Women a special case

Risk factors

Modifiable risks - risk or prevalence is higher in women than men

• High triglyceride levels (higher risk)

• Diabetes (more prevalent)

• Obesity (more prevalent)

• Depression (more prevalent)

Modifiable risks - risk is similar in men and women

• High blood pressure

• High total cholesterol

• Low HDL-cholesterol

• Combined hyperlipidaemia

• Unhealthy diet

• Physical inactivity

Risks for women only

• Oral contraceptive use

• Hormone replacement therapy

• Polycystic ovary syndrome

• Risk of heart attack highest early in each menstrual cycle

Non-modifiable risks for men and women

• Advancing age

• Ethnicity/race

Smoking

Percentage increase in risk of heart attack in people who smoke in Denmark 1976-1993

176%

ex-smokers light smokers

227%

moderate smokers

182%

182%

Women who smoke are at higher risk of heart attack than men who smoke.

heavy smokers

Women who smoke are at higher risk of heart attack than men who smoke.

No time to walk

Percentage of women in the United Kingdom aged 15 years and above who do not exercise more because of lack of time or motivation 2003

Walking reduces coronary heart disease

Percentage reduction in risk of coronary heart disease by non-vigorous walking in women aged 45 and above in the USA 1992-1999

No time to walk

Percentage of women in the United Kingdom aged 15 years and above who do not exercise more because of lack of time or motivation 2003

Hormone replacement therapy

Percentage increase in risk of CVD in healthy women using HRT in the USA 1991-2000

1-59 minutes a week

1-1.5 2 or more hours hours a week a week coronary heart stroke deep venous thrombosis deep venous thrombosis

all CVD

women men

Part 3

Natural Depression Cures

Natural Depression Cures

Are You Depressed? Heard the horror stories about anti-depressants and how they can just make things worse? Are you sick of being over medicated, glazed over and too fat from taking too many happy pills? Do you hate the dry mouth, the mania and mood swings and sleep disturbances that can come with taking a prescribed mood elevator?

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