Maintenance of Weight Loss

Maintaining weight loss is difficult. Historically, maintenance has been evaluated by providing an intervention, measuring weight loss, and then telling patients to continue making changes on their own and measuring weight loss again at follow-up. If people regain weight, some believe the treatment failed. An alternate view is that treatment did work, which is proven by the fact that clients gained weight when it ended. The challenge is finding treatment approaches that are innovative and...

Countertransference

Countertransference refers to feelings that arise in the therapist in response to the patient during the course of the patient's treatment. In its narrowest sense, the term countertransference is defined as the therapist's transferential reactions to the patient. Like all transferential reactions, countertransference involves a displacement onto the patient of feelings, beliefs, or impulses that were experienced previously by the therapist toward another person or persons. The term...

Opioid Receptors

The effects of opiates, such as heroin or morphine, are consequences of the interactions of these drugs with opioid receptors. Opioid receptors, like receptors for other neuro-transmitters, are cell surface proteins that (1) detect the presence of specific neurotransmitter or drug molecules in the extracellular environment, and (2) initiate biochemical changes that alter cellular processes in response to neuro-transmitter or drug binding to the receptors. The activation of opioid receptors...

Behavioral Modeling

Much human learning occurs from sitting and watching, or from just happening to notice what someone else is doing. Indeed, more social learning occurs from observing others than from physically or verbally interacting and experiencing positive or negative outcomes. Observation provides information about what may be learned (alternative behaviors, potential consequences, etc.). When observation occurs under the right circumstances, it can result in immediate changes to learning or performance....

Loose Associations

The most important source of data for assessing patients with psychiatric disorders is speech behavior during a clinical interview. One critical component of this assessment is the patient's ability to produce coherent conversational discourse. The sine qua non of disrupted discourse coherence consists of loose associations. A synonymous term currently used is derailment. Loose associations or derailments are suspected when the listener has significant difficulty following or tracking...

Deafness And Hearing Loss

Estimates of the prevalence of hearing loss vary widely within and across countries. As one indicator, 23 million Americans (almost 10 of the population) have significant, chronic hearing losses, and 1.5 million are deaf in both ears. Variation in the degree of hearing loss, age of hearing loss onset, and the etiologies of the losses influence the way and extent to which deafness affects psychological functioning. Hearing losses are categorized as conductive, involving the middle ear...

Sexual Dysfunction

Diseases of the neurological, vascular, and endocrine systems (e.g., diabetes, cancer, multiple sclerosis) can impair virtually any stage of the sexual response. Medications used to treat depression, high blood pressure, psychiatric disorders, and cancer, as well as numerous recreational drugs (e.g., barbiturates, narcotics, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking) can interfere with sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm. Psychological factors contributing to impaired sexual function most commonly include...

Migraine Headache

For patients with pure migraine headache, hand surface temperature (or thermal) is the biofeedback modality of choice, and it leads to clinically significant improvement in 40 to 60 of patients. Cognitive therapy by itself achieves about 50 success. A systematic course of relaxation training seems to help when added to thermal biofeedback (increasing success from about 40 to 55 ), but cognitive therapy added to the thermal biofeedback and relaxation does not improve outcome on a group basis....

Orgasm

In males and females, orgasm is characterized by a peak in sexual pleasure that is accompanied by rhythmic contractions of the genital and reproductive organs, cardiovascular and respiratory changes, and a release of sexual tension. In males, orgasm generally occurs in two stages emission, which refers to rhythmic muscular contractions that force semen into the ejaculatory ducts, and expulsion, which is the release of semen through the urethra (ejaculation). Unlike males, some females...

Hawthorne Effect

The Hawthorne effect is named for a series of studies conducted from the late 1920s through the 1930s at the Western Electric Company's Hawthorne Works near Chicago. Many textbooks cite these studies as central in the historical development of industrial organizational psychology. introductory textbooks and experimental methods texts discuss the Hawthorne effect, although only rarely is reasonable attention given to the overall scope of this research program. Stated in its simplest form, the...

Combined Migraine Tension Headache

For patients with both kinds of the primary benign headache disorders (migraine and tension-type), the results with thermal biofeedback alone are a bit lower, averaging 30-45 success relaxation training alone leads to 20-25 success. The best results come when thermal biofeedback and relaxation training are combined. With this combination treatment, results show 50-55 success rates (adding thermal biofeedback to relaxation raises success from 20 to 55 adding relaxation therapy to thermal...

Description of the Major Types of Headache

Migraine headache is episodic and characterized by a throbbing, pulsating, or pounding type of pain that generally starts on one side of the head, although, as the headache progresses, it often encompasses both sides. It typically starts over an eye or in the temple region and can last anywhere from 2 hours to 3 days. Frequently it is accompanied by nausea and, sometimes, vomiting, as well as sensitivity to noise (termed phonophobia) and, especially, light (termed photophobia). A migraine can...

Special Headache Populations

There is now a sizable body of research attesting to the efficacy of thermal biofeedback with pediatric migraine. In addition, headaches in the elderly can also be effectively treated with biofeedback and relaxation techniques, as can those individuals who consume excessive levels of medication. A number of investigators have demonstrated that a combination treatment including relaxation therapy and biofeedback is efficacious for treating headaches during pregnancy. Because pregnant women are...

Hallucinogenic Drugs

Many drugs can produce hallucinations (e.g., LSD, scopo-lamine, phencyclidine, methamphetamine, bromides, alcohol withdrawal, corticosteroids), but only a few can do so without producing delirium, and those few, with LSD being the prototype, are termed hallucinogens. Even LSD does not usually produce true hallucinations, because the user usually remains aware that the sensory distortions are drug-induced pseudohallucinations, but this label has persisted. Hallucinogens are also called...

Alpha Rhythms

Ensembles of synchronously active cortical neurons generate electromagnetic field potentials that can be measured by electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalog-raphy (MEG). The alpha frequency band is defined to be between 8 and 13 Hz (Berger, 1929 Adrian & Mathews, 1934). The classical alpha rhythm is prominent at electrodes overlying the occipital (visual) cortex and to a lesser extent over the posterior temporal and parietal areas. Alpha rhythm occurs in a condition of relaxed...

Schizophrenia Adolescent And Childhood

Similar to adults, both adolescents and prepubertal children may suffer from Schizophrenia. Historically, both youths with either Schizophrenia or Autistic Disorder were diagnosed under the rubric of childhood psychosis. This phenomenon was likely a reflection of the fact that young people with either Schizophrenia or Autistic Disorder can have profound impairments in interpersonal functioning and substantial disturbances of thinking and behavior. Within the past three decades, it has...

Anterior Lobe or Adenohypophysis

Because of its role in the control of other endocrine glands, the pituitary is often called the master gland of the body. This designation is more appropriately applied to the pitu-itary's anterior lobe than it is to the posterior lobe, as the adenohypophysis manufactures and secretes hormones that regulate the body's most important glands (e.g., the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland, the gonads). In fact, the prefix adeno- means gland. Figure 1. Schematic drawing showing the relationship of...

Mechanisms of Observational Learning

Observational learning is governed by four component sub-functions. Attentional processes determine what people selectively observe in the profusion of modeling influences and what information they extract from ongoing modeled events. Observers' preconceptions, cognitive development, interests, and value preferences influence what they explore and how they perceive what is modeled in the social and symbolic environment. People cannot be much influenced by modeled events if they do not remember...

Propaganda

Propaganda is the advancement of a position or view in a manner that attempts to persuade rather than to present a balanced overview. Propaganda often carries the connotation of a government activity, although persuasive communications are, of course, regularly used in the private or voluntary sector. In marketing products or services, public relations and advertising activities represent a form of propaganda, since they are not necessarily interested in communicating the whole truth, but in...

Theories

There are two major theoretical issues Why is the ego (or self) as stable as it is How and why does it manage to change at all The theories of ego stability are all variations of H. S. Sullivan's anxiety-gating theory. What Sullivan calls the self-system acts as a kind of filter, template, or frame of reference for one's perception and conception of the interpersonal world. Any observations not consonant with one's current frame of reference cause anxiety. However, the main purpose of the...

Cutaneous Senses

Cutaneous or skin senses are aspects of what is often referred to as the sense of touch. Studies indicate that there are four different cutaneous senses pressure (including light touch), pain, warmth, and cold. Although they are not completely understood, it is thought that other cutaneous sensations, such as tickle and itch, are varieties of the four primary cutaneous senses. In order for an organism to receive information, specific types of nerve endings, called sensory receptors, respond to...

Models of Leisure Counseling

Numerous models of leisure counseling have been proposed in the last few years, organized by Tinsley and Tinsley into three categories (1) leisure guidance, (2) leisure decision making, and (3) leisure counseling. Leisure guidance models stress information-giving techniques that focus on assisting clients in choosing appropriate leisure activities that are interesting to them. In leisure decision-making models, the focus is still on assisting the client in choosing appropriate leisure...

Intervening Variable

An intervening variable is an unobservable link between two observed variables. Many of our assumptions about the causes of human behavior postulate an intervening psychological variable that mediates between the stimulus and response. For example, imagine two children on the playground. George bumps Sam, then Sam hits George. The stimulus (being bumped) presumably caused Sam's response (hitting George). However, in order to understand the causal link, we need to postulate an intervening...

Social Support and Health Related Outcomes

Investigators have examined the association among stress, social support, and mental and physical health outcomes, the latter including complications of pregnancy, all-cause mortality, chronic disease, and immune status. For example, isolated elderly persons who live in the community may be at higher risk of mortality than those who maintain social engagement. As a second example, immune status as a function of social support was studied among the spouses (assumed to be experiencing severe,...

Etic and Emic Investigations

The contrast between nomothetic and idiographic psychologies may be compared with the etic and emic controversy in recent anthropological theory. Etic investigations are external, comparative, and cross-cultural. Distance from particular cultures is sought so that general patterns can be discovered. The specific, unique configurations of meaning that pertain within a single culture are set aside in an effort to discover cross-cultural universals. Emic in vestigations study cultural meanings...

Neuronal Cell Body

As a single cell, the neuron is highly specialized in the extent of its regionalization, that is, its structural and functional compartmentalization. Three distinct regions or compartments can be identified in a typical neuron dendrites, cell body, and axons. The cell body plays two principle roles in the life of a neuron supporting most of its macromolecular synthesis and serving as the site at which input signals are integrated to determine output signals. The cell body, also called the...

An Epistemological Shift

An age-old question among philosophers refers to the causes of human behavior. When using concepts of systems theory, cybernetics, and cybernetic systems, one must shift to an unusual view of causality. A linear view states that A causes B (Keeney, 1983), or one event causes another, for example, as in the stimulus-response concept. Cybernetics and systems theory, on the other hand, are based on circular views of causality, reflected by mutually feeding patterns of behavior (Keeney, 1983) A...

Conclusions

Androgens and estrogens have powerful effects on human behavior, as they do on human physical characteristics and on behavioral and physical characteristics in nonhuman mammals. Androgens and estrogens exert some effects directly on the brain, by changing structure early in life and activity throughout life. Sex hormones may also affect behavior indirectly. For example, hormones might alter sensory thresholds, facilitating performance through improved sensation or perception, or increasing...

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

Women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) complain of a low interest in general sexual activities. There are currently no empirically validated treatments for HSDD. Sex therapy techniques generally consist of 15 to 45 sessions of cognitive therapy aimed at restructuring thoughts or beliefs that may adversely impact sexual desire (e.g., women should not initiate sexual activities, sex is dirty) and addressing negative underlying relationship issues. Behavioral approaches are utilized...

Developmental Issues in Competency Assessment

Many (e.g., Hogan, 1964 Stoltenberg, 1981) consider the acquisition of psychotherapeutic skills and their evaluation from a developmental perspective. Novices need information and are learning to comprehend fundamental principles. Thus, entry-level skills are best evaluated by the use of tests (Chambers & Glassman, 1997). Students who are more advanced can be assessed through simulation. This may entail an evaluation of the individual's breadth of knowledge as well as hands-on performance in...

How Zeitgebers Entrain Circadian Rhythms

In many animals, light is the primary zeitgeber that entrains circadian cycles (Aschoff, 1981 Pittendrigh, 1981). The brain pathway by which light entrains circadian rhythms has been clearly elucidated in animal studies (Moore & Eichler, 1972). This neuronal circuit involves ocular mechanisms (Reme, Wirz-Justice, & Terman, 1991) and a projection from the retina directly to a nucleus in the base of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN Moore & Lenn 1972). The suprachiasmatic...

Prosocial Behavior

Prosocial behavior has traditionally been defined as responses that have no obvious benefits for the responder, but are beneficial to the recipient (i.e., actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self). A significant number of studies have found evidence of concern for others beginning in infancy and developing throughout childhood and adolescence. Girls have generally been thought to be (or capable of being) more prosocial than boys however, the majority of...

Antabuse Disulfiram And Other Antialcoholism Drugs

Antabuse (disulfiram), a drug used as a supplementary therapy for alcoholism, was originally used in the manufacture of rubber. When the chemical got into the air in one factory and settled on the workers' skin, many developed dermatitis (Schwartz & Tulipan, 1933). If they inhaled the disulfiram, they discovered that they could no longer tolerate alcohol. Beginning in the 1940s, therapists tried using the drug as a therapy for alcoholism, on the theory that alcoholics would learn to avoid...

Conduction Aphasia Definition and Clinical Findings

Conduction aphasia is a specific language deficit that consists of impaired repetition that is disproportionate to any defects in fluency or comprehension. Literal paraphasias errors in which incorrect syllables are substituted within words for correct ones are frequent and are exacerbated by attempts at repetition. In contrast to patients with Wernicke's aphasia, these patients are aware of their deficit and have no difficulty in comprehension. Ideomotor apraxias inability to perform a manual...

Information Encoded By Hippocampal Neurons

Complementary evidence on the nature of memory processing accomplished by the hippocampus has been derived from studies of the firing patterns of hippocampal neurons in behaving animals. Consistent with the view that the hippocampus is the ultimate stage of hierarchical processing, the functional correlates of hippocampal cells are supramodal in that they appear to encode the abstract stimulus configurations that are independent of any particular sensory input. Most prominent among the...

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Modern cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) originated in 1955 with Albert Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Following the lead of many philosophers, ancient and modern, CBT and REBT take a constructivist view that people largely make themselves disturbed and integrate this with the behaviorist views of John D. Watson and B. F. Skinner. According to the theories of REBT and CBT, human disturbances stem from (1) a strong tendency, both innate and acquired, for people to act both...

Interactions

In Table 1, the data are additive that is, the effect of being in the A1B1 cell is the sum of the effects of being at level A1 of A and level Br of B. However, in many cases particular combinations of levels of factors may have joint effects that cannot be obtained by adding the main effects of the factors. In Table 2 the marginal means, and hence the main effects for both factors are exactly the same as in Table 1. However, some of the cell means are different. The effect of the combination of...

Childrens Behavioral Stages

Studies of human development indicate basic principles underlying all developmental processes that lead to a series of stages that all individuals can be expected to go through. These principles are related to heredity as it interacts with environment and time during critical or sensitive periods and maturation. Indications of a stage development approach can be found in the work of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kolberg, Sigmund Freud, Erik Erickson, and others. These theorists generally...

Cortical Representation of Pain

Single-cell recordings in the monkey established that nociceptive pathways project to areas 3b and 1 of the primary somatosensory cortex. Pain has a sensory component in addition to its strong emotional component, and is processed by multiple distributed cortical loci. The SI cortex is involved in the sensory-discriminative aspect of pain, especially stimulus localization, while intensity may be coded by multiple cortical areas (see Treede, Kenshalo, Gracely, & Jones, 1999). Burton, H., &...

Administration

The ease of administration of the Bender Test certainly contributes to its popularity among psychologists. Variations in administration procedures, however, are not uncommon even for the standard administration (Lezak, 1995). Other modalities of test administration include the stress modality, which involves the repetition of the test under the stress of time pressure, as described by Lezak (1995) and standardized by Brito and Santos (1996), and the immediate and delayed recall of all designs...

Learning Theories

The field of learning studies how experience produces long-lasting effects in the way that behavior changes with variation in the environment. Learning theory consists of principles that summarize the processes that produce these changes. Learning principles are based upon experimental observations, commonly from the laboratory. Learning theory has two main purposes (1) to explain existing laboratory findings and aid the discovery of new findings, and (2) to provide plausible accounts of more...

Trauma

Trauma is a specific term referring to unusual psychological and physiological reactions to major losses, such as the death of close others. Traumatic reactions may be so severe as to constitute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is a particular diagnostic category in psychology and psychiatry. The field that now is called traumatology began with an ancient Egyptian physician's reports of hysterical reactions that were published in 1900 b.c. in Kunyus Papyrus (quoted in Figley, 1993,...

Ritual Abuse of Adolescents

Tennant-Clark, Fritz, and Beauvais (1989) noted a psychosocial profile of high occult participants in adolescents chemical substance abuse, low self-esteem, negative feelings about school, poor self-concept, low desire to be considered a good person, negative feelings about religion, high tolerance for deviance, negative feelings about the future, low social sanctions against drug use, and feeling blamed (p. 768). Simandl (1997) saw these teens as having an undue fascination with death,...

Early Childhood Development

Childhood is a culturally defined period in human development between infancy and adulthood, and, in historical perspective, it is a relatively recent social construction. Only in the past 400 years or so has the idea of childhood been a part of Western culture, with the recognition of this special class of people and special phase in the growth of each individual (French historian Philippe Aries analyzes the emergence of these ideas in Centuries of Childhood). Early childhood, as a special and...

Jameslange Theory Of Emotions

The James-Lange theory of emotions has been the subject of considerable scientific debate since its publication by James in Principles of Psychology (1890). Portions of James's theory had been formulated by the Danish physiologist Lange in 1885. James combined his views with those of Lange, and credited Lange in the name of the theory. It offers a physiological explanation of the constitution, organization, and conditioning of the coarser emotions such as grief, fear, rage, and love in which...

Future Trends in Neuropsychology

The field of neuropsychology continues to expand. Kay and Starbuck (1997) have noted that the relatively low cost of personal computers and the potential of having computers perform labor-intensive scoring and test administration procedures may explain the popularity of computer applications in neuropsychological assessment. However, they also add that computerized testing appears to have had only minimal impact on the field of neuropsychology, probably because of a general resistance to novel...

Psychostimulant Treatment For Children

The putative efficacy of psychostimulants as a first-line treatment for children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is well documented and deserved. Few treatments provide benefit to such a large percentage of individuals affected with a particular disorder and improve functioning in multiple domains. Positive effects are ascertained in an estimated 50 to 96 of children with ADHD, depending on the stringency with which positive response is defined and the particular outcome...

Motor Cortex Plasticity and Cognition

Motor function has nearly infinite flexibility, ranging from the capability to learn new simple or complex tasks to recovery from central nervous system damage that might come about through changes in motor cortex internal pro PRIMARY PREVENTION OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY cessing. Flexibility of motor cortex output can be influenced by behavioral or physiological context. For example, changing a posture before moving modifies somatic sensory input that can then yield differing motor cortex output....

Evolutionary Psychology

Human psychology is a product of the human nervous system. Neural mechanisms, often clustered in the brain, gather and process information from the environment, interact, and execute all actions. Every conscious and unconscious mental phenomenon motivations, emotions, plans, and so on derives from neural activity. Even the most mundane behaviors require precise unconscious calculations. Walking, for instance, requires extensive feedback and sensory integration in order to coordinate intricate...

Etiology

Although the cause of trichotillomania is unknown, some experts contend that trichotillomania has genetic or neuro-biological underpinnings. Two neurotransmitter systems, serotonin and dopamine, are thought to play a role in tri-chotillomania. In addition, it has been hypothesized that individuals who pull hair have an increased tolerance for pain, possibly due to abnormalities in the opiate system (a neurochemical involved in the regulation of pain sensation). From a behavioral perspective,...

Consumer Research

We eat, sleep, bathe, dress, exercise, gather, read, travel, and perform a host of other daily and weekly activities. In an earlier era it was a major challenge to find any product or service to meet a given need. If a product or service was available and affordable, it was readily accessed and used. This reality continues to be true in underdeveloped, third world countries but industrialized nations those that commonly comprise the world's Group of Eight (G8)...

Dynamic Assessment

Dynamic assessment refers to an approach to conducting psychoeducational or speech and language assessments that most characteristically involves interacting with the client during the course of the assessment and using the responsiveness of the client to this interaction as a primary source of information. While there are a number of models and developing procedures that vary on dimensions of content and degree of standardization (Lidz & Elliott, 2000), dynamic assessments often follow a...

Nocturnal Growth Hormone Secretion

Sleep onset represents a highly evolved, dynamic biological process, involving the reduction and ultimate cessation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neuronal activity, the onset of cholinergic bursts of firing from pontine nuclei and the increased secretion of GH primarily through muscarinic inhibition of SOM, the GH secretagogue suppressant. During the early phases of sleep, increases of spontaneous GH secretion have been associated with slow wave (delta) sleep, the former subsiding several...

Features of the DIS

Since the DIS was designed for epidemiological research with normative samples, interviewers do not elicit a presenting problem from the respondent, as would be typical in unstructured clinical interviews. Rather, DIS interviews begin by asking questions about symptoms in a standardized order. Like other structured interviews, the DIS has sections that cover different disorders. Each diagnostic section is independent, except where one diagnosis preempts another. Once a symptom is reported to be...

Brain Imaging In Affective Neuroscience

Emotions are action-related feelings of positive or negative valence that are associated with approach or avoidance behaviors and neurophysiological changes. They are learned, innate, or a combination between the two and they may be transient states such as fear, anger, or happiness or they may be enduring moods such as depression. Basic knowledge about the neural underpinnings of emotion stems from several decades of animal research utilizing lesion, electrical stimulation, single cell...

Confidence Interval

The concept of the confidence interval was introduced and developed theoretically by Neyman in the 1930s. The confidence interval represents the range of values around a parameter estimate that indicates the degree of certainty that the range contains the true value of the population parameter. The upper and lower boundaries of the range are the confidence limits. The width of the confidence interval indicates the degree of precision associated with the parameter estimate. Wider intervals...

All Ions Combined

Of course, the parameters are different for different channel types, and different values of zx, xo, and xi apply to each ion x. Nevertheless, if all ions flowing through a membrane share the same V (assuming no local charge screening), and we ignore ionic currents through membrane pumps and carrier molecules, then the total current is the sum of all channel currents, and the total IV curve is the vertical sum of each separate IV curve. Assuming only one type of fixed channel for each major ion...

Definition and Evolution

Consumer research systematically studies the many aspects of human behavior related to the purchase and use of economic goods and services. The product-related focus includes research in advertising effectiveness, product features, and marketing techniques. Focus upon the consumer has included the study of attitudes, feelings, preferences, and the many group influences upon the decision-making process of the individual consumer. The field also studies the consumer as a citizen and a central...

Frequency Domain Models

Whereas a time domain model represents an attempt to explain current behavior of the series using time and other variables (including previous errors) as predictors, frequency domain models focus on breaking down the total series variation into basic frequency components. Frequency is related to the number of cycles of the response measure that occur during a defined period of time. Frequency domain methods (called harmonic analysis, periodogram analysis, and spectral analysis) provide a...

Applications

Use of automatic thoughts in psychology center on changing belief systems through psychotherapy. In cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies, the primary focus is on changing the client's distorted or dysfunctional belief systems. Client's belief systems are explored and accessed. Albert Ellis outlines 12 irrational beliefs (Criddle, 1975), and Beck outlines primarily six cognitive distortions or distorted thoughts belief processes (Beck & Weishaar, 1989a, 1989b). Others have added to...

Localization

Classically, conduction aphasia results from lesions of the arcuate fasciculus that disconnect receptive from expressive language regions. The arcuate fasiculus is a white matter tract that runs from Wernicke's area in the posterior superior temporal gyrus, arches around the sylvian fissure, and runs anteriorly to the inferior frontal lobe of Broca's region. Many lesions that cause conduction aphasia not only involve the arcuate fasciculus but also include the supra-marginal gyrus and,...

Idiographic Psychology

In twentieth century psychology, the work of Gordon Allport is most commonly associated with idiographic psychology, which rests on certain assumptions and methods. In the words of Allport, it is assumed that psychology will become more scientific (i.e., better able to make predictions) when it has learned to evaluate single trends in all their intrinsic complexity, when it has learned how to tell what will happen to this child's IQ if we change his environment in a certain way. Allport's...

Association Activities and Their Impact

The activity with the most visible impact is ABA's annual convention, which attracts more than 2,800 behavior analysts, who attend workshops, invited addresses, symposia, round-table discussions, addresses, and poster sessions on a range of topics relevant to the advancement of the basic science of behavior, and to the application of behavioral principles, in a variety of settings with a number of different populations. Continuing education credit for both psychologists and behavior analysts is...

Creativity

Most Asian, African, and Native American traditions used creative imagination to enrich and enhance everyday life original contributions were typically seen as gifts from deities or spirits, who used humans as channels. These insights would often come in nighttime dreams or daytime visions, and they were thought to recreate divine truth rather than to innovate. In some of these societies, an individual who produced something unprecedented (such as a mask or weapon) would be hailed as a hero,...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method that can provide information on both the anatomy and physiological function of the brain. It is a powerful tool for integrating our current understanding of brain function with models of cognition and emotion. Anatomical MRI provides a picture of brain structure, whereas functional MRI (fMRI) provides information about the physiological function of the brain. MRI relies on three magnetic fields. Aconstant magnetic field, known as the static field,...

Description of the Battery

There are 269 items in the standardized Luria battery, initially referred to as the Luria-South Dakota Neuropsycho-logical Test Battery. Each item is a test of a specific aspect of neuropsychological functioning. Subgroups of items exist which represent performance in the content area implied by the name of the scale, as, for example, the motor functions scale. The names of the scales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery are as follows 2. Rhythm (acoustico-motor) Functions 3....

Delta Waves in Normal Functions

Because delta waves occur with the greatest intensity and regularity during deep sleep (an EEG period, or epoch, is typically classified as stage 3 sleep if delta waves comprise at least 20 of the epoch, and it is classified as stage 4 sleep if delta waves comprise at least 50 of the epoch), their function has most often been linked to the function of sleep. The latter is a very complex issue that remains largely unsolved (Rechtschaffen, 1998), although it is likely that the primary benefits of...

Assessment

Diagnostic and functional assessments provide a comprehensive understanding of older adults' needs and typically include critical information about psychiatric diagnosis and social and environmental factors that influence older adults' emotions and behavior. Quality assessments are needed to ensure that an appropriate intervention is chosen for treatment. Geropsychologists use standardized interview and self-report instruments that have been specifically designed for use with older adults to...

Probability

Probability theory is important to psychology because it is the foundation upon which statistics is based, and statistics are the tools for conducting empirical research. The basic notions of chance and probability have a very long history. Gambling, the throwing of dice, and randomization procedures such as the drawing of lots are very ancient, if not prehistoric. While these concepts were vague by modern standards, it is surprising that even the simplest sort of probability calculus was not...

Inference and Attention in Constancy

Although the direct approach is potentially highly useful, there is no evidence that most constancies are direct responses to such invariances. Moreover, many examples of attention-dependent taking-into-account processes remain, needing explanation. In Figure 2, devised by E. Adelson, although a and b are identical as printed, a looks like a dark (paint-striped) surface and b looks like a light surface in shadow, depending on where one attends similar attention-dependent examples can be shown...

Knockouts Transgenics and Memory

The first knockout transgenic study of learning and memory analyzed mice with a targeted mutation of the a isoform of CaMKII (Grant & Silva, 1994) and showed that this ki-nase mediates the strengthening synapses, a process critical for learning. Many studies since then have identified more than 100 other molecules required for synaptic func tion and learning. These molecules include members of all of the principal signaling pathways known, including cAMP, PKC, Ras Raf MAPK, and so on. These...

Autoassociative Networks

Autoassociative networks feed their outputs back as inputs. Figure 3 shows a small autoassociative network. Each of five units (A, B, C, D, E) receives one external input (a, b, c, d, e). These external inputs have fixed connections that can trigger an output from their respective units. Each unit also receives five recurrent inputs, one from each unit's output including its own. For example, as shown in Figure 3, the C unit has five recurrent connections, designated as Ac, Bc, Cc, Dc, and Ec....

Instrumental Measurement

Phoneticians often use specialized laboratory equipment and software to study acoustic and articulatory aspects of speech production. Traditionally, tape-recorded speech signals were examined using an oscilloscope, sound spectro-graph, and other instruments to complete acoustic measurements. The spectrograph, for example, allowed the phonetician to examine changes in the frequency and intensity characteristics of conversational speech. Today, advances in processing speed and signal storage have...

Sex Differences Developmental

The best established sex differences are in the areas of life experiences and biology. They generally are considered to cause smaller and less well-established sex differences in the psychological areas of cognitive and social-emotional characteristics. Cognitive areas showing sex differences include verbal and mathematics achievement and visual-spatial performance the social-emotional area showing the most consistent sex difference is that of aggression. The developmental periods during which...

Opposition to Prescription Privileges

No discussion on prescription privileges would be complete without citing objections to psychologists prescribing drugs. Breggin's Toxic Psychiatry (1991) is noteworthy in this regard. Breggin argues that the administration of drugs by psychiatrists is a political and financial issue encouraged by the psychopharmacological complex that pushes biological and genetic theories, as well as drugs, on the society (p. 408). He argues that psychiatry as a profession must discontinue its financial...

Gender and Age Differences

Researchers have found consistently that girls report a greater number of fears than do boys. However, one cannot tell from these studies whether this gender difference is due to a higher inborn fear reactivity in females or whether other factors, such as sex-role influences, are responsible. Several studies have found age-related changes in the type of fear children report. An overview of this developmental trend reveals that, as children grow older, their fears tend to become (1) more...

Operant Conditioning as a Behavioral Process

Operant conditioning procedures have revealed that behavior changes in strength or probability when it is followed by biologically important consequences such as access to food, water, sexual activity, or escape from painful stimuli, cold, or excessive heat. Activities that tend to promote survival and reproduction become more frequent, while those that bring harm are reduced or eliminated. Operant conditioning is thus an evolutionary adaptation enabling an organism to adjust to variable...

Moral Behavior

The empirical link between moral cognition and action has been elusive people can exhibit the same behavior for different reasons, and individuals at the same level of moral reasoning may act in different ways. Although some linkages have been reported, relationships between moral reasoning and behavior may not be linear (e.g., Hann, Smith, & Block, 1968). If moral behavior is mediated by moral reasoning, it may be necessary to focus on intraindividual variation over time and situations. For...

Behavior Modification

Behavior modification is the field of study that focuses on using principles of learning and cognition to understand and change people's behavior (Sarafino, 1996). Although not all experts in this field would include cognitive processes in the definition (see Lee, 1992 Sweet & Loizeaux, 1991 Wolpe, 1993), these processes have been widely adopted and applied by behavior modification professionals since the early 1970s (Dobson, 1988 Kazdin, 1978 Ma-honey, 1993 Williams, Watts, MacLeod, &...

Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by depressed mood or a lack of interest or pleasure in once-enjoyable activities, and associated symptoms (e.g., sleep disturbance, appetite weight disturbance, difficulty concentrating, worthlessness or exaggerated guilt). To receive a diagnosis of MDD, at least five symptoms must be present most of the day, nearly every day, for at least 2 weeks (American Psychiatric Association ApA , 1994). The lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDD is higher...

Emergence of East West Psychology

As mental health professionals felt more and more limited by the theories of behaviorism and psychoanalysis, which were mainly derived from studies of psychopathology, and ignored certain areas such as value, will, and consciousness necessary for a full inquiry into human nature, humanistic psychology emerged in the 1960s as a model based on health and the whole person. Humanistic psychology recognized the individual's drive toward self-actualization and the ways in which this idea could be...

Network Units

Each unit in a neural network is described by two rules. First, the activation rule combines inputs and generates an output called an activation level. Second, the learning rule alters the transmission of activation levels between one unit and the next. Activation rules explain how neurons perform logical and mathematical operations (McClulloch & Pitts, 1943). Each unit receives activation levels from either sensory receptors or other units. These inputs usually have a value of either 0 or...

Nicotine

Nicotine is a pale yellow, highly toxic liquid contained in the leaves of several species of plants. Commercially, nicotine is extracted from dried Nicotiana tabacum leaves and used for making insecticides (nicotine sulfate) or tobacco products (Benowitz, 1998). Nicotine is extremely poisonous and can cause respiratory failure, convulsions, nervous system paralysis, and death if consumed in a single dose of 50 mg or more. Nicotine is typically found in tobacco products such as cigarettes,...

Sport Psychology

The discipline of sport psychology is dedicated to the investigation of the relationship between psychological factors and exercise and sport. Sport scientists and sport psychologists use physical activity settings to examine issues of competition, performance enhancement, skill acquisition, children's development through sport, team interaction, and the maintenance of physical and mental health. In 1897 Triplett (1897) conducted what is considered to be the first sport psychology experiment....

Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy originated with the clinical work of Fritz Perls in the 1940s. Gestalt therapy sees emotional disturbance as largely caused by (1) a should attitude toward life (2) obsession with thinking rather than feeling and doing (3) refusing to live in the present and centering oneself in the past or future (4) trying to reform others instead of being oneself and accepting oneself as one is and (5) refusing to accept responsibility for one's own decisions. Some of the main Gestalt therapy...

Acquired Drives

One of the raging controversies in the history of psychology once centered on the aspect of the nature-nurture is sue, which asks whether motives are inborn or learned. Some psychologists, of whom William McDougall was the most important, took the instinctivist position that motives are inborn, unlearned, universal within species, and at least to a degree continuous between species. Other psychologists, for whom John B. Watson was the most important spokesman, argued that motives are acquired...

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Clinical Presentation

Although diseases similar to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been recognized for centuries under various rubrics, strict diagnostic criteria for conditions dominated by medically unexplained chronic fatigue were first proposed in 1988. Current diagnostic criteria were crafted in 1994 by an International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group as an attempt to standardize patient populations included in research studies. The International CFS Re search Case Definition requires the presence of...

Clinical Findings

Antisocials typically report a history of childhood behavior problems, such as fights with peers, conflicts with adults, lying, cheating, stealing, vandalism, fire setting, running away from home, and cruelty to animals or other children. As the antisocial youth achieves adult status, other problems develop that reflect a lack of age-appropriate responsibilities, such as uneven job performance, being unde-pendable, changing jobs frequently, and being fired. Criminal behavior, pathological...

Organization Figure Ground and the Gestaltist Argument

Wertheimer, W. K hler, and K. Koffka) the visual system responds directly to the stimulating energies'overall configuration (or Gestalt), not to a point-by-point analysis. In Figure 2, an example of E. Rubin's figure-ground phenomenon, only one region, the pedestal or the pair of faces, is figure and has a recognizable shape at any time, while the other is ground, extending behind the figure's edge. Laws of figure-ground organization therefore determine what...

Neuroanatomy of Shape Perception

The cortical loci responsible for shape analysis have also been studied using functional imaging. The critical design for such a study must ensure that shape analysis is isolated from feature processing and activation of semantic memory using a subtractive methodology (see Peterson, Fox, Sny-der, & Raichle, 1990). In studies where these conditions have been met, the cortical areas activated only during shape analysis are on the inferolateral surface of the brain near the junction of...

Marijuana

Marijuana smoking remains the most prevalent form of illicit drug use in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and some European countries. Cannabis is the generic name for the psychoactive substance(s) derived from the plants Cannabis sativa or indica. Marijuana (a mixture of flowering tops, leaves, and stems of the dried plant) and hashish (extracted resin from the flowering tops) are the most common forms of cannabis smoked to obtain psychoactive effects. Scientists have...

Self Control Strategies and Goals of Self Control

A self-control strategy refers to a family of techniques that an individual practices in a regular, systematic manner to influence cognitive and behavioral activity in a desired direction. Self-control techniques include behavioral self-control, hypnosis, biofeedback, meditation, and guided imagery, among others. These techniques utilize certain components, which can be analyzed and compared based on the following variables nature of cognitive statements and instructions, type of images used,...

Sullivans Interpersonal Theory

Interpersonal theory is a theory of interpersonal relations developed by Harry Stack Sullivan largely in the 1930s and 1940s. Sullivan emphasized the social aspects of human nature. He defined psychiatry, personality, and key assessment and treatment concepts in interpersonal terms. Performances, or interactions in the interpersonal field, are the means by which disturbances are formed, revealed, and treated. Sullivan also emphasized the crucial role of anxiety in personality formation and...

Diagnosis in Neuropsychology

One of the major questions facing neuropsychologists is the differentiation of brain damage from the major psychiatric disorders (Golden, 1983). The reason for the difficulty in differentiation lies in the fact that the range of psychiatric disorders is broad and involves elements of cognitive impairment commonly seen in brain injury. The area of diagnosis for the neuropsychologist includes three subareas. The first subarea involves the identification of the presence of a brain injury in which...

Culture And Intelligence Introduction

Today, the recognition among many within the academy of the interdependence of genetic and environmental influences on human intelligence has to some degree quieted the nature-nurture controversy about the genesis of intelligence. This essay focuses on two issues (1) the attributes of culture that have psychological relevance for understanding the meaning of intelligence and (2) the delineation of certain types of learning experiences within cultural niches as the mechanism by which...

Adopted Children Intra and Extrafamilial Adoption

A distinction is made between intrafamilially and extrafa-milially adopted children. In intrafamilial or kinship adop tion, children are adopted either by blood relatives or by family members by marriage, frequently a stepparent of the adopted child. Agenuine desire to adopt is, normally, not the primary motivating force in kinship adoptions, except when childless family members adopt. The classical intrafamilial adoption occurs (a) to protect children whose parents are not available to care...

Learning Outcomes I

The primary means of indicating that learning has occurred is to show that some newly appearing human performances are possible, when required by appropriate cir cumstances. The inferences that can be made from these changes in performance are to the effect that individuals have acquired some new entities in their long-term memory store entities not present before the learning occurred. The outcomes of learning, then, are neural states that persist over considerable periods of time, as shown by...

Direct Theories of Constancy

We now know that the classical explanation of the constancies is not the whole story, because animals with no prior visual experience nevertheless display adequate perceptual competence. The perceptual approaches known as Gestalt theory and direct theory, both strongly opposed to the classical view, hold that so long as the distal stimulus is invariant, some aspects of proximal stimulation will be invariant, in spite of changing size and luminance in the retinal image. This argument had been...

Negative View of the Personal World

The first component of the cognitive triad (Figure 1) is the tendency of the depressed individual to interpret ongoing experiences in a negative way. Interactions with the environment are often misinterpreted as representing some form of defeat or deprivation. Automatic reactions to problems or difficulties are likely to be thoughts such as I'm beaten, I'll never be able to do this, or I'm blocked no matter what I do. Any problem seems insoluble, and any delay in reaching a goal seems...

Dynamic Psychology

The term dynamic relates to forces acting on a system. These forces include ongoing processes within the system as well as those external to the system. In psychology, dynamics relates to the interplay among motivating or driving forces that acts as a determinant of an organism's behavior. Thus, the term reflects a concern with the specification of motives and principles of motivated functioning. The term is also frequently associated with particular theories that emphasize the interplay among...