Materials and Methods

After approval had been given by the university's Commission for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 84 Achilles tendons of 42 New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to four treatment protocols Group I 1000 shock wave impulses of an energy flux density of 0.08mJ mm2 (low energy) Group II 1000 shock wave impulses of an energy flux density of 0.28 mJ mm2 (medium energy) Group III 1000 shock wave impulses of an energy flux density of 0.60mJ mm2 (high energy) Group IV Sham shock wave therapy...

Introduction

The central event in bone repair is the formation of a fracture exudate. This exudate not only contains constituents in common with the wound exudate, such as migrating cells and sprouting vessels, but also bone morpho-genetic signal substances and growth factors from the traumatized bone and its primary response, which stimulate different osteopro-genitor cells. Size, duration, and biochemical activity of this exudate are decisive for the rate and success of healing, providing that established...

Method of Treatment

High-energy ESWT was performed using an experimental device (Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany), characterized by the integration of an electromagnetic shock wave generator in a mobile fluoroscopy unit. Once the calcium deposit was situated in the center of the C-arm (Fig. 7.4a), the shock wave unit was docked to the shoulder by means of a water-filled cylinder. Standard ultrasound gel was used as a contact medium between cylinder and skin (Fig. 4b). Three thousand impulses of 0.60mJ mm2 were...

Shock Wave Applications in Musculoskeletal Disorders

Associate Professor Department of Orthopedics Johannes Gutenberg University School of Medicine Mainz, Germany Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available from the publisher Important Note Medicine is an ever-changing science undergoing continual development. Research and clinical experience are continually expanding our knowledge, in particular our knowledge of proper treatment and drug therapy. Insofar as this book mentions any dosage or application, readers may rest...

Shock Wave Generation

Musculoskeletal Disorder

Extracorporeal shock waves used in medicine today are emitted as a result of electromagnetic, piezoelectric, or electrohydraulic generation. All studies presented in this book were done using a source of electromagnetic shock waves. Electromagnetic systems utilize an electromagnetic coil and an opposing metal membrane. A high current impulse is released through the coil to generate a strong magnetic field, which induces a high current in the opposing membrane, accelerating the metal membrane...