Sensorimotor Transformations In Spatial Orientation Relative To Gravity

Spatial Processing during Mental Imagery A Neurofunctional Theory 1 Stephen Kosslyn, Jennifer Shephard and William Thompson The Role of Imagery in Navigation Neuropsychological Evidence 17 Cecilia Guariglia and Luigi Pizzamiglio Functional Equivalence of Spatial Images Produced by Perception Jack Loomis, Roberta Klatzky, Marios Avraamides, Yvonne Lippa and Reginald Golledge Spatial Processing and View-dependent Representations 49 Modeling Mental Spatial Knowledge Processing 67 Optic Ataxia A...

Functional connectivity between brain areas

The preceding reviewed studies have highlighted the anatomical structures involved in mental rotation. Some areas are more involved in specific mental rotation processes than others, reflecting the relative specialization of cortical regions for specific mental rotation processes. A major problem of the papers referred to is that they have mostly used the so-called voxel-based analysis method to compare cortical activations obtained in different experimental conditions. Although this method is...

Associative Memories

Associative memory receives input from all of the modality-specific mechanisms that allow us to recognize objects. For example, we can recognize a dog by seeing it, hearing its bark, or petting its fur and once we recognize it, using different what systems, we can identify it, using long-term associative memory. Outputs from the ventral and dorsal pathways converge in long-term associative memory. The mere fact that you can picture where certain items are in your kitchen cabinets is evidence...

Juvenile rats rely on olfactory cues to calibrate and develop an abstract spatial framework

To assess when and how spatial abilities based on distant visuo-spatial cues emerge during ontogeny, we used a homing task in which the rats were trained to reach their home cage via an escape hole at a fixed spatial position in a large circular open field (diameter 160 cm). Like the Morris watermaze this is a place learning task, but the rats are free to walk, not forced to swim. Eighteen or fifteen identical holes, equally covered by a small plastic disk easily removed by rats, are regularly...

Design of Representation Structures for Working Memory Representations

As described above, spatio-analogical representations in working memory (WM) can be either spatial or visual, where the spatial representation is assumed to be constructed first during a reasoning task and may be further processed towards a visual mental image. From the perspective of cognitive economy (Collins and Quillian, 1969), however, it is sensible to assume that a mental representation is only made as specific as necessary with respect to the task to be performed on. Thus, a visual...

Mental Spatial Knowledge Processing

Being an indispensable precondition of any goal-directed behavior of intelligent species in an environment, spatial knowledge processing has received intense attention in cognitive science. Spatial skills rely on mental facilities that go far beyond abstract symbol manipulation (e.g., Huttenlocher, 1968). Mental spatial reasoning capabilities are directly intertwined with perceptual and motor systems (e.g., Barsalou, 1999). Thus, research results in spatial cognition have helped to develop a...

Connections Of The Parietal Cortex

The parietal cortex is part of the well-known dorsal information stream. However, the precise structural connectivity of the human parietal cortex is largely unknown. The reason for this apparent lack of knowledge is that axonal tracing techniques cannot be applied in the human brain. Although modern magnetic diffusion tensor imaging techniques are advancing these techniques they are still not powerful enough to demonstrate the anatomic connectivity at the required level of spatial resolution....

Gross Anatomical Subdivision

The parietal lobe is one of the core regions for spatial processing. This area has undergone a major expansion during human evolution and occupies approximately one fourth of the human brain. It is the region of the cerebral cortex located between the frontal and occipital lobes. On the medial surface this region is roughly demarcated anteriorly by the central sulcus, ventrally by the subparietal sulcus, and posteriorly by the parieto-occipital sulcus. On the lateral surface the parietal lobe...

The frontal cortex

While all brain imaging studies are more or less consistent in the reported involvement of the parietal lobe in mental rotation processes, reports of frontal area involvement are highly inconsistent. Several studies report activations in premotor areas, however, within different subareas. For example, Thomsen et al. (2000) found bilateral activations in ventral regions, while others reported activations in more dorsal parts of the premotor cortex (Cohen et al., 1996 Gauthier et al., 2002 Jordan...

Lesion Studies In An Era Of Brain Imaging

In a recent issue of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Anjan Chatterjee noted that, As an example of the present-day peculiarities of conducting lesion studies, in a competitive renewal of a National Institutes of Health grant investigating unilateral spatial neglect, I was asked by a primary reviewer from a cognitive neuroscience study section to 'justify the use of patients to study the topic in question' (p. 849). The implication is that studying cognitive problems in patients with...

Functions Controlled By The Parietal Cortex

Many psychological functions are related to the parietal cortex. Some of them are presented and discussed in this book. In this paragraph I would like to summarize these functions in a broader context. The parietal cortex can be subdivided on a functional basis in at least two parts, the anterior and posterior parietal cortex. The anterior parietal cortex is covered by the postcentral gyrus (Brodmann areas 1, 2, and 3) and the parietal operculum (area subparietalis). Figure 9-4. Schematic...

Of Spatial Cognition And Mental Rotation

Spatial cognition may be defined as the ability to generate, retain, retrieve, and transform well-structured visual images. Spatial ability occupies a pivotal role in all models of human ability. For example, most models of human ability state that together with verbal ability spatial cognition captures more variance than any other dimensions in large, representative batteries of ability tests (Thurstone, 1938). Spatial ability has been measured with various tests such as form boards, block...

The Ventral And Dorsal Systems

Patterns of activity in the visual buffer provide input to two major systems. The ventral system is a set of brain regions running from the occipital lobe through the inferior temporal lobe. The ventral system encodes object properties, such as shape, color, and texture. Some cells in these areas are so highly tuned that they respond to very specific stimuli, such as faces seen in profile. Higher cells in the system (i.e., those further down the processing pathway) have very large receptive...

References

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