Risk factor blood pressure

Maps: Blood Pressure

WHO Global NCD InfoBase [online database]. Geneva, WHO, 2004


High blood pressure in the USA

Trends, USA, 1960-2000; Health, United States 2002; Table 68. Hypertension among persons 20 years of age and over, according to sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1960-62,1971-74, 1976-80, 1988-94, and 1999-2000. Referencing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1982-84), and National Health Examination Survey (1960-62)


Blood pressure changes with age in the Gambia van der Sande MA, Bailey R, Faal H et al. Nationwide prevalence study of hypertension and related non-communicable diseases in The Gambia. Tropical medicine and international health, 1997, 2(11):1039-1048.

Blood pressure in India

Singh RB, Suh IL, Singh V. et al. Hypertension and stroke in Asia: prevalence, control and strategies in developing countries for prevention. Journal of human hypertension, 2000, 14:749-763.

High blood pressure by years of education in South Africa

South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 1998 http://www.doh.gov.za/facts/1998/sadhs98/


Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Evans JC, O'Donnell CJ, Kannel WB, Levy D. Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease. New England journal of medicine, 2001, 345:1291-1297.

World Hypertension League. The high blood pressure/heart failure link: a new concern for older Americans


Huxley R, Neil A, Collins R. Unravelling the fetal origins hypothesis: is there really an inverse association between birthweight and subsequent blood pressure? Lancet, 2002, 360:659-665.

Systolic blood pressure. British medical journal, 2002, 325:917-918 (editorial).

Sleight P. Fact sheet: isolated hypertension (ISH). World Hypertension League http://www.mco.edu/org/whl/isyshype.html

Weinberger MH, Miller JZ, Luft FC, Grim CE, Fineberg NS. Definitions and characteristics of sodium sensitivity and blood pressure resistance. Hypertension, 1986, 8(2):127-134.

He J, Ogden LG, Vupputuri S, Bazzano LA, Loria C, Whelton PK. Dietary sodium intake and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999, 282:2027-2034.

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