can grow both in the...

Introduction And Background

The studies which I review below were designed to test our hypothesis that restriction of growth during fetal and possibly early infant growth could lead to life-long programmed changes in glucose and insulin metabolism. A consequence of this, especially when combined with adult obesity we predicted would be glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes1. This hypothesis in turn arose from epidemiological studies carried out in collaboration with Professor David Barker in Southampton examining the...

Residues in human milk

Substances not naturally occurring in human milk are not only undesirably from the hygienic point of view, but are of particular importance, because oftheir potential health significance for nursed babies. Residues of xenobiotics in human milk normally result from the burden or contamination of the maternal organism. Hence, from the various routes of exposure the uptake of substances by the mothers may occur via skin, inhalation and by oral ingestion. Chemicals are transferred from the maternal...

Animal Studies

Even the most elegant and skilfully conducted epidemiological studies can only provide indirect evidence in support of the general hypothesis that early exposure programmes later metabolic function. The range ofvariables which have to be taken into consideration and the number of uncontrolled factors which play a part in determining the final outcome over long periods oftime, means thatifwe are to move forward in providing reasonable proof, or in understanding the mechanistic basis of the...

Epidemiological Aspects

The increasing prevalence and severity of atopic diseases seen in industrialised countries are in marked contrast with the low prevalence of allergy among children in the formerly socialist countries of Europe with a life style similar to that prevailing in Western Europe 30-40 years ago9-11. These and other regional differences were recently confirmed in two large epidemiological surveys. In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) the prevalence ofasthma related symptoms were...

Amino Acid Metabolism Essential And Nonessential

Amino acids are utilised as the building blocks for protein synthesis, as well as for the formation of a diverse range of complex molecules of fundamental importance to metabolism. In nutrition, the amino acids have classically been divided into two groups those that need to be provided preformed in the diet, essential amino acids, and those which can be synthesised in adequate amounts by the host, non-essential amino acids910. Even for adults, this division is less sharp than previously...

The Enteromammaric Link Milk IgA Antibodies And Their Role

The mother's milk consistently contains SIgA antibodies against numerous Escherichia coli 0 and K antigens9 10, as well as other intestinal microbes11. The explanation is now well understood. Microbes in the gut are sampled by the M cells covering the Peyer's patches bringing them into contact with the antigen-presenting and lymphoid cells ofthe patches5. After antigen exposure lymphoid cells committed to production of IgA-dimers + J (joining) chain will leave the patches to migrate, or home,...

Septicaemia

Breast feeding has a dramatic protective effect against infant septicaemia. As septicaemia might strike 2 ofnewborn infants in a developing country and kill 1 , this disease is second only to diarrhea as a global killer67. Infant septicaemia may result from translocation of intestinal bacteria across the intestinal barrier. Thus, the same bacterial strain has been recovered from blood and feces in cases of septicaemia due to E. coli68 as well as other enterobacterial The extremely efficient...

Beer And Breastfeeding

Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, University of Munich, Germany Key words Beer, lactogenesis, prolactin Abstract Traditional wisdom claims that moderate beer consumption may be beneficial for initiation of breastfeeding and enhancement of breastfeeding success. Here we review the question whether or not there-is any scientific basis for this popular belief. There are clear indications that beer can stimulate prolactin secretion which may enhance...

Role Of Milk Cells In Cmv Detection During Lactation

The highest concentration of leukocytes in human milk is observed in colostrum (1-3 x106 ml). In the milk of the first few days after birth, the different leukocyte types are distributed as follows neutrophils, 55-60 , macrophages, 30-40 , and lymphocytes, 5-10 16 . Phenotypic and functional differences between milk leukocytes and peripheral blood leukocytes are summarized in Table 1. In contrast to blood T-cells, the milk CD3-cells express phenotypic activation markers such as HLA-DR,...

Prevalence Of Overweight Obesity In Breastfed Children In Bavaria

The age and sex specific distribution of the BMI in all German children investigated during the 1997 school health examination in Bavaria was used as the reference to define overweight (BMI> 90thpercentile) and obesity (BMI> 97th percentile). The 90th and 97th percentile in Bavaria are considerably higher than the widely used French reference values 13 (table 3). This means that most children defined as overweight according to the Bavarian percentiles would have BMI values above the...

Sample Size

Sample size was calculated based on estimates of the proportion of babies breast-fed (partially or exclusively) at 3 months, the effect of the intervention on increasing that proportion, and the effect of breastfeeding duration on reducing infectious morbidity. From a prior Belarussian Ministry of Health survey, we estimated that 50 of women who initially breastfed at the control (non-intervention hospitals) would still be breastfeeding (to any degree) at 3 months. Based on the available...

Unusual Aspects Of Breastfeeding

Over the course of the centuries, also in profane art, the breastfeeding mother was one of the most frequent motives in drawings, paintings, sculptures and even music (e.g. F.Schubert Lied Vormeiner Wiege). Some of these paintings are rather peculiar, sometimes even of medical interest, as for instance la mujer barbudu (the bearded woman) by Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652). He was a Spanish painter, born in Valencia, but working mostly in Naples, where he was therefore called lo Spagnoletto...

Study Design Dutch Pcb Dioxin Study

Detailed description of the sampling and analytical methods as well as the results of this follow up study have been published in numerous papers. During the 10-years course of this project all clinical studies have been reviewed by Koopman_Esseboom (1995) and Huisman (1996) and more recently by Patandin (1999a) and Lanting (1999). Some years ago these Dutch cohorts were combined with two newly recruited cohorts from Duesseldorf and the Faroe Islands to form a more comprehensive set of data....

Route ofExposure

The relevance ofvarious possible sources ofhuman exposure and routes of absorption of synthetic musk compounds are still not fully clarified. In contrast to other persistent lipophilic environmental contaminants (e.g., PCB, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and -furans PCDD F)3738 which accumulate in food chains and the human body, with musk xylene no correlation was found between body burden in the general population (i.e. levels in blood plasma) and age, body mass index or nutritional habits...

Preface

The quality of infant feeding is of major importance for child health, development, and well being. In addition to obvious short term effects of the diet on outcomes such as infant weight gain, results of research in recent years indicate a number of more subtle and complex effects on the quality of growth, tissue and organ development, functional outcomes, and behaviour. Moreover, there are strong indications for long-term effects of the early diet on health and body functions that extend for...

Applicability of the TDI concept to residues in human milk

The ADI TDI approach implies chronic intake for the whole lifespan, which of course, does not apply to the breastfeeding period. In fact, breastfeeding for 6 months does account for less than 1 of the mean lifespan. Therefore, ADI TDI values cannot be considered an appropriate instrument to adequately evaluate any health risk for infants' development in the context of breastfeeding. However, if daily substance intakes via breastfeeding are calculated to range below or within the ADI TDI, it can...