Psychoneuroimmunology

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is the study of behavioral-neural-endocrine-immune system interactions. It emerged from the realization that the immune system does not operate autonomously, as had been assumed by those who conceptualized it as a closed system, driven by challenges from foreign substances (antigens), and regulated by soluble products produced and released by immune cells (e.g., lymphokines, cytokines, monokines). Although antigens do initiate immune responses, and cytokines (such as...

Reticular Activating System

The ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) is the collection of anatomical and neurochemical systems proposed to underlie cortical electroencephalographic signs of arousal and the correlated behavioral activities of alerting and attention. The concept of the ARAS was first formulated by Moruzzi and Magoun in 1949. Based on the effects of either stimulation or destruction of parts of the reticular formation of the brain stem, these authors concluded that a background of maintained activity...

Specific Hungers

A specific hunger is an increased preference (or craving) for a specific food or flavor at a particular time, such as during conditions of vitamin deficiency. It is distinguished from a consistent preference for a particular food or flavor, such as the fact that some people like jalapenos and others do not. It is also distinguished from pica, which is a preference for eating something apparently useless or harmful, such as clay. Specific hungers were first documented by Curt Richter (1943,...

Early Acquisition of Prosocial Behavior

During the second year of the child's life a number of behaviors such as comforting, sharing, and helping make their appearance and, with appreciation and reinforcement, develop into socially valued behaviors. These positive behaviors, being common, low-key, and undemanding, tend to go unremarked, posing as they do no problems for parents and teachers. From an early age little children become emotionally upset at the distress of others and offer them sympathy by word and deed. They often...

Suicidal Behavior Among Youth Epidemiology

Adolescent suicide completions and attempts are public health problems (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001). Although suicide is uncommon in childhood, it is the fourth leading cause of death in 10- to 14-year-olds and the third leading cause of death for adolescents ages 15-19 (www.cdc.gov). The suicide rate for young people has tripled since 1950, and among adolescents the rate has stabilized at 11 suicides per 100,000 (Goldsmith, Pellmar, Kleinman, & Bunney, 2002)....

Goals of Cross Cultural Psychology

Cross-cultural psychology is the study of culture's effects on human behavior. More formally, cross-cultural psychol ogy is the empirical study of members of various culture groups with identifiable experiences that lead to predictable and significant similarities and differences in behavior. People's experiences take place in various social contexts, and so the study of culture often includes analysis of the social contexts in which people find themselves. Social context has been notoriously...

Parasympathetic Nervous System

The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) is one of two branches of the autonomic nervous system, which controls the function of organs and glands in the body (called the efferent portion) and senses changes in these organ systems (the afferent portion). The other autonomic branch is called the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The neurons that comprise the efferent PNS arise from either the cranial nerves that exit from the brain stem and spinal cord, or from the sacral (i.e., lower) portion of...

Negative View of the Future

Depressed patients often show considerable preoccupation with thoughts about the future, and these ideations may occur in the form of pictorial fantasies or obsessive ruminations. Such thoughts have a negative cast and are usually an extension of the patient's view of the present state, often to the point that the patient sees no possibility for improvement. If patients regard themselves as currently deprived, immobilized, or rejected, then they are likely to visualize a future of continual...

Norming and Equating

Norming and equating procedures are used in developing test score reporting systems. Norming is part of test standardization and involves administering the examination to a representative sample of individuals, determining various levels of test performance, and translating raw test scores to a common metric. There are two scoring models linear and nonlinear transformations. Linear transformations change the mean and standard deviation of the raw test scores, but maintain all other aspects of...

Individualism

In common usage, individualism is defined as leading one's life in one's own way without regard for others. Individualism may be separated from individuality, which is the sum of the qualities that set one person apart from others. To individualize is to distinguish a person as different from others, whereas to individuate is to make a person individual or distinct. Individualism is also distinct from autonomy, which is the ability to understand what others expect in any given situation and...

Myelination

The functional unit of the nervous system, the neuron, is equipped with a specialized region for transmitting information called the axon. The speed at which a neuron can convey sensory information to the brain and motor information to the muscles is dependent upon two critical features of its axon its diameter and the presence of a myelin sheath. By increasing the diameter of an axon, a strategy used in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates, the conduction velocity of a...

Implications of the Demoralization Hypothesis for Training

The likelihood that all psychotherapeutic procedures are followed by essentially similar overall improvement rates should not be taken to imply that training of therapists is unnecessary. Therapeutic skill may be compared to musical talent Not everyone can be a virtuoso, but except for the few who are tone-deaf anyone can learn to play an instrument and improve with practice. Similarly, mastery of one or more procedures maintains the therapist's own sense of competence and thereby the patient's...

Origins of the Term Neuropsychology

Historically, the field of neuropsychology was derived not only from the discipline of psychology, but also from the various related disciplines within the traditional professions of medicine, education, and law (Meier, 1997). The term neuropsychology is a combination of the word neurology, which is defined as a branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and its disorders, and psychology, which is defined as the study of behavior or the mind (Finger, 1994). One of the first people to...

Other Considerations in Avoidance Learning

As revealed in the preceding example with lower organisms, avoidance learning is predicated on exposure to aver-sive stimulation that subsequently can be predicted by an exteroceptive cue or signal. Among humans, however, similar learning can be promoted without direct contact with an unpleasant situation. On one hand, an individual's behavior may adhere to the avoidance paradigm by observing the performance of other people. Avoiding interpersonal difficulties with a supervisor on the job, for...

Other Convulsants

Although the mechanism of action of these convulsants fits well with the hypothesized balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition in epilepsy-prone brain regions, it is less well understood how other important convulsants exert their effects. Cholera toxin is an activator of adenylate cyclase and may therefore trigger seizures by mimicking any of the many cellular actions of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, including reduction of K+ conductance and facilitation of transmitter release....

Other Small Sample Statistics

The t test and the analysis of variance F test procedures were explicitly designed for use with small samples, although they are valid for large samples as well. There are, however, many other statistical methods applicable to small samples, including primarily the nonparametric, or distribution-free, methods. These techniques were designed mainly for use with data that do not fit the definition of either ratio or interval levels of measurement but rather are either ordinal or nominal measures....

Overview

Until recently, Western psychologists assumed that their own psychologies were the only ones worthy of serious consideration, but this unfortunate attitude is changing rapidly. We will limit discussion here to four Asian psycholo-gies the Yogic and Buddhist psychologies of India and the Taoist and neo-Confucian systems of China. These also display significant commonalities and have therefore been referred to as aspects of the perennial wisdom, perennial psychology, or consciousness disciplines....

Overview and History

The DIS-IV is a fully structured interview designed to assess the presence or absence of major psychiatric disorders. It was crafted to be administered in a reliable and valid fashion by nonclinician interviewers. Computerized administration of the DIS-IV (C-DIS) is standard. Computerized administration may be interviewer-administered or self-administered. In both formats, the exact wording of all questions and probes are presented to the respondent in a standardized order on a computer screen,...

Oxytocin

Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and neuromodulator with a range of physiological and psychological effects related to reproduction and social behavior. Oxytocin is produced predominantly in the hypothalamus and oxytocin-containing nerve terminals project to the posterior pituitary for release into general circulation, where it acts as a hormone. Oxy-tocin plays important roles in regulating both the progression of labor and lactation. Oxytocin is the most potent uterotonic substance known, and...

Pain

More remains to be learned about both reception of pain from the body and the site of reception of pain in the brain. Free nerve endings appear to be receptors for skin pain. Pain functions as a warning of injury to the body. Some of these receptors send impulses into the CNS to form a two-neuron spinal-level reflex arc by way of impinging upon outgoing nerve cells to muscles. This can be seen for acute pain, for example, when the hand is withdrawn from scalding water (or following a pinprick)...

Pain Control

Hypnosis can play an important role in pain control. Hypnotic analgesia involves two distinct processes (1) Hypnosis can directly reduce pain at a sensory, physiological, or primary level and (2) expectational or placebolike effects can reduce pain because of the special context in which hypnosis is induced. Thus, there is only a modest correlation between the capacity for hypnosis and the capacity for pain control (and any other therapeutic intervention). This correlation is kept low by the...

Paradigm Shifts Over the Past Ten Years

Technology is accelerating very rapidly, thereby creating new paradigms faster than we can understand the present ones. New developments in the field of medicine include laser surgery, lasik surgery (eyes), laparoscopy, appendectomy, cholecystectomy (gallbladder), and many other advances. These are done either on an outpatient basis or a one-day hospitalization. In computer science, the Internet provides such features as the ability to buy and sell instantly, the use of e-mail, and access from...

Paradigms

Paradigms are rules or regulations that set boundaries and direct actions toward accomplishing a goal successfully (Barker, 1992, p. 32). Kuhn (1970), a scientific historian, focused the attention of the scientific world on paradigms he believed paradigms fit only the physical scientific world. Paradigms in action amount to a basic set of ideas or concepts that directs an individual's behavior, thereby setting parameters for the individual's standard way of working, or progressing toward a...

Parametric Statistical Tests

Parametric statistical tests, as opposed to nonparametric or distribution-free tests, are based on various assumptions regarding the characteristics, properties, and form of the distributions of populations from which the data are drawn. A large number of statistical tests are included among the parametric tests, primarily hypothesis-testing procedures derived from the general linear model. These include both univariate and multivariate statistical tests the t-test, uni-variate and multivariate...

Parent and Child Issues

Different forms of modeling have been widely used in programs for parent training. While there is no substitute for realistic practice in acquiring skills for child care, it is equally clear that observing effective models is essentially valuable to begin such practice. Most parent training is requested because of the child's so-called problems. Therefore, children are taught communication and self-control skills as well. Modeling also proves effective for this purpose, using either peers or...

Parents

The relationship of the parent to coping and adjustment in children also has been a recent target of study. A number of studies have evaluated the effects of parent presence versus absence on child coping during painful procedures. Most of these studies have shown that although children exhibit less overt distress when their parents are absent, they may be physiologically and psychologically disturbed by their parents' absence and merely inhibiting their behavioral reaction. Thus, rather than...

Partner Abuse

Partner abuse, often referred to as intimate partner violence, partner aggression, domestic violence, or spouse abuse, is a very broad term encompassing three diverse categories of abusive behaviors that occur within the context of intimate relationships physical, sexual, and psychological. Partner physical abuse includes behaviors ranging in severity from those that are unlikely to result in injury (e.g., pushing and grabbing) to those that are life threatening (e.g., choking, kicking, and...

Passive Observational Research Design

The second major classification of research designs is the passive observational type those that are not experimental and often involve intrinsic variables that cannot be applied and withheld, such as socioeconomic level, grade point average, and intelligence level. The passive observational studies can be categorized into four major types of research designs prediction and classification, sampling and survey, quantitative descriptive, and qualitative descriptive. These last two categories...

Pastoral Counseling

Pastoral counseling is a modern and psychologically sophisticated form of religious caring. Usually offered by a minister, priest, rabbi, chaplain, or other religious worker, pastoral counseling seeks to combine skilled counseling methods with an understanding and application of the moral guidelines and spiritual values of religion. In contrast to the term religious counseling, which is not limited to Christian pastors or to Western systems of belief, the term pastoral counseling usually is...

Pathological Gambling Disorder

Pathological Gambling Disorder was officially recognized as an impulse control disorder by the American Psychiatric Association in 1980 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition DSM-III ). DSM-III criteria include (1) preoccupation with gambling, (2) wagering larger amounts of money to experience excitement, (3) feelings of withdrawal when trying to control gambling, (4) gambling to escape problems, (5) chasing losses, (6) lying to others to conceal gambling...

Patient Adherence Adherence

Adherence is defined as the extent to which patients follow prescribed regimens (Haynes, Taylor, & Sackett, 1979). Adherence to prescribed treatment regimens supports health promotion (e.g., exercise and diet), treatment of disease, symptom management, and efficient health care delivery. The term adherence is used rather than compliance because its meaning is more consistent with views of patients as active participants in health care rather than passive recipients of services (e.g.,...

Patient Variables

There is little evidence that nonadherence varies with gender, socioeconomic, or ethnic factors (Dunbar-Jacob et al., 1995). Nonadherence is associated with education, cognitive ability, and age. Less educated patients tend to have lower health literacy (ability to understand basic medical and services information), leading to poor health outcomes and lower utilization of services (Gazmararian et al., 1999). Older adults' nonadherence is a critical problem because they are a growing segment of...

Pedophilia

Pedophilia (from the Greek, meaning love of children) is essentially characterized by a preference for repetitive sexual activity with children. Such activity may vary in intensity and includes stroking the child's hair, holding the child close while covertly masturbating, manipulating the child's genitals, encouraging the child to manipulate one's own, and, less frequently, attempting intromission. A youngster of any age up to puberty may be the object of pedophiliac attention, and force is...

Peer Counseling

Peer counseling is defined as the performance of limited counselor functions, under counselor supervision, by a person of approximately the same age as the counselee. The majority of peer counseling programs are conducted at the college level, although secondary and elementary schools are also involved. Community mental health agencies and penal systems have developed paraprofessional models using indigenous natural leaders and mediators in self-help programs for change. Peer counselors have...

Peer Influences

High-quality peer relationships are important for all aspects of the development and well-being of children and adolescents. Compared with interaction with adults, interactions with peers tend to be more frequent, more intense, and more varied throughout childhood and adolescence. Traditionally, however, the relationships between children and adults have been viewed as the most important vehicle for ensuring effective socialization and development. Child-child relationships have been assumed to...

Peer Tutoring

Any use of students to coach or tutor one another is usually called peer tutoring, although when their ages differ, the students are not really members of the same peer group. Comenius, the sixteenth-century Czech educator, observed what is a routine finding on peer tutoring today, that those doing the tutoring learn more than those who are tutored. The appeal of peer tutoring for modern educators lies in its effectiveness as a teaching learning method, rather than in its potential economies....

Peptide Chain Elongation

For catalyzing peptide chain elongation, the ribosome has three tRNAbinding sites the acceptor (A) site, the peptidyl (P) site, and the exit (E) site (Agrawal & Frank, 1999 Frank, 1997 Moore, 1997, 1998 Nyborg & Liljas, 1998). The ribosomal A-, P-, and E-sites are situated in the cavity between the large and small subunit interface, with the E-site positioned toward the L1 arm side of the large subunit, the A-site positioned toward the L7 L12 arm on the opposite side of the large subunit,...

Perceptions of Causality

Research on attribution processes stemming from conceptualizing by Heider, and on expectancies associated with achievement motivation, converge on the locus of control variable. Theories of achievement motivation and internal-external control share some common features. Accordingly, Weiner and associates have presented a systematic picture of how internals and externals perceive their performance. Internals tend to attribute their success or failure to their own characteristics ability and...

Perceptual Control Theory

Perceptual control theory is a name adopted by a group of scientists interested in the feedback-system organization of human and animal behavior to distinguish their work from the control theory field of servo engineers. The members are engaged in the development and application of the thesis advanced in W. T. Powers's (1973) book, Behavior The Control of Perception. While a majority of this group are psychologists, it also includes biologists, sociologists, systems engineers, mathematicians,...

Perceptual Development

The most active investigations about perceptual development focus on infants'visual and auditory capabilities. Researchers who study these topics have demonstrated impressive creativity and persistence in designing research techniques for assessing early abilities. Two representative methods are the following (1) the habituation dishabitua-tion method, in which infants decrease their attention to an object that has been presented many times, and then increase their attention when a new object...

Perceptual Rhythms

When one speaks of rhythm, one thinks immediately of music and poetry that is of the recurrence at equal intervals of one or several elements organized in unified structures. This simple description means that, in these cases, there is a perception of the order in the succession. The perception of rhythm leads us to ask two fundamental questions (1) What are the temporal limits in which succession is perceived and (2) What is the nature of structures that lend themselves to repetition

Perceptual Style

A perceptual style means that a person has a characteristic way of perceiving the world. The idea that people perceive the world in different and individual ways is an intriguing one. The uses of color and form by some modern painters in highly individual and somewhat distorted ways have been hypothesized to be based on possible visual defects, so that the artist is truly copying his or her own subjective experience into art. However, this is difficult to prove, as are other hypotheses. Is it...

Performance Appraisal

Judgments about the effectiveness of employees' job performance often must be based on subjective evaluations obtained from other individuals. Although these judgments can be made by any of a number of individuals on the job, the task of judging employees' performance is usually accomplished by their immediate supervisors. These evaluations serve a wide variety of functions. Performance evaluations can be used as criteria for validating selection systems. They are also used for determining...

Performance Criteria

The quality of any personnel evaluation system depends upon the extent to which the major dimensions of performance on the jobs to be evaluated have been identified. These dimensions must be relevant to successful and unsuccessful performance on the job. For example, if one were evaluating the performance of a bank teller, the dimensions of interpersonal interacting with customers, the ability to balance the drawer at the end of the day, and the ability to interact with the central computer...

Performance Measures

Once the criteria have been identified, the next task is to construct ways in which to measure them. Objective criteria, by their very nature, often have standards for their measurement. For subjective measures of performance, evaluation scales must be developed. To do so requires constructing scales that are reliable, valid, unbiased, and as free as possible from contamination. A wide variety of scaling procedures and practices exist for the construction of such scales. The perfect evaluation...

Permanence

Interference effects in principle can be due either to a potentially reversible lapse in performance (an expression failure) or an irreversible absence of information (i.e., failure to acquire information or loss after acquisition). Each of the three types of mechanisms could, in principle, yield reversible or irreversible interference. But the three types of mechanisms are commonly thought to diverge sharply in terms of the interference that they produce being reversible or irreversible. The...

Personal and Collective Unconscious

Analytical psychology understands the personal character of the associations yielded by the symptomatic (i.e., dissociated) images of the complex to provide evidence for a personal unconscious. Moreover, it understands the transpersonal character of those associations yielded by the symptomatic images that refer not to ego consciousness but to other images to provide evidence for a collective unconscious. The methodical unfolding of the transpersonal context of the associations at issue in the...

Personal Construct Theory

Personal Construct Theory (PCT) represents a coherent, comprehensive psychology of personality that has special relevance for psychotherapy. Originally drafted by the American psychologist George Kelly in 1955, PCT has been extended to a variety of domains, including organizational development, education, business and marketing, and cognitive science. However, its predominant focus remains on the study of individuals, families, and social groups, with particular emphasis on how people organize...

Personal History

It is important to have a basic understanding of the individual's history and development, family history (whether the person has relatives with a history of mental illness), intellectual functioning, personality characteristics, and environmental pressures and resources. For example, how does the person characteristically respond to other people Are there excesses in behavior present, such as eating or drinking too much Are there notable deficits, for example in social skills Does the person...

Personality

Transcendental meditation appears to have a positive effect on personality functioning and well-being. For example, Nystul and Garde (1977) found that individuals practicing TM for a mean of 3 years had significantly more positive self-concepts on the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale in terms of total positive, identity, self-satisfaction, personal self, and moral ethical self. TM has also been associated with increases in self-control, happiness, and self-actualization and decreases in...

Personality and Disturbance

REBT holds that because we are human, it is easy to learn to disturb ourselves and very hard to stop. Accordingly, REBT devotes considerable attention to the mechanisms by which disturbance is perpetuated. If thoughts are the cause of emotional upsets, then thinking is the means by which disturbance is perpetuated People disturb themselves and perpetuate their own misery through habitual internal verbalizations of irrational beliefs. Regardless of the origins of an irrational belief, it is...

Personality And Illness

Personality is an overarching construct used to identify the characteristics (e.g., traits, motives, interests, goals) that influence an individual's unique pattern of thinking, emoting, and behaving. Over the centuries physicians have observed an association between these personal characteristics and predispositions toward illness. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, in 404 b.c.e. concluded, There is no illness of the body apart from the mind. The ancient English physician Parry of Bath...

Personality Factors

Assessment needs to include a description of any relevant long-term personality characteristics. Has the person behaved in deviant or bizarre ways in particular situations for example, in circumstances requiring submission to legitimate authority Do there seem to be personality traits or behavior patterns that predispose the individual to behave in maladaptive ways across a broad range of situations Does the person tend to become dependent on others to the point of losing his or her identity Is...

Person Centered Therapy

Person-centered therapy was originated by Carl Rogers in the early 1940s. Although not practiced fully by many therapists today, it is incorporated in the theory and practice of a number of theorists and therapists. According to the Rogerian view, emotional disturbance largely arises from (1) people's acquiring a negative self-concept because others do not sufficiently accept them and provide them with suitable conditions of growth (2) people's refusing to directly and freely admit to...

Person Environment Match

Bodies of relevant research range from basic research on learning and social learning to applied research on teaching and schooling. Theoretical underpinnings are rooted in the paradigm of person-environment match or fit (D. E. Hunt & Sullivan, 1974 J. M. Hunt, 1961 Piaget, 1952 Vy-gotsky, Vygotsky, & John-Steiner, 1980). With respect to for mal school learning, the paradigm broadly proposes that the better the match, the more likely it is that instruction will lead to desired outcomes....

Personnel Assessment

Once the job characteristics have been assessed, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of individuals so as to match persons with jobs. The industrial-organizational psychologist must choose methods for assessing jobrelevant individual characteristics that (1) are appropriate for the characteristic being assessed, and (2) possess acceptable psychometric properties of reliability and validity. Since standardized tests of skills and abilities, aptitudes, and or interests often provide the...

Personnel Evaluation

Personnel evaluations are formalized practices that provide information about the job performance of employees. Evaluations serve two general purposes administrative and developmental. Administrative purposes are served to the extent that the evaluations are used to make personnel decisions about such things as salary increases, job assignments, promotions, and selection for training program participation. Developmental uses serve employees by providing feedback about their performance on the...

Perspective Taking Ability

Primarily through interaction with one's peers, egocen-trism is lost and increased perspective-taking ability is gained. Perspective taking is a critical competency for cognitive and social development. It has been related to the ability to present and comprehend information, constructively resolve conflicts, willingly disclose personal information, help group problem solving, and display positive attitudes toward others in the same situation. AH psychological development may be described as a...

Pharmacotherapy

SRIs (clomipramine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, flu-voxamine, and citalopram) are the most effective pharmacological treatment for OCD. These medications block the reuptake of serotonin, which is suspected to be related to OCD symptoms. On average, rates of improvement with adequate trials of SRIs (at least 12 weeks) range from 20 to 40 . However, response varies widely from patient to patient and side effects such as nausea, sleep disturbances, or decreased sex drive are common....

Phenylalanine Metabolism

Phenylalanine not used in protein synthesis is oxidized to tyrosine by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (Figure 1). This reaction requires a cofactor, tetrahydro-biopterin (BH4), which is synthesized de novo from guano-sine triphosphate. In the reaction, BH4 is converted to quinonoid dihydrobiopterin, which is reduced back to BH4 by dihydropteridine reductase. This recycling pathway serves the important function of maintaining the BH4 co-factor.

Philosophy of Mind

Otherwise known as the mind-body problem, the problematic nature of this field of inquiry is typically traced to Descartes's (in)famous articulation of substance dualism (though both Plato and Aristotle weighed in on the issue). Two broadly construed solutions have been proposed to the mind-body problem dualism and monism. Though the mind-body problem has changed significantly since Descartes's time, being construed now as the problem of consciousness, the various solutions to this problem...

Philosophy Of Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is often considered to be an applied science consisting of a compendium of techniques or approaches validated by empirical research. Alternately, it is viewed as an art form requiring a creative, intuitive, and individualistic approach to clients and their problems. However, psychotherapy can also be regarded as influenced in a fundamental way by broader, philosophical underpinnings that transcend its scientific, human engineering, or artistic dimensions. Examples of some of these...

Phonemes

Linguistic analyses have traditionally represented the form of speech in terms of phonemes. The word cat, for instance, can be represented by a sequence of three phonemes k , , and t . Changes in the phonemic construction of a word will result in a different word, or a nonsense word. For example, reordering the phonemes in cat can produce other words, such as act ( kt ) or tack ( tek ), whereas replacing the k with a p results in a new word, pat. Words like cat and pat that differ on the...

Phonemes in Speech Perception

It is clear that some aspects of the organization of speech sounds in perception correspond to phonemic categories. It is possible to create artificial continua using recorded speech or a speech synthesizer in which the extremes correspond to two typical phonemes. Typically adults will show categorical perception of these continua that is, they will find it difficult to discriminate between two sounds on a continuum that would be classed as the same phoneme, but relatively easy to discriminate...

Phonemes in Speech Production

There is greater agreement among psycholinguists about the role of the phoneme in speech production. Most current models assume that words are selected according to the conceptual requirements of the speaker, and then the phonemes making up that word are selected for articulation, possibly with reference to a store of known syllables. Originally, these models relied on data from speech errors in order to define the units involved in production. Errors are not common in natural speech, but when...

Phonetics

Phonetics, often defined as the scientific study of speech sounds, encompasses three primary areas of interest (1) speech sound production, (2) acoustic transmission of speech sounds, and (3) speech sound reception. The field of phonetics is interdisciplinary and draws upon the natural sciences (anatomy, physiology, physics), the social and behavioral sciences (psychology, sociology, anthropology, linguistics), and engineering. In turn, the principles of phonetics are applied in such diverse...

Photoreceptors

Photoreceptors are specialized receptors for translating the absorption of light into electrical signals, which are the language of the nervous system. Photoreceptors have reached the physical limits of light detection and can register the absorption of a single light quantum. On the other hand, our eye can adapt its sensitivity to light levels 109-fold higher. The interior surface of the vertebrate eye is covered by the retina, which is part of the central nervous system. It harbors the...

Phototransduction

The ion channels in the outer segment are opened by intra-cellular messenger molecules, cyclic guanosine-monophos-phate (cGMP Yau & Baylor, 1989 Finn, Grunwald, & Yau, 1996). In the dark, the cGMP concentration in the outer segment is high, channels open, and Na+ and Ca2+ ions enter the cell through these open channels, thereby adjusting the membrane voltage to around -35 mV. At this membrane voltage, the photoreceptor releases transmitter molecules at its synapse. The retinal neurons...

Phrenology

Phrenology, now an outmoded theory of personality, originated with the speculations of the physician-anatomist Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828). Intrigued by a personal inference that individuals with bulging or prominent eyes had good memories, Gall began to look for personality correlates of other features such as broad foreheads, prominent jaws, and so on. Ultimately, he focused his attention primarily on the brain and skull and founded what he called the new science of craniology. Knowledge of...

Phylogenetic Trees and Phylogenetic Scales

Darwin recognized that the evolutionary process was one of constant diversification. Therefore, evolution can be likened to an enormously elaborated branching tree, with living species represented by the tips of the branches, while the remainder of the tree represents extinct species. In no sense has evolution been an orderly process that produces organisms of increasing subtlety and complexity, culminating in humans. Comparative psychology, therefore, has the virtue of illuminating human...

Physical Neglect

Failure to meet basic food, rest, and shelter needs is physical neglect, the most commonly reported form of neglect. If an infant grows very slowly, that can be failure to thrive. Slightly older children (aged 2-10) may suffer deprivation dwarfism They are unusually short because too much stress (especially when it occurs at night, when most growth occurs) slows down their growth. Children also need ample sleep, not only for growth but also for brain maturation and intellectual alertness....

Physical Performance

Sport and other body coordination skills are widely taught using some form of demonstration by peers, coaches, and experts. Physical therapists also use modeling as the major component in rehabilitation through therapeutic exercises. The commercial video market is replete with examples, usually by experts, for the development of individual skills (golf, tennis, aerobics, skiing, etc.). Participants in team sports watch videotapes of opponents, not just to find weaknesses, but to seek out and...

Physiological Psychology Nonreductionism

Any serious consideration of a nonreductionist approach to physiological psychology calls for a prefatory definition in an effort to achieve a thorough comprehension of the pivotal term reductionism. The order ranges from physics, the simplest, to sociology, the most complex (Figure 1). The reductionist believes that all the diverse forms of nature are continuous and result from different combinations of the same basic elements. Reductionists conclude that the ultimate nature of the universe is...

Physiology of Dopamine Systems

Dopamine neuronal activity is regulated by a variety of neurotransmitters in the ventral midbrain. The neurons themselves are what one might call leaky and will initiate spontaneous action potentials in addition to being driven by various inputs. In general, the activity of dopamine neurons responds to changes in an organism's environment. A novel stimulus activates dopamine cells regardless of whether the stimulus is of positive (e.g., reward) or negative (e.g., stress) valence to the...

Piagets Theory

Over the course of 60 years, Jean Piaget (1896-1980), a Swiss biologist and philosopher, formulated a theory of the development of intellectual competence that continues to influence contemporary theories in that field. Piaget maintained that logical thought depended on learning, social cooperation, biological maturation, and development, by which he meant a series of fundamental changes such that the later ways of thinking are dependent upon, yet qualitatively distinct from, the earlier ones,...

Picks Disease

Pick's disease was first described by Arnold Pick in 1892 to describe non-Alzheimer's neuropathological changes in an individual with left anterior temporal atrophy and spared frontal lobes. It is a relatively rare and possibly heritable progressive neurodegenerative disorder appearing 10 to 20 as often as Alzheimer's disease. Duration of the disease from diagnosis to death is 5 to 10 years (Tissot, Constanti-nidis, & Richard, 1985). The disease typically affects individuals between the ages...

Pituitary

The name pituitary was applied to the small gland beneath the brain's hypothalamus in the early seventeenth century because of the mistaken notion that the structure made phlegm hence the name pituitary, which literally means snot gland. Hypophysis is a less colorful name for the pituitary. For descriptive, embryological, and functional reasons, the pituitary is divided into two lobes the anterior lobe or adenohypophysis and the posterior lobe or neurohypoph-ysis. The structure is connected to...

Planned Shortterm Psychotherapy

Although occasional references to short-term psychotherapy appeared prior to the inauguration of the community mental health movement in the early 1960s, serious examination of brief psychotherapies began at the same time that mental health professionals recognized the importance of serving the mental health needs of the entire community. Time-limited psychotherapy was thought to be a strategy that had the potential for helping greater numbers of clients in the community. The literature on...

Plastic Changes in the Representation of Fingers

After extensive training to use three fingers together, there emerged in area 3b of owl monkey neurons with multidigit receptive fields, which were never seen in untrained animals (Wang, Merzenich, Sameshima, & Jenkins, 1995). Blind persons who use three fingers together to read Braille frequently misperceive which of the fingers actually touches the text. In these subjects an expansion and dislocation of SI hand representation was found by magnetic source imaging technique (Sterr et al.,...

Play

Play is variously regarded as a cobweb, an omnibus term, or even a category not useful for psychology. This is probably so because play manifests itself in so many forms that it is difficult to find a commonality of structure or function in all these activities. There are two main approaches to an understanding of play, and these are distinguishable in its motivation and goal. In the more commonly held view, play is an exotelic activity and a rehearsal for the acquisition of greater competence....

Playfulness

Probably a better approach to the study of play is to avoid the term altogether and to posit that playfulness, together with workfulness, is a condition existing in all acts, whether jobs, games, or schooling. Playfulness is that portion of the activity that is intrinsically rewarding (autotelic) and workfulness is the exotelic portion. Over time and repetition predictability sets in, playfulness ebbs, and activities lose their autotelicity and become workful. Day has taken this approach and...

Postcolonial

In the Western world since about 1945, the belief has begun to emerge that undue stress on independence, change, and competition has contributed to massive alienation, anomie, and even morbidity rates. One response has been a trend toward the reinterpretation of dependency, as seen in a variety of recent developments. Carl Rogers, through his work on group dynamics, has encouraged a variety of lay and professional approaches that stress dependency interaction. More recently, networking has...

Postmodernism

Postmodern themes were discussed within architecture, literary criticism, and sociology in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s. French philosophers addressed post-modernity during the 1970s. Jean-Francois Lyotard has analyzed the status of knowledge in a postmodern age, in particular with respect to legitimation Michael Foucault has addressed the webs of power and knowledge in historical studies Jean Baudrillard focused on fascination, seduction, and the media's creating of a hyperreality...

Posttranscriptional RNA Modifications

Each subunit undergoes posttranscriptional modifications involving at least two mechanisms. One of these is the alternative splicing of mRNA. The resulting splice variants called flip (i) and flop (o) result from the splicing out of one of two possible modules within the mRNA. Flip and flop splice variants are responsible for significant structural and functional channel variation on the extracellular side of the membrane preceding TM4 (Figure 1). They are of vital importance in determining the...

Posttranslational Protein Modifications

AMPA ion channels undergo phosphorylation, which may affect synaptic plasticity and is tightly regulated by phos-phokinases such as PKA, PKC, CaMKII, and others. Phosphorylation generally potentiates AMPA receptor activation, with evidence that it occurs by keeping the channel open longer or more often. AMPA receptors also contain 4 to 6 N-glycosylation sites that influence binding of ligands to the receptor pocket, with effects that depend on the type of ligand and the subunit's flip flop...

Power Strategies And Tactics Introduction

Power refers to the ability to make decisions that have an important impact and that involve others (Greenberg & Baron, 2000 McClelland, 1975 Winter, 1973). Often, power involves controlling the behavior of others, although many times other people voluntarily accept the directives of power holders and do not feel any loss of independence. In everyday language, power refers to getting one's way and having clout. Many people are socialized to distrust power, to feel that only evil and...

Preface

It seems like only a few short months since we co-edited The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. We have now compiled the materials for the Concise edition of these volumes. In this edition, we have asked previous authors to update their material to reflect the most recent ideas and research findings on their topics. This edition also contains new entries because the fields of psychology and neuroscience continue to flourish. Although each entry is shorter than those of...

Prejudice And Discrimination

Although often employed interchangeably by lay persons and the media, the terms prejudice and discrimination possess distinct meanings for most social scientists. The former denotes the possession of negative attitudes of a particular kind regarding members of a specific group or category the latter is the term applied to the negative actions that result from prejudicial attitudes and that are directed against the targets or victims of prejudice. Someone who is prejudiced may, in certain...

Preoperational Stage

This stage has often been characterized primarily by what the child cannot do. Thought seems rigidly captured by one aspect of a situation, often the child's own point of view (ego-centrism), to the exclusion of other perspectives. Thought, besides being centered on a single salient feature of an event, seems to flow in sequences of simple juxtaposition rather than sequences of logical implication or physical causality. Children's reasons for their responses are often preposterous fabrications,...

Prevalence

Prevalence rate has been likened to a snapshot insofar as it describes the health of a group within a specified time in terval. This interval can either be an instance in time, most typically a day (point prevalence), or an interval of months, years, or even decades (period prevalence). The time interval need not be a point or period in calendar time but can refer to an event or events that happen to different individuals at different periods in calendar time. Within the designated time period,...

Prevalence and Course

The prevalence of OCD is about 2 to 3 in the adult population and 1 to 2 in children. Although it may begin as early as the preschool years, the average age of onset is in the late teens to early twenties. Males tend to develop OCD at a younger age than females. Although the severity of obsessions and compulsions may wax and wane depending on the amount of general life stress, OCD is a persistent condition with a low rate of spontaneous remission. Without effective treatment, a chronic and...

Prevalence and Prognosis

Community-based epi-demiological studies suggest that at any given time approximately 10 of women and 5 of men suffer from fatigue of greater than 6 months' duration. However, because CFS requires severe, medically unexplained fatigue that is not resolved by rest, cannot be explained by medical or psychiatric illness, and is accompanied by specific symptoms, CFS itself is far less common. Prevalence rates vary significantly across studies, probably as a result of...

Prevention

Prevention of addiction has taken many forms, including broad-brush prevention programs in schools prevention targeted at specific populations, such as pregnant women and environmentally focused interventions that change laws and policies, decrease access to the substance, and increase penalties. Individually and environmentally focused interventions have been successful in preventing or delaying the onset of use, decreasing use among those already using, and decreasing harmful consequences to...

Prevention and Treatment

Results of future behavioral and molecular genetic studies are likely to facilitate the development and application of effective primary prevention and early intervention techniques that would be impossible without understanding of the etiology of the disorder. For example, if a screening revealed that an infant had significant genetic susceptibility to reading difficulties, tutoring could be implemented to improve important reading-related language processes before the child even began to...

Prevention of ASP

Preventive measures should focus on teaching children how to recognize and reject bad behavior, how to make accept able judgments between right and wrong, and how to connect actions with consequences. Parents of troubled children may need special training to show them how to identify and correct misbehavior as it occurs and how to steer their children away from negative influences like delinquent peers. Antiviolence programs such as those offered in some public schools may help children find...

Prevention Of Mental Disorders

The twentieth century witnessed major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. However, concerted work on prevention is just beginning as we enter the twenty-first century. In response to growing awareness of the need for prevention, Congress recently charged the In stitute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders. In their report (Mrazek & Haggerty, 1994), the IOM Committee proposed that, in order to reduce the indiscriminate use of this...

Preventive Interventions for Mental Disorders

The IOM Report identified three levels of preventive interventions. Universal preventive interventions target an entire population group (e.g., childhood immunizations). Selective preventive interventions target high-risk groups within a community (e.g., home visitation for low-birth-weight children). Risk status is determined on the basis of biological, psychological, or social factors known to be associated with the onset of a disorder, rather than individual risk profiles. Indicated...

Primary Mental Abilities

One of the earliest accomplishments of the science of psychology was the objective measurement of mental abilities. In 1904, the British psychologist Charles Spearman argued that intelligence could be characterized as being composed of a general factor (g) common to all meaningful activity and of specific factors (s) that are unique to the different tasks used to measure intelligence. Test instruments that applied the concept of general intelligence were introduced by Binet and Simon in France...

Primary Motor Cortex And Primary Somatic Sensory Cortex

The primary motor cortex and the primary somatic sensory cortex represent two principal components of sensory motor integration implemented in the brain. The fundamental function of motor cortex is to control voluntary move ments, whereas somatic sensory cortex receives and analyzes tactile, joint, and muscle sensory inputs, sometimes in relation to voluntary movement. From classical perspectives, motor cortex functions as the final cortical output for already processed movement commands,...

Primary Somatic Sensory Cortex

The primary somatic sensory cortex receives detailed sensory information about the skin, muscle, and joints that becomes segregated into anatomically distinguishable subdivisions that separately process sensation related to skin surface deformations or deep joint and muscle sensations. Each subzone has a complete homuncular representation of the body surface with little overlap among circuits processing somatic sensory input from nearby body parts. Somatic sensory cortex has a columnar...