Premature Ejaculation

While ED is typically a dysfunction of older males, Premature Ejaculation (PE) most frequently occurs in younger men. PE is the persistent or recurrent ejaculation during sexual activity that is associated with minimal stimulation and individual or couple dissatisfaction with duration (ApA, 2000). At the present time, there are no objective criteria for determining the duration of sexual activity that constitutes premature ejaculation. Perhaps it is easier to describe what is not premature...

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASP) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behavior that begins in early childhood or early adolescence. Typical behaviors include criminality and failure to conform to the law, failure to sustain consistent employment, manipulation of others for personal gain, frequent deception of others, and a lack of empathy for others. Antisocial behavior has been described throughout recorded history, yet formal descriptions...

Homeostasis

Complex organisms must maintain relatively stable internal environments to survive and move freely through the changing and often adverse conditions that surround them. Homeostasis is the name given to this constancy in 1926 by Walter B. Cannon, an American physiologist. Through his work on homeostasis, Cannon created a concept that is a milestone in the history of ideas. It was the culmination of an approach begun some six decades earlier with the work of Claude Bernard, the French...

Nature of Intelligence Composition

Intelligence has been commonly identified with the intelligence quotient (IQ) obtained on a standardized intelligence test. Such tests reflect at least partly the concept of intelligence prevalent in the culture in which they were developed. Modern intelligence testing originated with Alfred Bi-net's development of a test to assess intellectual retardation among schoolchildren. Intelligence tests have frequently been validated against such academic criteria as school grades, teachers' ratings...

Work Motivation

The industrial-organizational psychologist deals with motivation at three different levels. First of all, psychologists must have a thorough knowledge of human motivation in general. They need to be aware of current theory and thinking related to motivation, regardless of the setting. At a more work-related level, at least four general motivationally-oriented processes are applied by the industrial psychologist. These are incentive systems, goal setting, participation in decision making, and...

Development Of Human Social Behavior

Social behavior occupies a place of paramount importance in the lives of human beings and its development therefore commands attention. Social behavior encompasses a human being's interaction not only with other persons but also with the world of things, which have acquired their meaning and status from the customs and practices of the culture. The development of social behavior depends on and keeps pace with the development of such biological and psychological processes as maturation,...

Clinical Description and Course

Bipolar affective disorder, formerly known as manic-depressive illness, is a psychiatric disorder involving wideranging fluctuations in mood, activity, and cognition. It affects between 0.8 and 1.4 of the population. When depressed, bipolar persons experience a sad mood, loss of interests, fatigue, psychomotor retardation or agitation, loss of concentration, insomnia, feelings of worthlessness, and suicidality. During manias, patients experience euphoric, elevated or irritable mood states,...

Hypertension

Hypertension, a disease affecting the cardiovascular system and commonly known as high blood pressure, is a major health problem. It is characterized by chronic elevation of diastolic and, typically, systolic blood pressure without demonstrable pathology of either the blood vessels or the heart. Hypertension is a primary cause of adult sickness, disability, and death in the United States, afflicting approximately 50 million persons. Additionally, it is one of the most important risk factors in...

Consequences

Amajor concern among theories on the political disaffection process is the consequences of disaffection for the political system. Of the four attitudinal and behavioral consequences of political disaffection that are most frequently cited in the literature attitudinal rightism and negativism, and behavioral apathy and extremism only behavioral apathy has been firmly established in the research literature on conventional political activity. Thus it can be concluded that the politically...

Alexiadyslexia

In an increasingly literate world, the inability to read becomes a significant disability that may affect academic success, employment, and self-concept. Because widespread literacy is a recent historical development, it should not be surprising that it was only about 100 years ago that the first case of alexia or word blindness was described. By definition, the term alexia describes a condition where reading ability is lost as the result of some neurological insult, such as head injury or...

Board of Directors

The Council elects six of its members to serve with elected officers (president, past president, president elect, treasurer, recording secretary, and CEO ex officio), as members at large of the 12-person board of directors (hereafter, the Board), which manages affairs of the Association. Subject to the final authority of the Council, the Board oversees the Association's business, monitoring the annual budget and any budget deviations during the year, and acting for the Council between the...

Farm Management Decisions

There have been analyses of the choices needed to manage a farm. Most of this work is concerned with how economic decisions should be made. Various methods have been proposed to help farmers choose more effectively. For instance, farmers often make suboptimal allocations when buying crop insurance. However, farmers can be persuaded to make more effective decisions by taking a longer time perspective. Insights into marketing and consumer behavior have arisen from studies in agriculture. For...

Divisions

When the APA reorganized in 1945, 19 divisions were established to reflect special interests of its members. By 2002, the APA had 53 divisions, ranging in size from 300 to 7,500 members, representing areas of specialization (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental), special interest (e.g., international affairs, women's issues, psychology, law), and employment (public service, independent practice, the military). Each division has officers, bylaws, a newsletter, and an annual business...

Statistics and Experimental Design

One area with a long-standing interface between psychology and agriculture is statistical analysis and design. A century ago, psychologists such as Francis Galton were instrumental in developing modern statistical thinking. Later psychologists (e.g., James McKeen Cattell and L. L. Thurstone) extended the application of statistics in behavioral research. Statisticians working in agriculture (such as R. A. Fisher) developed much of what is now standard experimental design and analysis. For...

Farming Tasks and Skills

Traditionally, farmers and ranchers were expected to be skilled in many manual and physical tasks. Work psychologists found that dairy workers are proficient in nine separate tasks, ranging from operating milking machines to evaluating the health of cows. Thus, a traditional farmer needed to be a jack of all trades, with general skills in many areas. However, with increased mechanization and computerization in agriculture, there is a shift. Instead of many general abilities, fewer specialized...

Council of Representatives

The Council of Representatives (hereafter referred to as the Council) has full authority over Association affairs and funds. Its members are elected by the APA's two primary constituencies divisions, which are an integral part of the APA's structure, and state and provincial psychological associations (SPPAs), which are affiliates of the APA. The Council elects the recording secretary, the treasurer, and members of all standing boards and committees. It also confirms the appointment of the...

American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional membership association incorporated in the District of Columbia. Founded in 1892, the APA was the world's first national psychological association, and it remains the largest. In 1945, it reorganized to encompass several smaller psychological groups, broadening its mission but retaining the APA name. The APA's expanded mission included professional as well as scientific issues and a concern for psychology's...

Alienation Political

Political alienation, or disaffection, is basically a feeling of dissatisfaction, disillusionment, and detachment regarding political leaders, governmental policies, and the political system. Feelings of political disaffection comprise at least five components powerlessness (People like me don't have any say in what the government does) discontentment (For the most part, the government serves the interests of a few organized groups such as business or labor, and isn't very concerned about the...

Motion Integration

The basic motion detection mechanism, and the EMD model, is just the starting point for a cascade of processing steps in which such local filters are combined in various ways. Spatial or temporal pooling helps to reduce noise that is inherent to neural processing and is ambient in natural scenes. Two-dimensional arrays of motion detectors (Figure 1, right) are required to analyze distributions of motion signals, such as the characteristic flowfields generated by movements of the observer...

Main Effects

If there is no error variability, we say that a factor has a main effect if the means of the levels of the factor are not all the same. In our example, there are main effects of both Table 1. A3 x 2 Factorial Design With no Interaction Table 1. A3 x 2 Factorial Design With no Interaction Table 2. A3 x 2 Factorial Design With an Interaction fatigue and test difficulty. For test difficulty, the mean score for the low-difficulty test condition, 70, is 10 points higher than the average of the low...

Information Processing Perspective

The social cognition approach views the human mind as an information-processing system. Information is received from the stimulus world, processed through the cognitive system, and drawn on when engaging in social behavior. One stage of information-processing deals with the problems of encoding and organization. A second information-processing topic area deals with the problem of cognitive retrieval. What determines the flow of thought, and how do we access prior information and inferences when...

Development of Attachment

In general, attachment emerges in a series of developmental steps that are species-specific. In the beginning, the infant is attached to all humans who exhibit species behaviors that are effectively compatible. Bowlby describes the development of attachment behavior as having four phases (1) orientation and signals as a general reaction with no discrimination of a specific person, (2) orientation and signals directed to one or more discriminated people, (3) maintenance of proximity to a person...

Decline of Psychology in Germany

The obvious reason for the decline of German psychology was the Nazi regime (1933-1945). Most eminent psychologists, mainly Jews, were harassed, fired, and either emigrated, committed suicide, or were killed. In all, 130 psychologists from German universities emigrated, including 29 full professors (Geuter, 1986), and after the war, only a few (14 according to Geuter, 1986 e.g., Bondy and D ker) returned. Simultaneously, 79 psychology professors employed at the German universities during the...

Conclusions

Psychometric studies conducted since the 1920s indicate that intellectual aging is not a unitary process. Culture-based intelligence is maintained into the 70s, whereas biology-based intellectual abilities begin declining in the 40s. There is growing interest in understanding cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie age-related declines in Gf abilities. At the information-processing level, factors such as WM, processing speed, and inhibition mechanisms are correlated with age...

Conclusion

Barker (1992, p. 36) stated, the interrelationship of all these paradigms is crucial to the success and longevity of any culture or organization. Some paradigms are accepted more rapidly than others. If the need is great for a change, the paradigm shift will emerge quickly. Paradigm shifts have occurred throughout the centuries, since the beginning of recorded history. As new concepts and ideas emerge, paradigm shifts will continue to occur in order to meet ever-changing human needs.

CNS Drug Development

Molecules that are lipid soluble and have a molecular weight under a 500 Dalton threshold are able to cross the BBB in pharmacologically significant amounts (Pardridge, 2001). All present-day CNS drugs in clinical practice fulfill these dual criteria of (1) lipid solubility and (2) molecular weight under a 500 Dalton threshold. If a molecule lacks both of these criteria, it is unlikely that the molecule will cross the BBB in pharmacologically significant amounts, unless the molecule has...

Child Neglect

Child abuse and child neglect are the two forms of child maltreatment. Abuse requires deliberate action neglect is a failure to act in ways necessary to nurture or protect a child. The forms are similar in that they can be emotional, educational, medical, sexual, or physical, and both are extremely harmful. Abuse might seem worse and more common. However, neglect is actually more common, more destructive, and more deadly. More than half a million children in the United States are severely...

Central Office

The APA's central office is located a few blocks from the U.S. capitol. With nearly 500 employees, it provides staff for all boards and committees, operates a large publishing house, invests in stocks, manages real estate, and interacts with private, state, and federal agencies and organizations. In addition to annual revenues of 12 million in member dues and fees and 11 million from publications, it generates additional income of almost 15 million. General dues represent only 18 of the...

Brain Specialization Specialization and Integration

The brain adheres to two fundamental principles of organization, functional integration and functional specialization. The integration among specialized cortical areas depends upon cortico-(sub)cortical connections and the neuronal interactions they mediate. The characterization of functional specialization is important in many areas of neuroscience and provides an infrastructure within which normal brain function can be understood (e.g., cognitive neuroscience) and how things might go wrong...

Beliefs in the Existence of ESP

The term sheep was chosen to refer to people who believe in the possibility of ESP and goats refers to those who doubt or deny its existence (Schmeidler & McConnell, 1958 Thal-bourne & Delin, 1993). The persistence of belief in the ex istence of ESP despite only occasional hits compared with the many trials of failure reported in controlled lab research has been analyzed. Rationales for such tenacity of belief include the cognitive need for people to structure many puzzling events in life...

Autoshaping

Autoshaping refers to the process whereby biologically primed stimulus-response relations interact with and occasionally override operantly learned, potentially incompatible response-reinforcer relations. It may also be referred to as misbehavior of organisms. The name is derived from quick operant shaping (i.e., automatic shaping) that occurred without apparent reinforcement of successive approximations. Typically, the behavior observed depends upon the object or goal received. For example,...

Attachment Styles

Observational studies of parent-child bonding revealed the existence of four distinctive styles of relational behavior exhibited by infants in distress. Further research conducted with older children, adolescents, and adults has supported the ongoing development of similar response styles across the lifespan. These attachment styles classify the majority of individuals as secure and specify three varieties of insecure or anxious attachment patterns. Individuals classified as securely attached...

Assessing Clinical Symptom Patterns

The assessment of clinical problems is approached in several ways through the self-reported symptoms and behaviors. We will examine three types of scales that comprise the MMPI-2's problem measures the traditional clinical scales and profile codes, the MMPI-2 content scales, and the specific problems or supplemental scales. A scale is a group of items from the MMPI-2 item pool that have been shown to measure certain symptom patterns or personality traits. Each item cluster or scale is normed on...

Apraxic Agraphia

Single letters are malformed or confused according to their graphic (e.g., M and W) rather than their phonetic similarity. This variety is consequent to the loss of graphic motor programs necessary for writing. Apraxic agraphia resembling pure agraphia has been described in terms of a modality-specific apraxia, but (ideomotor) apraxia is usually present in nonlanguage tasks. In Gerstmann's syndrome, elements of aphasic, spatial, and apraxic agraphia mingle. Lesions are found in the left...

Brief Historical Note

We are inclined to think of meta-analysis as a recent development, but it is older than the i-test, which dates back to 1908 We can simultaneously describe the early history of meta-analysis and provide a classic illustration of the meta-analytic enterprise. In 1904, Karl Pearson collected correlation coefficients (rs) there were six of them with values of .58, .58, .60, .63, .66, and .77. The weighted mean r of these six correlation coefficients was .64, the unweighted mean r was .63, and the...

Culture And Psychotherapy

Despite their widely different trappings, psychotherapeutic interventions are practiced in all regions of the world. Moreover, these efforts share certain general objectives, above all the relief of human suffering and distress (Prince, 1980). According to Draguns (1975), psychotherapy is crucially concerned with the establishment or restoration of a workable and stable balance between the person and his or her social milieu. Cultural considerations are thus relevant to all psychotherapy...

Lifespan Development

The point where change occurs throughout the life cycle is critical. Traditional approaches to human development have emphasized change from birth to adolescence, stability in adulthood, and decline in old age. Sears and Feldman have captured the flavor of some of the most important adult changes. The changes in body, personality, and abilities may be great during these later decades. Strong developmental tasks are imposed by marriage and parenthood, by the waxing and waning of physical prowess...

The Primary Psychopath

A thoughtful and influential essay on the clinical characteristics of the psychopathic personality, The Mask of Sanity, was published in 1941 by psychiatrist Hervey Cleckley. Cleckley's psychopath, while not deeply vicious, carries disaster lightly in each hand. He may be intelligent and often displays great charm, enhanced undoubtedly by his lack of nervousness or other neurotic manifestations. Yet he is fundamentally unreliable, has a remarkable disregard for truth, and seems incapable of...

Rehabilitation Psychology

Rehabilitation psychology is a specialty area of practice within the broad field of psychology. Rehabilitation psychology is the application of psychological knowledge and understanding on behalf of individuals with disabilities and society through such activities as research, clinical practice, teaching, public education, development of social policy, and advocacy. Professionals who provide rehabilitation psychology services are called rehabilitation psychologists. Rehabilitation psychologists...

Boundaries of Western Psychology

The West has basically derived its understanding of phenomena from an intellectual and objective approach. In the classical Greek concept, the universe was viewed as comprehensible by reductionism, divisible, static, nonrelativis-tic, and atomistic. As defined in the philosophy of Descartes, matter and spirit are seen as being fundamentally different. Roger Walsh and others (Paradigms in Collision) described the different levels and aims of psychotherapeutic intervention as (1) traditionally...

Maintenance of Weight Loss

Maintaining weight loss is difficult. Historically, maintenance has been evaluated by providing an intervention, measuring weight loss, and then telling patients to continue making changes on their own and measuring weight loss again at follow-up. If people regain weight, some believe the treatment failed. An alternate view is that treatment did work, which is proven by the fact that clients gained weight when it ended. The challenge is finding treatment approaches that are innovative and...

Countertransference

Countertransference refers to feelings that arise in the therapist in response to the patient during the course of the patient's treatment. In its narrowest sense, the term countertransference is defined as the therapist's transferential reactions to the patient. Like all transferential reactions, countertransference involves a displacement onto the patient of feelings, beliefs, or impulses that were experienced previously by the therapist toward another person or persons. The term...

Opioid Receptors

The effects of opiates, such as heroin or morphine, are consequences of the interactions of these drugs with opioid receptors. Opioid receptors, like receptors for other neuro-transmitters, are cell surface proteins that (1) detect the presence of specific neurotransmitter or drug molecules in the extracellular environment, and (2) initiate biochemical changes that alter cellular processes in response to neuro-transmitter or drug binding to the receptors. The activation of opioid receptors...

Behavioral Modeling

Much human learning occurs from sitting and watching, or from just happening to notice what someone else is doing. Indeed, more social learning occurs from observing others than from physically or verbally interacting and experiencing positive or negative outcomes. Observation provides information about what may be learned (alternative behaviors, potential consequences, etc.). When observation occurs under the right circumstances, it can result in immediate changes to learning or performance....

Loose Associations

The most important source of data for assessing patients with psychiatric disorders is speech behavior during a clinical interview. One critical component of this assessment is the patient's ability to produce coherent conversational discourse. The sine qua non of disrupted discourse coherence consists of loose associations. A synonymous term currently used is derailment. Loose associations or derailments are suspected when the listener has significant difficulty following or tracking...

Deafness And Hearing Loss

Estimates of the prevalence of hearing loss vary widely within and across countries. As one indicator, 23 million Americans (almost 10 of the population) have significant, chronic hearing losses, and 1.5 million are deaf in both ears. Variation in the degree of hearing loss, age of hearing loss onset, and the etiologies of the losses influence the way and extent to which deafness affects psychological functioning. Hearing losses are categorized as conductive, involving the middle ear...

Sexual Dysfunction

Diseases of the neurological, vascular, and endocrine systems (e.g., diabetes, cancer, multiple sclerosis) can impair virtually any stage of the sexual response. Medications used to treat depression, high blood pressure, psychiatric disorders, and cancer, as well as numerous recreational drugs (e.g., barbiturates, narcotics, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking) can interfere with sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm. Psychological factors contributing to impaired sexual function most commonly include...

Migraine Headache

For patients with pure migraine headache, hand surface temperature (or thermal) is the biofeedback modality of choice, and it leads to clinically significant improvement in 40 to 60 of patients. Cognitive therapy by itself achieves about 50 success. A systematic course of relaxation training seems to help when added to thermal biofeedback (increasing success from about 40 to 55 ), but cognitive therapy added to the thermal biofeedback and relaxation does not improve outcome on a group basis....

Orgasm

In males and females, orgasm is characterized by a peak in sexual pleasure that is accompanied by rhythmic contractions of the genital and reproductive organs, cardiovascular and respiratory changes, and a release of sexual tension. In males, orgasm generally occurs in two stages emission, which refers to rhythmic muscular contractions that force semen into the ejaculatory ducts, and expulsion, which is the release of semen through the urethra (ejaculation). Unlike males, some females...

Hawthorne Effect

The Hawthorne effect is named for a series of studies conducted from the late 1920s through the 1930s at the Western Electric Company's Hawthorne Works near Chicago. Many textbooks cite these studies as central in the historical development of industrial organizational psychology. introductory textbooks and experimental methods texts discuss the Hawthorne effect, although only rarely is reasonable attention given to the overall scope of this research program. Stated in its simplest form, the...

Combined Migraine Tension Headache

For patients with both kinds of the primary benign headache disorders (migraine and tension-type), the results with thermal biofeedback alone are a bit lower, averaging 30-45 success relaxation training alone leads to 20-25 success. The best results come when thermal biofeedback and relaxation training are combined. With this combination treatment, results show 50-55 success rates (adding thermal biofeedback to relaxation raises success from 20 to 55 adding relaxation therapy to thermal...

Description of the Major Types of Headache

Migraine headache is episodic and characterized by a throbbing, pulsating, or pounding type of pain that generally starts on one side of the head, although, as the headache progresses, it often encompasses both sides. It typically starts over an eye or in the temple region and can last anywhere from 2 hours to 3 days. Frequently it is accompanied by nausea and, sometimes, vomiting, as well as sensitivity to noise (termed phonophobia) and, especially, light (termed photophobia). A migraine can...

Special Headache Populations

There is now a sizable body of research attesting to the efficacy of thermal biofeedback with pediatric migraine. In addition, headaches in the elderly can also be effectively treated with biofeedback and relaxation techniques, as can those individuals who consume excessive levels of medication. A number of investigators have demonstrated that a combination treatment including relaxation therapy and biofeedback is efficacious for treating headaches during pregnancy. Because pregnant women are...

Hallucinogenic Drugs

Many drugs can produce hallucinations (e.g., LSD, scopo-lamine, phencyclidine, methamphetamine, bromides, alcohol withdrawal, corticosteroids), but only a few can do so without producing delirium, and those few, with LSD being the prototype, are termed hallucinogens. Even LSD does not usually produce true hallucinations, because the user usually remains aware that the sensory distortions are drug-induced pseudohallucinations, but this label has persisted. Hallucinogens are also called...

Alpha Rhythms

Ensembles of synchronously active cortical neurons generate electromagnetic field potentials that can be measured by electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalog-raphy (MEG). The alpha frequency band is defined to be between 8 and 13 Hz (Berger, 1929 Adrian & Mathews, 1934). The classical alpha rhythm is prominent at electrodes overlying the occipital (visual) cortex and to a lesser extent over the posterior temporal and parietal areas. Alpha rhythm occurs in a condition of relaxed...

Schizophrenia Adolescent And Childhood

Similar to adults, both adolescents and prepubertal children may suffer from Schizophrenia. Historically, both youths with either Schizophrenia or Autistic Disorder were diagnosed under the rubric of childhood psychosis. This phenomenon was likely a reflection of the fact that young people with either Schizophrenia or Autistic Disorder can have profound impairments in interpersonal functioning and substantial disturbances of thinking and behavior. Within the past three decades, it has...

Anterior Lobe or Adenohypophysis

Because of its role in the control of other endocrine glands, the pituitary is often called the master gland of the body. This designation is more appropriately applied to the pitu-itary's anterior lobe than it is to the posterior lobe, as the adenohypophysis manufactures and secretes hormones that regulate the body's most important glands (e.g., the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland, the gonads). In fact, the prefix adeno- means gland. Figure 1. Schematic drawing showing the relationship of...

Mechanisms of Observational Learning

Observational learning is governed by four component sub-functions. Attentional processes determine what people selectively observe in the profusion of modeling influences and what information they extract from ongoing modeled events. Observers' preconceptions, cognitive development, interests, and value preferences influence what they explore and how they perceive what is modeled in the social and symbolic environment. People cannot be much influenced by modeled events if they do not remember...

Propaganda

Propaganda is the advancement of a position or view in a manner that attempts to persuade rather than to present a balanced overview. Propaganda often carries the connotation of a government activity, although persuasive communications are, of course, regularly used in the private or voluntary sector. In marketing products or services, public relations and advertising activities represent a form of propaganda, since they are not necessarily interested in communicating the whole truth, but in...

Theories

There are two major theoretical issues Why is the ego (or self) as stable as it is How and why does it manage to change at all The theories of ego stability are all variations of H. S. Sullivan's anxiety-gating theory. What Sullivan calls the self-system acts as a kind of filter, template, or frame of reference for one's perception and conception of the interpersonal world. Any observations not consonant with one's current frame of reference cause anxiety. However, the main purpose of the...

Cutaneous Senses

Cutaneous or skin senses are aspects of what is often referred to as the sense of touch. Studies indicate that there are four different cutaneous senses pressure (including light touch), pain, warmth, and cold. Although they are not completely understood, it is thought that other cutaneous sensations, such as tickle and itch, are varieties of the four primary cutaneous senses. In order for an organism to receive information, specific types of nerve endings, called sensory receptors, respond to...

Models of Leisure Counseling

Numerous models of leisure counseling have been proposed in the last few years, organized by Tinsley and Tinsley into three categories (1) leisure guidance, (2) leisure decision making, and (3) leisure counseling. Leisure guidance models stress information-giving techniques that focus on assisting clients in choosing appropriate leisure activities that are interesting to them. In leisure decision-making models, the focus is still on assisting the client in choosing appropriate leisure...

Intervening Variable

An intervening variable is an unobservable link between two observed variables. Many of our assumptions about the causes of human behavior postulate an intervening psychological variable that mediates between the stimulus and response. For example, imagine two children on the playground. George bumps Sam, then Sam hits George. The stimulus (being bumped) presumably caused Sam's response (hitting George). However, in order to understand the causal link, we need to postulate an intervening...

Social Support and Health Related Outcomes

Investigators have examined the association among stress, social support, and mental and physical health outcomes, the latter including complications of pregnancy, all-cause mortality, chronic disease, and immune status. For example, isolated elderly persons who live in the community may be at higher risk of mortality than those who maintain social engagement. As a second example, immune status as a function of social support was studied among the spouses (assumed to be experiencing severe,...

Etic and Emic Investigations

The contrast between nomothetic and idiographic psychologies may be compared with the etic and emic controversy in recent anthropological theory. Etic investigations are external, comparative, and cross-cultural. Distance from particular cultures is sought so that general patterns can be discovered. The specific, unique configurations of meaning that pertain within a single culture are set aside in an effort to discover cross-cultural universals. Emic in vestigations study cultural meanings...

Neuronal Cell Body

As a single cell, the neuron is highly specialized in the extent of its regionalization, that is, its structural and functional compartmentalization. Three distinct regions or compartments can be identified in a typical neuron dendrites, cell body, and axons. The cell body plays two principle roles in the life of a neuron supporting most of its macromolecular synthesis and serving as the site at which input signals are integrated to determine output signals. The cell body, also called the...

An Epistemological Shift

An age-old question among philosophers refers to the causes of human behavior. When using concepts of systems theory, cybernetics, and cybernetic systems, one must shift to an unusual view of causality. A linear view states that A causes B (Keeney, 1983), or one event causes another, for example, as in the stimulus-response concept. Cybernetics and systems theory, on the other hand, are based on circular views of causality, reflected by mutually feeding patterns of behavior (Keeney, 1983) A...

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

Women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) complain of a low interest in general sexual activities. There are currently no empirically validated treatments for HSDD. Sex therapy techniques generally consist of 15 to 45 sessions of cognitive therapy aimed at restructuring thoughts or beliefs that may adversely impact sexual desire (e.g., women should not initiate sexual activities, sex is dirty) and addressing negative underlying relationship issues. Behavioral approaches are utilized...

Developmental Issues in Competency Assessment

Many (e.g., Hogan, 1964 Stoltenberg, 1981) consider the acquisition of psychotherapeutic skills and their evaluation from a developmental perspective. Novices need information and are learning to comprehend fundamental principles. Thus, entry-level skills are best evaluated by the use of tests (Chambers & Glassman, 1997). Students who are more advanced can be assessed through simulation. This may entail an evaluation of the individual's breadth of knowledge as well as hands-on performance in...

How Zeitgebers Entrain Circadian Rhythms

In many animals, light is the primary zeitgeber that entrains circadian cycles (Aschoff, 1981 Pittendrigh, 1981). The brain pathway by which light entrains circadian rhythms has been clearly elucidated in animal studies (Moore & Eichler, 1972). This neuronal circuit involves ocular mechanisms (Reme, Wirz-Justice, & Terman, 1991) and a projection from the retina directly to a nucleus in the base of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN Moore & Lenn 1972). The suprachiasmatic...

Prosocial Behavior

Prosocial behavior has traditionally been defined as responses that have no obvious benefits for the responder, but are beneficial to the recipient (i.e., actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self). A significant number of studies have found evidence of concern for others beginning in infancy and developing throughout childhood and adolescence. Girls have generally been thought to be (or capable of being) more prosocial than boys however, the majority of...

Antabuse Disulfiram And Other Antialcoholism Drugs

Antabuse (disulfiram), a drug used as a supplementary therapy for alcoholism, was originally used in the manufacture of rubber. When the chemical got into the air in one factory and settled on the workers' skin, many developed dermatitis (Schwartz & Tulipan, 1933). If they inhaled the disulfiram, they discovered that they could no longer tolerate alcohol. Beginning in the 1940s, therapists tried using the drug as a therapy for alcoholism, on the theory that alcoholics would learn to avoid...

Conduction Aphasia Definition and Clinical Findings

Conduction aphasia is a specific language deficit that consists of impaired repetition that is disproportionate to any defects in fluency or comprehension. Literal paraphasias errors in which incorrect syllables are substituted within words for correct ones are frequent and are exacerbated by attempts at repetition. In contrast to patients with Wernicke's aphasia, these patients are aware of their deficit and have no difficulty in comprehension. Ideomotor apraxias inability to perform a manual...

Information Encoded By Hippocampal Neurons

Complementary evidence on the nature of memory processing accomplished by the hippocampus has been derived from studies of the firing patterns of hippocampal neurons in behaving animals. Consistent with the view that the hippocampus is the ultimate stage of hierarchical processing, the functional correlates of hippocampal cells are supramodal in that they appear to encode the abstract stimulus configurations that are independent of any particular sensory input. Most prominent among the...

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Modern cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) originated in 1955 with Albert Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Following the lead of many philosophers, ancient and modern, CBT and REBT take a constructivist view that people largely make themselves disturbed and integrate this with the behaviorist views of John D. Watson and B. F. Skinner. According to the theories of REBT and CBT, human disturbances stem from (1) a strong tendency, both innate and acquired, for people to act both...

Childrens Behavioral Stages

Studies of human development indicate basic principles underlying all developmental processes that lead to a series of stages that all individuals can be expected to go through. These principles are related to heredity as it interacts with environment and time during critical or sensitive periods and maturation. Indications of a stage development approach can be found in the work of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kolberg, Sigmund Freud, Erik Erickson, and others. These theorists generally...

Cortical Representation of Pain

Single-cell recordings in the monkey established that nociceptive pathways project to areas 3b and 1 of the primary somatosensory cortex. Pain has a sensory component in addition to its strong emotional component, and is processed by multiple distributed cortical loci. The SI cortex is involved in the sensory-discriminative aspect of pain, especially stimulus localization, while intensity may be coded by multiple cortical areas (see Treede, Kenshalo, Gracely, & Jones, 1999). Burton, H., &...

Learning Theories

The field of learning studies how experience produces long-lasting effects in the way that behavior changes with variation in the environment. Learning theory consists of principles that summarize the processes that produce these changes. Learning principles are based upon experimental observations, commonly from the laboratory. Learning theory has two main purposes (1) to explain existing laboratory findings and aid the discovery of new findings, and (2) to provide plausible accounts of more...

Trauma

Trauma is a specific term referring to unusual psychological and physiological reactions to major losses, such as the death of close others. Traumatic reactions may be so severe as to constitute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is a particular diagnostic category in psychology and psychiatry. The field that now is called traumatology began with an ancient Egyptian physician's reports of hysterical reactions that were published in 1900 b.c. in Kunyus Papyrus (quoted in Figley, 1993,...

Ritual Abuse of Adolescents

Tennant-Clark, Fritz, and Beauvais (1989) noted a psychosocial profile of high occult participants in adolescents chemical substance abuse, low self-esteem, negative feelings about school, poor self-concept, low desire to be considered a good person, negative feelings about religion, high tolerance for deviance, negative feelings about the future, low social sanctions against drug use, and feeling blamed (p. 768). Simandl (1997) saw these teens as having an undue fascination with death,...

Early Childhood Development

Childhood is a culturally defined period in human development between infancy and adulthood, and, in historical perspective, it is a relatively recent social construction. Only in the past 400 years or so has the idea of childhood been a part of Western culture, with the recognition of this special class of people and special phase in the growth of each individual (French historian Philippe Aries analyzes the emergence of these ideas in Centuries of Childhood). Early childhood, as a special and...

Jameslange Theory Of Emotions

The James-Lange theory of emotions has been the subject of considerable scientific debate since its publication by James in Principles of Psychology (1890). Portions of James's theory had been formulated by the Danish physiologist Lange in 1885. James combined his views with those of Lange, and credited Lange in the name of the theory. It offers a physiological explanation of the constitution, organization, and conditioning of the coarser emotions such as grief, fear, rage, and love in which...

Future Trends in Neuropsychology

The field of neuropsychology continues to expand. Kay and Starbuck (1997) have noted that the relatively low cost of personal computers and the potential of having computers perform labor-intensive scoring and test administration procedures may explain the popularity of computer applications in neuropsychological assessment. However, they also add that computerized testing appears to have had only minimal impact on the field of neuropsychology, probably because of a general resistance to novel...

Psychostimulant Treatment For Children

The putative efficacy of psychostimulants as a first-line treatment for children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is well documented and deserved. Few treatments provide benefit to such a large percentage of individuals affected with a particular disorder and improve functioning in multiple domains. Positive effects are ascertained in an estimated 50 to 96 of children with ADHD, depending on the stringency with which positive response is defined and the particular outcome...

Motor Cortex Plasticity and Cognition

Motor function has nearly infinite flexibility, ranging from the capability to learn new simple or complex tasks to recovery from central nervous system damage that might come about through changes in motor cortex internal pro PRIMARY PREVENTION OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY cessing. Flexibility of motor cortex output can be influenced by behavioral or physiological context. For example, changing a posture before moving modifies somatic sensory input that can then yield differing motor cortex output....

Evolutionary Psychology

Human psychology is a product of the human nervous system. Neural mechanisms, often clustered in the brain, gather and process information from the environment, interact, and execute all actions. Every conscious and unconscious mental phenomenon motivations, emotions, plans, and so on derives from neural activity. Even the most mundane behaviors require precise unconscious calculations. Walking, for instance, requires extensive feedback and sensory integration in order to coordinate intricate...

Etiology

Although the cause of trichotillomania is unknown, some experts contend that trichotillomania has genetic or neuro-biological underpinnings. Two neurotransmitter systems, serotonin and dopamine, are thought to play a role in tri-chotillomania. In addition, it has been hypothesized that individuals who pull hair have an increased tolerance for pain, possibly due to abnormalities in the opiate system (a neurochemical involved in the regulation of pain sensation). From a behavioral perspective,...

Consumer Research

We eat, sleep, bathe, dress, exercise, gather, read, travel, and perform a host of other daily and weekly activities. In an earlier era it was a major challenge to find any product or service to meet a given need. If a product or service was available and affordable, it was readily accessed and used. This reality continues to be true in underdeveloped, third world countries but industrialized nations those that commonly comprise the world's Group of Eight (G8)...

Dynamic Assessment

Dynamic assessment refers to an approach to conducting psychoeducational or speech and language assessments that most characteristically involves interacting with the client during the course of the assessment and using the responsiveness of the client to this interaction as a primary source of information. While there are a number of models and developing procedures that vary on dimensions of content and degree of standardization (Lidz & Elliott, 2000), dynamic assessments often follow a...

Nocturnal Growth Hormone Secretion

Sleep onset represents a highly evolved, dynamic biological process, involving the reduction and ultimate cessation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neuronal activity, the onset of cholinergic bursts of firing from pontine nuclei and the increased secretion of GH primarily through muscarinic inhibition of SOM, the GH secretagogue suppressant. During the early phases of sleep, increases of spontaneous GH secretion have been associated with slow wave (delta) sleep, the former subsiding several...

Features of the DIS

Since the DIS was designed for epidemiological research with normative samples, interviewers do not elicit a presenting problem from the respondent, as would be typical in unstructured clinical interviews. Rather, DIS interviews begin by asking questions about symptoms in a standardized order. Like other structured interviews, the DIS has sections that cover different disorders. Each diagnostic section is independent, except where one diagnosis preempts another. Once a symptom is reported to be...

Brain Imaging In Affective Neuroscience

Emotions are action-related feelings of positive or negative valence that are associated with approach or avoidance behaviors and neurophysiological changes. They are learned, innate, or a combination between the two and they may be transient states such as fear, anger, or happiness or they may be enduring moods such as depression. Basic knowledge about the neural underpinnings of emotion stems from several decades of animal research utilizing lesion, electrical stimulation, single cell...

Confidence Interval

The concept of the confidence interval was introduced and developed theoretically by Neyman in the 1930s. The confidence interval represents the range of values around a parameter estimate that indicates the degree of certainty that the range contains the true value of the population parameter. The upper and lower boundaries of the range are the confidence limits. The width of the confidence interval indicates the degree of precision associated with the parameter estimate. Wider intervals...

All Ions Combined

Of course, the parameters are different for different channel types, and different values of zx, xo, and xi apply to each ion x. Nevertheless, if all ions flowing through a membrane share the same V (assuming no local charge screening), and we ignore ionic currents through membrane pumps and carrier molecules, then the total current is the sum of all channel currents, and the total IV curve is the vertical sum of each separate IV curve. Assuming only one type of fixed channel for each major ion...

Definition and Evolution

Consumer research systematically studies the many aspects of human behavior related to the purchase and use of economic goods and services. The product-related focus includes research in advertising effectiveness, product features, and marketing techniques. Focus upon the consumer has included the study of attitudes, feelings, preferences, and the many group influences upon the decision-making process of the individual consumer. The field also studies the consumer as a citizen and a central...

Frequency Domain Models

Whereas a time domain model represents an attempt to explain current behavior of the series using time and other variables (including previous errors) as predictors, frequency domain models focus on breaking down the total series variation into basic frequency components. Frequency is related to the number of cycles of the response measure that occur during a defined period of time. Frequency domain methods (called harmonic analysis, periodogram analysis, and spectral analysis) provide a...

Applications

Use of automatic thoughts in psychology center on changing belief systems through psychotherapy. In cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies, the primary focus is on changing the client's distorted or dysfunctional belief systems. Client's belief systems are explored and accessed. Albert Ellis outlines 12 irrational beliefs (Criddle, 1975), and Beck outlines primarily six cognitive distortions or distorted thoughts belief processes (Beck & Weishaar, 1989a, 1989b). Others have added to...

Localization

Classically, conduction aphasia results from lesions of the arcuate fasciculus that disconnect receptive from expressive language regions. The arcuate fasiculus is a white matter tract that runs from Wernicke's area in the posterior superior temporal gyrus, arches around the sylvian fissure, and runs anteriorly to the inferior frontal lobe of Broca's region. Many lesions that cause conduction aphasia not only involve the arcuate fasciculus but also include the supra-marginal gyrus and,...

Idiographic Psychology

In twentieth century psychology, the work of Gordon Allport is most commonly associated with idiographic psychology, which rests on certain assumptions and methods. In the words of Allport, it is assumed that psychology will become more scientific (i.e., better able to make predictions) when it has learned to evaluate single trends in all their intrinsic complexity, when it has learned how to tell what will happen to this child's IQ if we change his environment in a certain way. Allport's...

Association Activities and Their Impact

The activity with the most visible impact is ABA's annual convention, which attracts more than 2,800 behavior analysts, who attend workshops, invited addresses, symposia, round-table discussions, addresses, and poster sessions on a range of topics relevant to the advancement of the basic science of behavior, and to the application of behavioral principles, in a variety of settings with a number of different populations. Continuing education credit for both psychologists and behavior analysts is...