Prevention personal choices and actions

Personal choices in lifestyles and behaviour Personal actions for safeguarding cardiovascular health Kavey RW, Daniels SR, Lauer RM, Atkins DL, Hayman LL, Taubert K. American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. Circulation, 2003, 107 1562. Pereira MA, O'Reilly E, Augustsson K et al. Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease. A pooled analysis of cohort studies. Archives of internal medicine, 2004, 164...

Risk factors

Leading 10 selected risk factors as percentage cause of disease burden measured in DALYs. The World Health Report 2002 reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, WHO, 2002, 162. WHO. Quantifying selected major risks to health. The World Health Report 2002 reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, WHO, 2002, 57-61. Beaglehole R, Magnus P. The search for new risk factors for coronary heart disease occupational therapy for epidemiologists International journal of epidemiology,...

Risk factor lipids

WHO Global NCD InfoBase online database . Geneva, WHO De Backer G, Ambrosioni E, Borch-Johnsen K et al. Third Joint Force of European and other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease and Prevention in Clinical Practice. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Atherosclerosis, 2003, 171(1) 145 155. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult...

Women a special case

Prescott E, Hippe M, Schnohr P, Hein HO, Vestbo J. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men longitudinal population study. British medical journal, 1998, 316 1043-1047. Clark J. News roundup Women too busy to exercise. British medical journal, 2003, 326 467. Walking reduces coronary heart disease Lee IM, Rexrode KM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women. Is no pain, no gain pass Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001,...

Risk factor diabetes

The urine of diabetics is wonderfully sweet as if imbued with honey or sugar. Thomas Willis (1621-1675), physician to King Charles II, England Diabetes is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke, and is the most common cause of amputation that is not the result of an accident. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and used by the body to regulate glucose (sugar). Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin, or cannot use it properly, leading to too much...

Price 6f weekly dose of medication

Expressed in kg of cheapest crop available (yam, rice or potato) 2003 p If just 10 of adults began walking regularly, Americans could save US 5.6 billion in costs related to heart disease. - President George W. Bush, 2002. The direct costs of physical inactivity accounted for an estimated US 24 billion in health care costs in 1995. Health problems related to obesity, such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes, cost the USA an estimated US 177 billion a year. Cholesterol reducers were the...

Risk factor tobacco

WHO Global NCD InfoBase online database . Geneva, WHO Cardiovascular risks of smoking Price JF, Mowbray PI, Lee AJ, Rumley A, Lowe GD, Fowkes FG. Smoking and cardiovascular risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease and coronary artery disease Edinburgh Artery Study. European heart journal, 1999, 20 344-353. Prescott E, Hippe M, Schnohr P, Hein HO, Vestbo J. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men longitudinal population study. British medical journal, 1998,...

Info

1969 USA First use of artificial heart in human by Denton Cooley. 1972 USA The Stanford Three -Community Study started (later becoming The Stanford Five-City Project) this showed a 23 reduction in coronary heart disease risk caused by community-based interventions that change lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical activity, dietary habits and tobacco 1972 Finland North Karelia Project began, aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease among residents. Cardiovascular mortality rates for...

Risk factor blood pressure

WHO Global NCD InfoBase online database . Geneva, WHO, 2004 Trends, USA, 1960-2000 Health, United States 2002 Table 68. Hypertension among persons 20 years of age and over, according to sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin United States, 1960-62,1971-74, 1976-80, 1988-94, and 1999-2000. Referencing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982-84), and...

The future

I never think of the future - it comes soon enough. Unlike Einstein, we have to think of the future, and plan now, to reduce the numbers of deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke. Predictions are by their nature speculative. Nevertheless, this much is certain the global epidemic of cardiovascular disease is not only increasing, but also shifting from developed to developing nations. Action can work. There are currently about 800 million people with high blood pressure worldwide. Studies...

Milestones in knowledge of heart and vascular disorders

Palaeolithic era Spain Oldest anatomical drawing in El Pindal cave of a mammoth with a dark smudge at the shoulder, which is -thought to represent the heart. 2698-2598 BCE China Huang Ti, the Yellow Emperor, was thousands of years ahead of his time in writing in Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine) The blood current flows continuously in a circle without a beginning or end and never stops and all the blood is under control of the heart. He also recorded the association between salt intake and a...

Types of cardiovascular disease

Types Cardiovascular Diseases

Deaths from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) Number of deaths globally per year from different types of CVD, by age other cardiovascular diseases hypertensive heart disease inflammatory heart disease rheumatic heart disease 0-4 years 5-14 15-29 30-44 45-59 60-69 70-79 80+ years 0-4 years 5-14 15-29 30-44 45-59 60-69 70-79 80+ years Disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle. Major risk factors High blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical...

Useful contacts

Diabetes Diet Nutrition Obesity Public Health Surveillance Tobacco Free Initiative Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA Cardiovascular Health Program http www.cdc.gov cvh Nutrition and Physical Activity Program http www.cdc.gov nccdphp dnpa Tobacco Program http www.cdc .gov tobacco Diabetes Program http www.cdc.gov diabetes Laboratory Sciences Program Office of Global Health http www.cdc .gov ogh Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System http www.cdc.gov brfss National Center for...

Policies and legislation

Shafey O, Dolwick S, Guindon GE, eds. Tobacco control country profiles 2003. Atlanta, GA, American Cancer Society, WHO, International Union Against Cancer, 2003. Cardiovascular disease plans worldwide Legislation Policy data from WHO. Capacity for NCD prevention and control survey 2001. Assessment of national capacity for noncommunicable disease prevention and control. The report of a global survey. Geneva, WHO, 2001. Sargent RP, Shepard RM, Glantz SA. Reduced incidence of admissions for...

Acknowledgements

Special thanks go to the following WHO staff for their support for this project Catherine Le Gales-Camus, Assistant Director-General, Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health Robert Beaglehole, Director, Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion Rafael Bengoa, Director, Health Systems Policy and Operations and Derek Yach, Representative of the Director-General. Particular thanks go to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), United States of America, for their generous...

Deaths from coronary heart disease

People live with their own idiosyncrasies and die of their own illnesses. Number of deaths from coronary heart disease 500 000 and above 1000-9999 1 100 000-499 999 less than 1000 lE H Sj z NIGERIA ONE STC I waked and sat up when I felt a confusion and indistinctness in my head which lasted, I suppose about half a minute. Soon after I perceived that I had suffered a paralytick stroke, and that my Speech was taken from me. Stroke is the brain equivalent of a heart attack. Blood must flow to and...

Global burden of coronary heart disease

Coronary Artery Disease Burden World

Misfortunes always come in by a door that has been left open for them. Czechoslovakian proverb Disability-adjusted life years DALYs lost can be thought of as healthy years of life lost. They indicate the total burden of a disease, as opposed to simply the resulting deaths. Cardiovascular disease is responsible for 10 of DALYs lost in low- and middle-income countries, and 18 in high-income countries. A heart attack occurs when the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle become blocked, starving...

Risk factors start in childhood and youth

Encased in fat in youth, encased in a coffin in middle age. Although cardiovascular diseases typically occur in middle age or later, risk factors are determined to a great extent by behaviours learned in childhood and continued into adulthood, such as dietary habits and smoking. Throughout the world, these risks are starting to appear earlier. Physical activity decreases markedly in adolescence, particularly in girls. Obesity has increased substantially, not only in Europe and North America,...