References

Sexually transmitted diseases. The terrible peril a historical perspective on the venereal diseases. Br. Med. . 281 206-211 Akahane, Y., Kojima, M., Sugai, M. et al. (1994). Hapatitis C virus infection in spouses of patients with type C chronic liver disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 120 748-752 Albert, J., Franzen, L., Jansson,M. etal. (1992) Ugandan HIV-1 V3 loop sequences closely related to the U.S. European consensus. Virology 190 674-681 Alter, M.J., Ahtone, J., Weisfuse, I.,...

Human Papillomavirus Infection

Human papillomaviruses are classified using DNA typing, as culture and serological assays are unsuitable. Based on differences detected by DNA hybridization, 'new' types are defined as having a less than 50 genomic DNA homology compared to previously accepted prototypes (Coggin and zur Hausen, 1979). Currently consideration is being given to reclassification on the basis of biological and pathogenic potential, related largely to particular regions of the HPV genome (E6 E7 and LI) (de Villiers,...

Cytomegalovirus

After initial infection with cytomegalovirus, which is usually asymptomatic and mostly occurs in childhood, the virus remains latent in leukocytes of the marrow and blood (probably granulocyte-macrophage precursors and monocytes) for life, reactivating relatively infrequently after immunosuppression or in advancing AIDS (Kondo and Mocarski, 1996). Chronic active infection and reinfection may occur in certain circumstances. Therefore, the epidemiology of cytomegalovirus is best measured by IgG...

Role Of Departments Of Anonymous Testing And Treatment In Controlling Stds

There are about 300 Departments of Anonymous Testing and Treatment (DATTs) in Russia, which provide qualified medical care for patients willing to pay. Unlike state-funded free medical clinics, DATTs are not required to identify the names of individuals who test positive for STDs. The effectiveness of these departments in syphilis recognition may be seen from Figure 2.4. Although these departments add only about 10 of all cases to the overall statistics, for the most part these are patients who...

Syphilis morbidity distribution on some territories of Russia in 1996

M > 600 cases a > 400 cases > 300 cases FIGURE 2.3 Distribution of syphilis cases in some of the territories of the Russian Federation in 1996 (per 100000 people). example, according to the preliminary data in some regions of Khakhassia, syphilis reached 902 cases per 100 000 people in 1997. The regions with increasing numbers of cases typically have a very low population densities and very high unemployment. The number of cases of syphilis also varied according to age group and gender...

Conclusions

A highly regimented society with widely accessible health care and strict punitive policies regarding sexually transmitted infections helped maintain a very low incidence of STDs in Soviet Russia. The political, social and economic upheaval that occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s has resulted in a more open society, but with increases in unemployment, poverty, drug use, prostitution and tourism. These changes have contributed to a dramatic increase in STDs, particularly syphilis. As...

Stds In Russia Over The Past 4 Years

Before 1993 there were no official statistics concerning infections other than syphilis and gonorrhea. According to the new order N228 of the Russian Federation's Ministry of Health, seven other sexually transmitted infections (including bacterial vaginosis) were added to the compulsory registration list (Table 2.1) (Tikhonova, 1997). As may be seen from these data, all STDs except trichomoniasis and gonorrhea increased substantially between 1993 and 1996. Over this period, although there was a...

Blood Supply To And Lymphatic Drainage Of The Female Reproductive Tract

The internal pudendal artery is the arterial trunk supplying blood to all of the perineal structure inferior to the pelvic diaphragm. It begins as a branch of the internal iliac, which is located subperitoneally in the lateral pelvis. It exits the bony pelvis, crosses the sacrospinous ligament and enters the ischiorectal fossa. At this point the artery, along with the internal pudendal vein and nerve, becomes enclosed by the obturator fascia, forming the pudendal canal. As the artery enters the...

Outbreak Of Syphilis In Russia

The number of cases of syphilis was very low until 1991, when dramatic social changes began to sweep the country. In that year the number of syphilis cases began to double each year until 1995, when there were 177 registered cases per 100 000 people, 40 times more than in 1989 (Figure 2.1) (Tikhonova, personal communication). The distribution varied geographically (Figures 2.2 and 2.3), in rural areas the rate being about half that seen in cities. Suburban areas had intermediate rates of...

Anatomy Of The Female Genital Tract

All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. The region of the urogenital triangle contains two spaces, the superficial and deep perineal spaces. The superficial space is that lying between the urogenital diaphragm and the skin of the labia majora. The contents of the superficial perineal pouch include the greater vestibular glands (Bartholin's), the crura of the clitoris, the bulbs of the vestibule, which are composed of elongated erectile tissue, and the...

Historical Aspects

The totalitarian system in the former USSR influenced every aspect of social activity, including an individual's sex life. Even this intimate part of human activity was confined within the strictest 'communist norms and standards'. To establish control over sexual behavior medical science, in particular venereology, was politicized and ideologized. According to Governmental Order N806, under socialism all venereal diseases were considered remnants of a capitalistic society, rather than a...