Triggers Of Myalgias Subcutaneous Nodules In Korean War Mechanic

The louse-borne form of relapsing fever was clinically distinguished from typhus and typhoid by William Jenner in 1849. Louse-borne relapsing fever was the first of the communicable diseases to have its causal organism identified, when Otto Obermeier made his observations of spirelli during the Berlin epidemic of 1867-68. The louse was identified as the vector in 1907 by F. Mackie, then working in India, and the epidemiology of the disease was finally worked out by Charles Nicolle and...

Pica

Pica usually means a pathological craving for nonfoods, although it can mean a craving for foodstuffs as well. Although pica is not a disease, it is often a symptom of disease and is frequently associated with nutritional deficiencies - especially of minerals. In addition, psychiatry and psychology find that pica is often connected with mental problems. Anthropologists study it as a cultural phenomenon, as it has been associated with some religions and also perhaps because the use of nonfoods...

History

No doubt scurvy appeared in ancient times and was treated by physicians. The ancients, however, do not seem to have had a name for it. In any event, scurvy could not be found in the writings of Hippocrates or Galen by individuals of the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to whom the disease was so obvious, and for whom medicine was founded on Hippocrates and Galen. As with the other apparently new disease of the Renaissance - syphilis - it was important for humanist physicians to believe...

Characteristics

Lead enters the body mainly through inhalation and ingestion. Residents of industrialized nations acquire half of their body burden of lead from polluted air. Healthy adults absorb 10 percent of ingested lead, but children may absorb half the lead they ingest. Lead is also absorbed through the skin Lead-containing cosmetics, for example, may cause health-threatening effects. The body's ability to excrete lead is extremely limited, and 95 percent of unexcretable lead is stored in bone, where it...

Croup

The term croup identifies several respiratory illnesses of children manifested by inspiratory stridor, cough, and hoarseness from upper-airway obstruction. Classically, croup was a manifestation of diphtheria, but nowadays, many infectious and noninfectious causes of croup syndromes are recognized. Although long-term obstruction in the glottic and subglottic regions can lead to chronic illness, croup syndromes are described here as acute diseases. Most cases of croup today are either...

Whooping Cough

Whooping cough, otherwise known as pertussis, after the causative bacillus Bordetella pertussis, is an infectious disease of childhood. Affecting the respiratory tract, it is characterized by paroxysms of coughing, culminating in the prolonged inspiration that provided its name. Before the twentieth century, the popular name was generally spelled without the initial w indeed, it was not in general use until the end of the eighteenth century. Until the early nineteenth century, the commonest...

Hepatitis C

The virus of hepatitis C has been neither seen nor cultured. However, in 1989, a strand of RNA from the blood of an infected chimpanzee was transcribed into DNA. Propagated into a bacterial clone, this DNA codes for an antigen that crossreacts with the agent of an important transfusion-transmitted hepatitis virus. The discoverers suggested that this hepatitis C virus might be structurally similar to the virus of yellow fever or equine encephalitis. This implies that the virus genetic material...

Dropsy

The historical diagnosis of dropsy - now obsolete - indicated an abnormal accumulation of fluid the word derives from the Greek hydrops (water). Alternative terms included hydrothorax (fluid in the chest cavity), ascites (excess fluid in the abdominal cavity), anasarca (generalized edema throughout the body), hydrocephalus (used until the nineteenth century to indicate excess fluid within the skull), and ovarian dropsy (large ovarian cysts filled with fluid). Edema was often a synonym for...

Conjunctivitis

Simple acute conjunctivitis is a common eye infection, caused by a variety of microorganisms and characterized by a red or bloodshot eye. Mild cases may present with feelings of roughness or sand in the eye, but serious cases produce pain and photophobia. After some days, discharges may become so purulent that they gum the lids together. The infection often begins in one eye before spreading to the other. An acute conjunctivitis may last up to 2 weeks. Bacteria often infect the conjunctiva...

Candidiasis Including Thrush

Reports of the diverse manifestations of candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and other Candida species have made a major contribution to the literature of medical mycology. As with ringworm, a stable taxonomic base was necessary to underpin research on this mycotic complex. It was mainly a group of yeast specialists working in the Netherlands who clarified the taxonomy the genus Candida was proposed in 1923. Thrush (oral candidiasis), an infection of mucous membranes (especially of the...

Fungus Infections Mycoses

Although some 200 fungi are established as pathogenic for humans, through the mid-nineteenth century only two human diseases caused by fungi were generally recognized. These were ringworm and thrush, known since Roman times. Two important additions came at the end of the century mycetoma of the foot and aspergillosis. Fungi were the first pathogenic microorganisms to be recognized. By the early nineteenth century, they had been shown to cause disease in plants and insects, and during the 1840s...

Catarrh

Catarrh is now regarded as inflammation of the mucous membranes, especially of the air passages, together with the production of a mucoid exudate. Simple though this definition is, it bears evident traces of the history of the disease. The name derives from Hippocrates' use of katarrhoos, a flowing down of humors from the head. In that use, the term was probably not yet technical, and so akin to a Latin word such as defluxio. In commenting on Hippocrates, however, Galen distinguishes general...

Periodontal Disease Pyorrhea

The word pyorrhea comes from the Greek pyon (pus) and rhoia (to flow), a graphic description of the disease in which an outflowing of pus proceeds from the gingival (gum) tissues of the oral cavity. The term pyorrhea has been used in Europe since the mid-1500s and in America since the late 1800s. In 1937, however, the term was abandoned in favor of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease means any ailment of the supporting structures of the teeth, including gingiva, periodontal ligament, and...

Milk Sickness Tremetol Poisoning

Milk sickness, usually called milksick by early nineteenth-century American pioneers, denotes what we now know to be poisoning by milk from cows that have eaten either the white snake-root or the rayless goldenrod plants. The white snakeroot (Eupatorium urticaefolium) is common in the Midwest and upper South and also known as white sanicle, squaw weed, snakeweed, pool wort, and deer wort. The rayless goldenrod (Haplopappus heterophyllus) is found in southwestern states such as Arizona and New...

Opportunistic and Iatrogenic Infections

Mycetoma is a disease characterized by swelling that affects subcutaneous tissues, with sinuses discharging granules of the pathogen that vary in color. The foot is most frequently involved (Madura foot), but other parts may be infected. Its geographic distribution is mainly tropical. The condition was first recorded in Indian vedic medical treatises (c. 2000-1000 B.C.) as padaavalmika (foot ant-hill) and later described by members of the Indian Medical Service during the mid-nineteenth...

Strongyloidiasis

Strongyloidiasis, or Cochin-China diarrhea, is caused by a minute nematode, the threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis. The organism was discovered in 1876 in French troops with severe diarrhea in what is now Vietnam. Strongyloides occurs around the world, with a range similar to that of hookworms. Millions of people harbor the organism. Because poor sanitation and bare feet favor transmission, it is especially prevalent in poor tropical countries. Like hookworm disease, strongyloidiasis...

Sickle Cell Disorders

Sickle-cell disorders have existed in human populations for thousands of years. However, the discovery of human sickle cells and of sickle-cell anemia was first announced in the form of a case report by James Herrick at the Association of American Physicians in 1910. In 1904, Herrick had examined a young black student from Grenada who was anemic in the blood film he observed elongated and sickle-cell-shaped RBCs. By 1922, there had only been three cases of this type of anemia reported. But in...

Brucellosis Malta Fever Undulant Fever

Brucellosis or undulant fever is a zoonotic infection caused in humans by organisms of the genus Brucella Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis, transmitted, respectively, from goats, cattle, and pigs. Human infections are characterized by intermittent fevers, possibly persisting for weeks, with subsequent relapses and prolonged ill health. The causal relationship between organism and disease was first recorded by David Bruce in Malta in 1887 the name Malta fever reflects its...

Black Death

The Black Death is the name given to the great pandemic of plague that ravaged parts of Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century. Contemporaries knew it by many names, including the Great Pestilence, the Great Mortality, and the Universal Plague. This epidemic was the first and most devastating of the second known cycle of widespread plague, which recurred in waves through the eighteenth century. Some later and milder plagues seem to have also involved other...

Ringworm Tinea Dermatophytosis

Favus (Latin for honeycomb), a distinctive type of ringworm, was described by Celsus in the first century. He called it porrigo, a term also used by Pliny in the same century and by dermatologists up to the nineteenth century. It is now, however, obsolete, having been replaced by tinea. Celsus also described the inflammatory lesion of some forms of ringworm, which is termed the kerion of Celsus. Not until the mid-1840s was the mycotic nature of favus recognized by three independent workers J....

Historiography

Although many have speculated on causal questions surrounding the Plague of Athens and are convinced of their retrospective diagnoses, no consensus is likely to emerge. Fairly well-supported arguments have advanced epidemic typhus, measles, and smallpox as candidates because all produce some of the clinical and epidemiological features of Thucy-dides' description. Less frequently, bubonic plague, ergotism, streptococcal infection, and, most recently, tularemia have found scholarly proponents....

History of Crohns Disease

The initial description of Crohn's disease may date back to Giovanni Morgagni, who in 1761 described ileal ulceration and enlarged mesen-teric lymph nodes in a young man who died of an ileal perforation. More suggestive early instances of Crohn's disease include an 1806 report by H. Saunders and one in 1813 by C. Combe and Saunders. Nineteenth century descriptions of disease consistent with today's concept of Crohn's disease were authored by J. deGroote, J. Abercrombie, J. S. Bristowe, N....

Invisible Goiter

Other diseases of the neck confounded the connection between goiter and the thyroid gland. The main confounder was scrofula, which in medieval Latin meant swelling of the glands and is still used to connote tuberculous lymph glands in the neck. In regions where goiter was endemic, affecting large portions of the population, its connection with the thyroid was fairly clear. But where only a few individuals exhibited the disease, it was called sporadic goiter. If the swelling was small and moved...

Other Diseases of the Spotted Fever Group

Three other major tick-borne rickettsioses are known. These spotted-fever group maladies are usually mild and fatal only to aged or debilitated patients. All exhibit a distinctive eschar, or dark scab, that forms over the initial tick bite. Boutonneuse fever, named for the button-like eschar, was the earliest to be identified. Described in North Africa in 1910, it has had many local names, including Mediterranean spotted fever, fievre boutonneuse, Marseilles ex-anthematic fever, Indian...

General Characteristics

Acute epiglottitis (inflammation of the epiglottis) is virtually always caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B rare cases are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Laryngitis usually arises from viral agents, most importantly adenoviruses and influenza viruses. Laryngotracheitis and spasmodic croup are common childhood illnesses caused by viruses or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The most important agent is parainfluenza virus type 1, which, along with parainfluenza type 2 and...

Heart Related Diseases

In many ways, the year 1628 marks the beginning of modern Western conceptions of heart disease. In that year, London physician William Harvey showed that the blood must circulate, rather than being continuously regenerated as earlier theories suggested. He also showed that the heart drives the blood on its circuit around the body. Harvey's revolutionary achievement failed to bring about any immediate changes in medicine's approach to heart disease, but over the next few centuries many people...

History of Ulcerative Colitis

Hippocrates recognized that diarrhea was not a single disease entity, whereas Aretaeus described many types, including one with foul evacuations, chiefly in older children and adults. An apparent ulcerative colitis was described by Roman physicians, including Eph-esus in the eleventh century. Noncontagious diarrhea flourished for centuries under many labels, such as Thomas Sydenham's bloody flux in 1666. In 1865, U.S. Army physicians described the features of an ulcerative colitis-like process....

Trachoma

Trachoma (also called granular conjunctivitis and Egyptian ophthalmia) is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. It is characterized by inflammatory granulations on the inner eyelid that severely scar the eye, eventually causing blindness (but not in all cases). It was a leading cause of blindness in the past and still blinds millions in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Two estimates place the number of victims worldwide at between 400 and 500 million, with perhaps 2 million totally blinded....

The Effect Of Uricemia Of Urbanization Of

For many centuries, gout was a nonspecific term. The differentiation of the disease was begun in the late seventeenth century by Thomas Sydenham his contemporary, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, described crystals from a tophus. In 1776, Swedish pharmacist Karl W. Scheele discovered an organic acid in urinary concretions - he called it lithic acid. In 1797 at Cambridge, William H. Wollaston found that tophi contained lithic acid. In 1798, lithic acid was renamed acide ourique (uric acid) by French...

Rosenbach History Of Tetanus 1886

Hippocrates recorded tetanus cases and discussed the condition in general terms as well, providing details of symptoms, the course of the disease, and treatment. Treatment regimens were many and varied, and largely ineffective. Aretaeus, writing some 700 years later, believed that onlookers' prayers for the death of the patient were useful he pitied the attending physician's inability to afford relief. After an excellent clinical description of the disease, Aretaeus too urged a wide variety of...

Post Scarlatinal Dropsies

About 100 A.D., Rufus of Ephesus noted hardened kidneys in patients who produced little urine, suffered no pain, and sometimes developed dropsy This description could certainly be chronic glomerulonephritis. Around 1000 A.D., Avicenna, an Arab who authored perhaps the most famous medical text ever, mentioned patients with chronic nephritis. Gulielmus de Sal-iceto's treatise, written in the mid-thirteenth century but not published until 1476, discusses dropsy, scanty urine, and hardened kidneys....

Glucose6Phosphate Dehydrogenase G6PD Deficiency

Favism, or hemolytic anemia due to ingestion of fava beans, is now known to occur in individuals deficient in G6PD. The Mediterranean type of G6PD deficiency is found in an area extending from the Mediterranean basin to northern India, an area corresponding to Alexander's empire. Sickness resulting from in gestion of beans was probably recognized in ancient Greece, forming the basis for the myth thatDemeter, Greek goddess of harvest, forbade members of her cult to eat beans. Pythagoras,...

Is Csm An Epidemic Or Sporadic Disease

Meningitis was not described definitively until after 1800, so the antiquity of the disease is unknown, but it is unlikely that it is a new infection in humans. Mention of epidemic convulsion in tenth century China and a description by T. Willis in England in 1684 could indicate earlier recognition. From the sixteenth century onward, many possible references occur in European literature. In 1805, an epidemic of CSM occurred in Geneva. Most victims were infants and children. Clinical accounts by...

Tropical Diabetes

A type of diabetes found primarily in many tropical areas of the world has characteristics of both type I and type II. The clinical profile involves the following (1) a different genetic pattern of diabetes than in temperate regions (2) a low prevalence rate of type I DM (3) a younger age of onset of type II (4) a sex ratio with male predominance in India and Africa, but female predominance in the West Indies (5) an association of low calorie and protein intake with underweight diabetic...

Name Index

Abercrombie, John, 32, 178 Abreu, Aleixo de, 336 Adams, Joseph, 140-41 Adams, Robert, 157 Addison, Thomas, 22, 350 Aesculapius, 246 Aetius of Amida, 82, 232, 248 Afzelius, Arvid, 203 Ainsworth, Geoffrey C., 128-32, 132-34 Aretaeus the Cappadocian, 80, 82, 88, 177, 257, 324 Auenbrugger, Leopold, 103-4, 156-57, 257 Avicenna, 99, 102, 145, 195, 210, 213, 248, 272 Baglivi, Giorgio, 103 Bailey, Charles P., 280 Benedek, Thomas G., 63-67, 83-84, 153-56, 199-201, 224-25, 277-80 Benivieni, Antonio, 136...

Unusual Disorders of Hemostasis

Functional deficiencies of Hageman factor Hageman trait , plasma prekallikrein Fletcher trait , and high molecular weight kininogen Fitzgerald trait, Flaujeac trait, or Willimas trait are all asymptomatic, although in each case a major defect in clotting is found in the laboratory. These disorders occur with equal frequency in both sexes and are recessive traits, meaning that they must be inherited from both parents. All are quite rare, although a disproportionately high number of cases of...