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Parenting Teens Special Report

Parenting Teens Special Report

Top Parenting Teenagers Tips. Everyone warns us about the terrible twos, but a toddler does not match the strife caused once children hit the terrible teens. Your precious children change from idolizing your every move to leaving you in the dust.

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Smart Parenting Guide

This ebook from Daniel Dwase gives you the very best tips and information about how to raise your children in such a way as to get smart, responsible, caring, and loving children. If you have problems disciplining your children, this is the book for you. You don't have to be concerned about your children running amok; Dwase gives you the insight that you need to make sure that your children turn out well in the end. This ebook lets you give your child the best gift that you ever could: a loving, nurturing, healthy and loving childhood. By building a quality relationship with them, you will be able to raise a child that continues that relationship into adulthood. Building a quality relationship is the best way to give your child a healthy future and a loving family. You will both empower your child to succeed and reduces behavioral problems Start building your child's future today!

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Meaning of parenthood

Previous research on 'meaning of parenthood' has fallen into two categories For the majority of adults there is an expectation and desire to produce children (Edelmann, Humphrey and Owens 1994). Research has suggested that 'meaning of parenthood' is a complex and individual concept with core components (Raphael-Leff 1991) variously identified as biological, psychological, sociological, emotional, interpersonal and socio-cultural societal. A helpful review ofthe research in this area has been carried out by Netherwood (1998). Researchers have also sought to understand the continuing attraction of parenthood. Callan's Australian research (1982, 1983) suggests this maybe because virtually all societies are essentially pronatalistic, praising the virtues of parenthood and encouraging reproduction. In British culture, for example, research has shown that there is such a societal expectation to reproduce that those (in particular, women) who either voluntarily or involuntarily do not do so...

Society For Research In Child Development

The Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) was established in 1933 as a professional organization to promote research on child development. The goal of the SRCD is to advocate for research in all relevant disciplines, including research that crosses disciplinary lines and research that is basic as well as applied. Currently, there are over 5,500 members who come primarily from psychology and human development disciplines but also from fields such as anthropology, history, sociology, biology, and neuroscience and professions such as pediatrics, child psychiatry, nursing, education, public health, and law. The SRCD was the outcome of the Committee on Child Development established by the National Research Council, the research arm of the National Academy of Sciences, in 1922. The goal was to find ways to promote research on children and families, which was generally lacking in American society at the time. The well-known experimental psychologist Robert S. Woodworth served as...

Benefits of Authoritative Parenting

Diana Baumrind's research of more than 30 years supported the benefits of a rational approach to parenting that fostered child development through an artful balance of control and responsiveness. Baumrind (1967, 1971) initially articulated three parental styles of handling authority as authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Later, she added a fourth category called rejecting-neglecting, or parents who were unengaged. In cluster and factor analyses, Baumrind (1989) identified demandingness and responsiveness as the two major modalities in the parenting process. Demandingness correlates with parental attributes that provide appropriate direction and control. Demanding parents can be confron-tive even if such a position results in open conflict. Confrontation is contrasted with coercive approaches that de- mand power without reason. Confrontation of the problem behavior (versus intimidating the child) can result in resolution and negotiation of conflict, which enhances the child's...

My path to parenthood

We began our journey to parenthood by locating and enlisting with a state-sponsored adoption agency and attending a 'Pathways to Parenthood' adoption orientation class. Classes were followed by a series of state-required meetings with social workers, including visits to our home. Meanwhile, we created a 'parent profile' and 'birthmother letter' - two documents introducing us as potential parents for a child, which the agency would share with women who approached them about placing an unborn child for adoption. Eventually we received a call from our social worker telling us that a birthmother was interested in meeting us.

Single Parenthood

Single parenthood results when a parent divorces (57 ), a child's parents are not married (33 ), or a parent becomes widowed (6 Rawlings & Saluter, 1995). The number of single-parent families in the United States increased from 9 of the general population in 1960 to 28 in 1990 and is expected to increase in relation to two-parent families into the twenty-first century (Rawlings & Saluter, 1995). Research on single parenthood has tended to focus on the impact on children and the impact on parents.

Child Psychology

Child psychology deals with the personality and behavior of children, typically from conception to puberty. In the past child psychology has referred to both normal and abnormal behavior, to both theory and research, and also to the psychotherapy or counseling of disturbed children. Current usage, however, limits the term to a branch of the science of developmental psychology, specifying child clinical when referring to the professional practice of child psychology.

International Adoption

Legalized abortion, a decrease in the number of adoptable Caucasian children, social acceptance of single parenthood, and financial support from the government have caused the number of adoptable children in the United States to drop significantly, reportedly by 30,000 in 20 years. Consequently, many couples, especially Caucasian ones, looked for children abroad, including in Asian countries. Most prevalent among foreign adoptees were Korean, Romanian, and Russian children.

Study design and setting

The main exposure was exclusive breastfeeding and its duration. The question on breastfeeding was ,,Was your child breastfed. If the answer was yes the further question was For how long was your child exclusively breastfed. The categories offered to answer this question were for not more than 2 months, 3 to 5 months, 6 to 12 months and for more than a year.

Implications for Research and Practice

The conclusions that we draw from research may also suffer due to a failure to contextualize our research questions and our findings. As an example, many studies of child development classify families on the basis of single- or dual-parents in the household. This unidimensional characterization fails to consider the larger context in which the families function, the nature and quality of any partner relationship that the parent(s) may have, the nature and quality of the adult-child relationships that exist for a particular child, and the multiplicity of factors that impact a child's development.

Issues In Developmental Psychology

The contrasting views of the child as an active agent or a recipient remain a salient issue in child psychology. The relative influence of environmental factors, contrasted with genetic predispositions, is also an important dimension to child psychologists. Finally, child psychologists differ in the importance they place on stages in development While some theorists perceive development as proceeding by dis

The ABC of hidden colours

We can get a helpful insight by considering a parallel situation in language. In many cases, if you remove a word from a sentence, the sentence will become grammatically incorrect and meaningless. As with many mutations, you end up with a mess. But there are some words that can always be removed without such ill-effects. Take the word please. Parents spend many hours indoctrinating children to say please. 'I want more juice' . . . 'What's the magic word, dear ' 'I want more juice please.' Both of these child's requests make perfect grammatical sense it is just that one is considered rude and the other polite. The word please has a particular type of role it provides a way of distinguishing between polite and rude sentences, rather than being essential for their grammatical structure. It is an arbitrary convention that requests are impolite unless they include the word please. We might say that without please, rudeness is assumed by default. The notion of a default allows us to see how...

Icsi And Male Fertility

We need not wait until the discussion or application of this idea becomes commonplace, as many have already lamented the ways in which new reproductive technologies have obliterated the sanctity of fatherhood. For example, reactions to single women and lesbians choosing donor insemination (DI) to rear and raise children without men illustrates the supposed incredible threat that these families pose to fatherhood and masculinity (this is explored in chapter 3). In his scientific textbook, Reproductive Tissue Banking Scientific Principles, Armand Karow suggests These technologies have caused Americans and many other people to ponder anew concepts of fatherhood, motherhood and childhood. Is it acceptable for a single woman, even a lesbian, to become pregnant with donor semen in order that she will not have to share parenthood with a man . . . Should offending science be prohibited in the laboratory Will these technologies explode into social catastrophe Society evolves and matures in its...

Multibonding and Health

Child Development Relatively few studies of child development in the context of multi-bonding, regardless of its form, are available. Despite extensive theorizing about the negative impact of a polygamous family structure on the behavioral, emotional, and academic adjustment of children (Elbedour, Onwuegbuzie, Caridine, and Abu-Saad, 2002), we actually have very little empirical data related to these questions. Researchers have hypothesized that polygyny represents a male reproductive strategy that permits men to maximize the number of children, while minimizing their investment in each child (White, 1988). As a result, various investigations have been conducted in an attempt to discern differences in child development as a function of the marital structure of the family.

Some recent contributions to evolutionary theory particularly relevant for the study of behavior

Fitness, in the Darwinian sense of reproductive success, implies that genes guide the creation of a phenotype that is designed to ensure their propagation into future generations. The genes of any individual occur not only in its offspring, however, but also in siblings and, with decreasing probability, the offspring of siblings, cousins, the offspring of cousins, and so forth. The concept of fitness therefore can be expanded to include descendants of near relatives, appropriately devalued as the relationship becomes more distant and the probability of having shared genes decreases.12 This augmented count of shared genes in relatives is called inclusive fitness. To put some numbers on the probabilities half of your genes are passed to your children on average you share half of your genes with a full brother or sister and a quarter of your genes will be present in your siblings' children or your own grandchildren. Thus, in general, natural selection...

Alignment with Other Ontologies

One can use coarse-grained methods for comparing ontologies in terms of distance, while paying lip-service to the term-matching problem. Research on ontology induction for biology has followed such an approach in comparing system-generated ontologies with human ones. For example, 52 limited the terms to those in the reference ontology, comparing relations closed among those terms in each of the ontologies. Their relation precision measures the proportion of relations a distance D1 apart in one ontology that are at most a distance D2 apart in the other, subject to a variety of constraints (e.g., the direction and type of the links being the same, similar, different, etc.) The disadvantage of such distance-based measures is their over-sensitivity to small changes in node ordering also, the 'conceptual' salience of particular nodes is not taken into account. In related work, 41 measures the percentage of times terms in a parent-child relationship appear in an immediate or transitive...

Significance of Friendships

Friendships play an important role in development and adjustment in several ways. One reason is that they are egalitarian in nature. Whereas parents ultimately have more power in parent-child relationships, friends are on equal footing. Accordingly, what friends do together or how they behave toward each other is more open to negotiation. As a result, children obtain valuable experience in learning how to express their own wishes and compromise with another person in a way that they can't learn by interacting with a parent or other authority figure. In addition, friendships provide a ready venue for communicating information about peer norms and values, as well as about taboo topics such as sex. These contrasts between friendships and parent-child relationships do not mean that friends and parents are opposing social influences. Contrary to some depictions in the popular media, friends and parents more commonly have similar influences on children and adolescents. Typically children...

Classifying things in different categories

People who study child development often refer to the child's calling a cat dog as overgeneralization, as opposed to correct generalization. These people seem to be assuming that two different processes are involved, but actually there is only one. To be sure, we have to teach children to use the same words as everyone else in order to communicate with others, but they are not making a mistake when they use a word they already know to refer to something similar that we happen to call by some other name. They are engaging in the all-important process of generalization, which is a cornerstone of human thinking.

Pathways to Nonmonotonic Change

We tested the reality of this transfer of concrete schema process in a virtual reality-based scenario for teaching children that the Earth is round (Johnson et al., 1999, 2001 Ohlsson et al., 2000). We created a virtual planet that was small enough so the consequences of sphericality were immediately perceivable. For example, even minor

Types of Treatment with Radioactive Iodine

Radioactive iodine (RAI) cannot be given to a pregnant woman or one who is breastfeeding. If RAI is given to a pregnant woman, it will be taken into her fetus, destroying its thyroid gland and exposing it to unwanted radiation. Likewise, if RAI is given to a woman who is breast-feeding, it will get into her breast milk. If you're breast-feeding, it will take nearly two months for your breast milk to be sufficiently clear of RAI to be considered safe for your child, making it unreasonable to give you radioactive iodine until you've completely weaned your baby.

Common Sense And Cloning

Common sense is the most misunderstood element of pragmatism. The goal of pragmatism is not to skip the difficult questions and move on to progress. As is already apparent, in the present case pragmatism unpacks the meaning of satisfying the complex and situated demands of a variety of people within a social context. More, though, pragmatism shows that ethical evaluation of social problems requires that we take seriously the challenges of science to social thought, and in this respect cloning is clearly a paradigm case. Cloning does not uniquely challenge what it is to make a child, but it has called attention to the vast array of new technologies that make new kinds of families whose parameters and relationships are neither pregiven nor socially sanctioned. It is insufficient to ask, as do most critics of cloning, whether a child of cloning would be deprived of a right to individuality.17 No child has an open future, and even our cursory examination of the changing history of...

Compliance Issues When They Wont Take Their Medicine

Roxine pill every morning, yet the child remains hypothyroid. Sometimes a month's supply of pills is found hidden under the refrigerator where they've been spit out. This is not unusual with other pills, such as vitamin pills or antibiotics, but in those cases, they're not as critical. It's a good idea to watch your child swallow the pill, then have the child open his or her mouth to demonstrate that it was actually swallowed. These problems become worse during adolescence, sometimes as an expression of rebellion. I've found compliance issues equally difficult in boys and girls.

Treating Graves Disease in Children

Treating Graves' disease in children remains an area of controversy. Most often, thion-amides (antithyroid drugs) are the first line of therapy (see Chapter 11), while beta-blockers (see Chapter 11) are used to control thyrotoxic symptoms. Compliance with these medications is also a special problem in children. Although methimazole is preferred, because it can be effective given only once or twice a day, around 10 percent of these children develop some significant reactions to thionamides, forcing them to go off of this drug. The rate of remission (disappearance of thyrotoxicosis after stopping six to twelve months of thionamides therapy) is a bit higher than in adults however, most children eventually need definitive treatment, either surgery or radioactive iodine. American physicians have been more likely to use radioactive iodine for children than physicians in Europe or Japan. Although there is reasonable concern that children may be susceptible to developing thyroid cancers from...

Cultural Considerations

Baumrind's early research (1967, 1971) began by measuring mostly middle-class, Caucasian children who were being raised by one or both parents. Nonetheless, much of the research holds that authoritative parenting works best across differences of culture, race, gender, socioeconomic factors, and family structure. Therefore, authoritative care-giving can be effective for child rearing regardless of the relationship between caregiver and child. However, Baumrind (1995) cautioned that the blend of demandingness and responsiveness is dependent upon the social and cultural context of the child. Similarly, there have been different gender implications of parenting styles. The authoritarian approach emanates from a masculine manner of handling authority, whereas authoritative parenting is much more compatible with female development and feminine use of authority. Gilligan's (1982) research proved that girls respond much more to a consensually-based approach so that they can discover their own...

Residential Alternatives

Foster homes are provided by families who open their houses to children who require shelter. Most children who receive foster care require such service because of the loss of parents or guardians. Foster care may be provided for de-velopmentally disabled children who require specialized training outside of their natural homes. Foster parents are usually trained in effective parenting practices and are usually paid for their services by state or county social service agencies. Foster parents are not adoptive parents, as adoption results in a legal name change for the child, as well as legal guardianship of the child by the adoptive parent.

How do I talk to my teen about sexual responsibility

Be clear about your own sexual values and attitudes. Communicating with your children about sex, love, and relationships is often more successful when you are certain in your own mind about these issues. To help clarify your attitudes and values, think about the following kinds of questions 2. Talk with your children early and often about sex, and be specific. Kids have lots of questions about sex, and they often say that the source they'd most like to go to for answers is their parents. Start the conversation, and make sure that it is honest, open, and respectful. If you can't think of how to start the discussion, consider using situations shown on television or in movies as conversation starters. Tell them candidly and confidently what you think and why you take these positions if you're not sure about some issues, tell them that, too. Be sure to have a two-way conversation, not a one-way lecture. Ask them what they think and what they know so you can correct misconceptions. Ask...

Application and Testing

Chology, education, child development, military, business, industry, and health practices. A number of other terms are being used as synonyms, variations, and antonyms for self-fulfilling prophecy. In addition to the term self-defeating prophecies, suggested by Merton, variations of the theme called self-destroying prophecies, self-frustrating predictions, and self-confirming predictions have appeared in the literature (Sztompka, 1986, p. 234). Similarly, in educational research, the term Pygmalion effect is used instead Galatea effect is used to indicate rising expectations of the employees, and Golem effect is used to denote negative consequences in industrial research.

Life Experience Differences

There also are sex differences related to family life and to work. All cultures have some division of labor by sex, usually based on mobility. Cross-culturally, men often are responsible for tasks that require travel women usually are responsible for work that allows them to remain near home and take major child care responsibility. Both sexes perform tasks requiring strength.

Peer support and support groups

Roberts et al. (1997) report results of a support group intervention designed to facilitate adjustment in young adults with cancer. Improvements in psychological well-being were observed. The group was facilitated by two young adults, one of each gender. Topics covered included anxiety about health and physical well-being, worries about fertility and raising children, relationship problems, financial concerns and body image. The authors noted that the group quickly developed cohesion and they

Recent Research Trends

To a large degree, research on single parenthood has focused on single mothers and been generalized to all parents (Hilton et al., 2001). More recently, researchers have analyzed the single-parenthood experience in terms of single mothers, single fathers, and intact families. Hilton and Devall (1998) noted that divorce tends to have a positive effect on the parenting of fathers (when they become single parents) and a negative effect on mothers (when they become single parents). Single fathers were also rated to be as effective (in terms of positive parenting) as single and married mothers and rated more positive (in terms of parenting) than married fathers (Hilton et al., 2001 Hilton & Devall, 1998). Collectively, the research relating to single fathers appears to have significant implications for custody decisions. Financial strain has been identified as an important factor in undermining a woman's ability to adjust to the role in single parenthood. In this regard, Hilton et al....

Years old a week before starting chemotherapy

Many difficulties exist surrounding discussion of potential infertility at the time of initial diagnosis and treatment. A young patient must assimilate many painful truths. The oncologist must breach sensitive topics the loss of being able to have children, the need to explain masturbation to provide sperm samples and, of course, the likelihood of a youngster reaching child-bearing age. A teenager may not see future parenthood as relevant to them, especially in a time of illness, and may not completely remember the mass of highly distressing information. Parents try to protect a sick child from further distressing news and fear that a young person will refuse treatment if fully aware of all the side-effects. Many forms of cancer in younger patients are highly aggressive and treatment delay may be undesirable.

Years old ten weeks into my fourth pregnancy

Cancer may present in a young adult who has already borne children. Anxiety about infertility occurs in these survivors also (Schover 1999 Schover et al. 1999) as the choice to have more children is removed. Professionals, who may perceive the patient to be fortunate in having at least one child, can overlook this. However, the loss of building a bigger family having known the joy of parenthood can still be significant. There may be worries about an existing offspring growing up as an only child, especially when a family has to deal with a poor prognosis and the possible loss of one parent.

Where can I get more information

This information was adapted by the Sexual Health and Responsibility Program (SHARP), Directorate Population Health, Navy Environmental Health Center from Protecting Against Unintended Pregnancy A Guide to Contraceptive Choices, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (June 2000) BUMEDINST 6300.9 Family Planning Services (20 Sep 2001) MANMED Article 15-76, Annual Health Maintenance Examination Recommendations for Active Duty Members (change 118 20 Aug 2002) unpublished data from 2003 Pregnancy and Parenthood Survey, Navy Personnel Research, Studies, and Technology, Institute for Organizational Assessment, Millington TN (April 2004) Fact Sheet - Women's Health Policy facts - Emergency Contraception, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park CA (Feb 2004), and material developed by the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc.

Reformulations of Stage Theories

Ing over three decades and the fact that most divorced people remarry (many of whom have children from prior marriages), the burgeoning diversity of family structures required a reformulation of Duvall's original theory of the family life cycle. Stage theories persisted but were now defined in terms of marital stability or instability, whether one or both remarried partners had children from prior marriages (i.e., simple vs. complex stepfamilies), custody arrangements (e.g., stepfather vs. stepmother families), the presence or absence of children from the remarriage (i.e., his, hers, and ours), and the ages and life-cycle stages of individual family members. In addition, family development theorists, buttressed by a plethora of empirical research comparing these permutations and combinations of family structures, became aware that the developmental tasks and concomitant functional and dysfunctional coping mechanisms varied widely across these diverse and changing family forms....

The primate connection

The mating system is essentially promiscuous and, consequently, the single mother mode of family life is the basis of parental care. Unlike the solitary style of the orangutans, single parenthood in chimpanzees is performed in a commune context with intense interaction between the mothers and other adults, among the young, and between the young and their older siblings. The strong matri-focal bond continues throughout the life of the mother, as do sibling ties throughout sibling lives. Orphaned juveniles are typically adopted by their older sisters.

Conceptual Learning And Development

Bruner, Goodnow, and Austin (1956) presented a theory of thinking that stimulated widespread interest in concept learning. The high interest continued into the 1980s but then lessened except as it related to science concepts. Pi-agetian theory on children's development of the concept of number (Piaget 1952) and of space (Piaget & Inhelder 1956), reported in books in English, generated worldwide interest in children's conceptual development. His theory remains a predominant theory of child development.

The Impact of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Unplanned Pregnancy

Unplanned pregnancy impacts Sailors and commands in many ways. The financial and contingency child-care challenges of single parenthood for Sailors, male and female, can be significant. Pregnant Sailors aboard ships can be difficult to manage because of the need to protect the health and careers of service women without degrading the mission of the command. Though Navy policy permits pregnant members to remain on board until the 20th week of gestation, Navy studies have found that many (but less than half) are transferred early, leaving the command shorthanded until a replacement arrives.

Abnormalities of female genital tract and intersex disorders

Girls have spontaneous development of secondary sexual characteristics as ovarian tissue is present and functions normally. The external genitalia have a normal appearance but the vagina is short and blind ending. Hormone treatment is not required as ovarian oestrogen output is normal and ovulation will take place. However, the only route to biological parenthood will be through using a surrogate mother following ovarian stimulation and oocyte (unfertilized egg cell) retrieval. This will clearly require careful discussion with all concerned.

What services are available through the Navy

This information was adapted by the Sexual Health and Responsibility Program (SHARP), Directorate Population Health, Navy Environmental Health Center from BUMEDINST 6300.9 Family Planning Services (20 Sep 2001) MANMED Article 15-76, Annual Health Maintenance Examination Recommendations for Active Duty Members (change 118 20 Aug 2002) unpublished data from 2003 Pregnancy and Parenthood Survey, Navy Personnel Research, Studies, and Technology, Institute for Organizational Assessment, Millington TN (April 2004)

Psychiatric Misdiagnosis

A lot of people suffer from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but it can also suddenly develop if you're thyrotoxic for a prolonged period of time. In fact, you may be misdi-agnosed with GAD, which is characterized by extreme worry about things that are unlikely to happen. You may worry about whether your child is safe or whether your partner is going to get into a car accident on the way home. You may begin to worry about health problems (for good reason if you are thyrotoxic and have other symptoms). The worries begin to be persistent and interfere with your normal functioning. Always there is a sense of dread a constant fretting, restlessness, and uneasiness about your personal security or safety. You may also suffer from physical symptoms, some of which are also signs of thyrotoxicosis (indicated by an asterisk)

Canadian Psychological Association

The CPA publishes three scholarly journals (Canadian Psychology, Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, and Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology), each of which produces four issues annually. A newsletter, Psynop-sis, sent to all members, also appears four times a year. Access to these publications is available online for members. More episodic publications include the Strengthening Psychology series. This series consists of relatively brief articles, commissioned by CPA, that address specific issues in the health care field (e.g., home and community care, medicare, pharmacare, and primary care). The organization has also been active in the development of national standards and ethical principles, and a number of documents pertain to these efforts (e.g., A Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, 1991 A Companion Manual of the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, 1992 Guidelines for Non-Discriminatory Practice, 1996 Guidelines for Therapy and Counselling with Women,...

Evaluation and Use of QSort Data

Chicago University of Chicago Press. Waters, E., & Deane, K. E. (1985). Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points of attachment theory and research (pp. 41-65). Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50(1-2, Serial No. 209).

Application and Techniques of Behavior Modification

Behavior modification techniques have been applied successfully in a wide variety of settings and with many types of behaviors and populations (Sarafino, 1996). They have been used to improve general parenting skills, help parents correct children's problem behaviors, enhance instructional methods in schools, improve classroom conduct, train de-velopmentally disabled children in self-help skills, reduce substance abuse, reduce depression and anxiety, promote people's health and prevent illness, and improve worker productivity and safety.

Development of sexuality and sexual identity

It is clear that children of all ages, from infancy upwards, have the capacity to experience pleasure and reassurance from touching their genitals. Although there is wide variation between individuals, most girls and virtually all boys start to masturbate at some stage in their development. Some parents find this alarming and embarrassing and children may be told that touching themselves is wrong or 'naughty'. Scare stories told to children in the past to prohibit touching, such as 'It'll make you go blind' or 'You'll get hair growing on the palms of your hands', together with religious prohibitions, have had wide currency (Ryan 2000) and their legacy remains today in a general discomfort with the subject. Teaching children that private touching is for a private place (such as bathroom or bedroom) is a simple concept that helps children learn appropriate public behaviour without creating guilty feelings about sexual pleasure.

Biological Dimensions Of Human Cloning

A variety of new, urgent, and troubling legal cases force adults to puzzle over the meaning of that code as it bears on parenthood and identity. Biologists and the broader culture would thus like to be able to at least define cloning in terms of something stable genetic similarity. Cloning, after all, seems to raise the possibility of a wholly new kind of child, one made not from sex or sexual recombination, but rather from the transfer of genetic information from a single progenitor into its offspring. But in reality, while we do not know what sort of a human being a clone would be, neither do we have any real objective purchase on the variety of new kinds of children we make through new reproductive technologies and through new social mechanisms. We may be able to determine the origins of a child's DNA, but that only begins the process of reinventing ideas of relatedness and how relatedness conveys status and responsibility. We have amazing new ways to make children, and think of...

Parent and Child Issues

Different forms of modeling have been widely used in programs for parent training. While there is no substitute for realistic practice in acquiring skills for child care, it is equally clear that observing effective models is essentially valuable to begin such practice. Most parent training is requested because of the child's so-called problems. Therefore, children are taught communication and self-control skills as well. Modeling also proves effective for this purpose, using either peers or adults.

The Right To Make Reproductive Decisions

The right of procreation is likely to be limited to situations in which an individual is creating a biologically related child. It could be argued that cloning oneself invokes that right to an even greater degree than normal reproduction. As lawyer Francis Pizzulli points out, In comparison with the parent who contributes half of the sexually reproduced child's genetic formula, the clonist is conferred with more than the requisite degree of biological parenthood, since he is the sole genetic parent.38

Suicidal Behavior Among Youth Epidemiology

M., Osman, A., Kopper, B. A., & Barrios, F. X. (2000). Why young people do not kill themselves The Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 177-187. Prinstein, M. J., Boergers, J., Spirito, A., Little, T. D., & Grapen-tine, W. L. (2000). Peer functioning, family dysfunction, and psychological symptoms in a risk factor model for adolescent inpatients' suicidal ideation severity. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 392-405.

Parent Management Training

Parent management training (PMT) employs a therapist as a consultant who works directly with a parent (mediator) to alleviate the problem behavior of a child (target). The basic PMT format consists primarily of instruction by the therapist in parenting techniques, structured modeling, role-plays and practice sessions, and homework assignments for the parent to practice skills with the child. This format is based on the assumption that parenting skills deficits are at least partly responsible for the development Because the emotional and financial costs associated with disruptive behaviors can be so significant for families and society, clinical researchers have devoted substantial energy to understanding the causes of this behavior and determining ways of treating and preventing it in youth. Countless studies have shown that the family is one of the most consistent areas of a child's life that contributes to both the development and the treatment of disruptive behavior. Positive...

Perfectionism In Gifted Adolescents

Self psychology and intersubjectivity, with their emphasis on the early mother-child relationship, help us focus on the child's need to please his or her parents as a major source of gifted individuals' struggle with being judged as lazy. However, only by understanding the entrenched in-trapsychic struggle, or the infant morality system (IMS), can one truly help these gifted individuals to overcome their struggle with perfectionism and accompanying issues and, thus, to attain their full potential.

Varicella Zoster Virus

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiological agent of chickenpox. Von Bokay was the first to observe that susceptible children might develop varicella after exposure to the herpes zoster virus. Joseph Garland, a long-term editor of the New England Journal of Medicine, was the first to suggest that zoster reflected activation of a latent varicella virus. a1 In 1954, Thomas Weller confirmed von Bokay's observation that children develop varicella following exposure to patients with herpes zoster by demonstrating, with tissue culture and antibody studies, that the two diseases were caused by the same virus. J The likelihood of developing zoster increases with advancing age, a phenomenon attributed to immune senescence and a decline in the VZV-specific

Metachromatic Leukodystrophies

Clinical Features and Associated Findings. The late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy usually begins between the ages of 18 and 24 months of age, although onset may occasionally be delayed until as late as age 4 years. y , y These children develop a gait disturbance that may appear as ataxia or weakness. y Hypotonia is very prominent during this time. At times, abnormalities in the macula resembling the cherry-red spot may be present. y Thereafter, a rather rapid decline continues over a period of 6 months or more until steady regression persists and bulbar signs become apparent. The hypotonia becomes much worse as the disease continues, and weakness dominates during these phases. Intellectual deterioration occurs reasonably rapidly over a 6- to 12-month period. By the terminal stage, hypotonia has reverted to hypertonia and frank spasticity. Involuntary movements are obvious. Another characteristic of the classic form that distinguishes it from other forms of...

Question four what about my children

Past, subsequent children may be regarded as particularly precious. Surviving cancer and the accompanying treatment may also lead to increased resourcefulness, resilience and psychological growth. Although cancer survivors are less likely to become parents (Koocher and O'Malley 1981), it may be that they acquire better parenting skills.

Childrens Behavioral Stages

Arnold Gesell, who was interested in the genetically determined or maturational aspects of development, founded the Yale Clinic of Child Development at Yale University. He was concerned with the unfolding of inner tendencies rather than the changes resulting from learning or experience. Gesell concluded that behavior occurred in an unvarying sequence and that maturational changes made new kinds of behavior possible. He believed that knowledge about the maturational readiness of a child was essential for developing the best educational and training programs. Behavioral norms for many aspects of child development were obtained and published in Developmental Diagnoses Normal and Abnormal Child Development, by A. Gesell and C. Amatruda. The behaviors described in this publication are set up on a normative basis in such a way that 50 of the children examined at a particular age level will demonstrate the behavior under consideration, 25 will not have achieved that level of behavior as yet,...

If You Had Radioactive Iodine Therapy

If you were treated for hyperthyroidism or thyroid cancer with radioactive iodine, a reasonable recommendation is that you shouldn't plan to get pregnant for about six months. If you're pregnant after you had RAI, but did not wait this six-month period, you shouldn't be worried since there isn't any definite evidence that there's any harm to your child. Pregnancies should proceed normally so long as you're taking sufficient doses of your thyroid hormone replacement and the TSH is monitored monthly.

Lifespan Development

The point where change occurs throughout the life cycle is critical. Traditional approaches to human development have emphasized change from birth to adolescence, stability in adulthood, and decline in old age. Sears and Feldman have captured the flavor of some of the most important adult changes. The changes in body, personality, and abilities may be great during these later decades. Strong developmental tasks are imposed by marriage and parenthood, by the waxing and waning of physical prowess and of some intellectual capacities, by the children's exit from the nest, by the achievement of an occupational plateau, and by retirement and the prospect of death.

Interracial Adoption

In the United States, Caucasian couples willing to adopt outnumber adoptable Caucasian children. This situation is a factor in the increase in interethnic, interracial, and international adoptions. The Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 outlaws racial or ethnic bias in selections of adoption and foster care placements. Foster parents who have bonded with a child of a different race can no longer be prevented from adopting on racial grounds. Contrary to the objections raised against interracial adoptions, research has shown that no psychological harm came to African American children adopted into White families They developed a positive racial identity, and their adjustment was excellent. Black adoptees found to have more problems than Whites had been older when adopted and had come from more unstable and abusive backgrounds. While the color of loving parents seems to matter less, interracial adoptees are more comfortable in ethnically and racially integrated schools and communities....

Monogamy and Health

Child Development Research relating to child development has tended to focus on the structure of the partner relationship, rather than on its dynamic or quality. This focus is premised on a belief that knowledge of children's functioning in different family structures will inform social policy, which can then be framed to maximize the well-being of future generations (Garfinkel and McLanahan, 1990 Seltzer, 1994). Consequently, available studies often compare child development in the context of a two-parent (married or cohabiting) family with child development in a single-parent or multi-parent family. This section focuses on child development in families that would be characterized as single or dual parent. Child development in the context of multi-parent families will be addressed in Chapter 2. Third, investigations of family structure alone as a determinative factor on child development fail to consider the heterogeneity of fathers, father-child relationships, mothers, and...

Leukemia

Each year in the United States alone, nearly 32,000 adults and more than 2,000 children develop leukemia, a cancer of the blood cells. There are essentially two kinds of blood cells red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC, or leukocytes). RBCs contain a red protein called hemoglobin and use it to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. White blood cells do not carry oxygen but are part of the body's immune system. Leukemia affects a kind of white blood cell known as lymphocytes, which spend much of their time in the lymphatic system. Another form of lymphocyte, known as myeloid cells, spend their time in the bone marrow or general circulation.

Is It All Religion

As is so often the case with new reproductive technologies, the real reason that people condemn cloning has nothing to do with technical feasibility, child psychology, societal well-being, or the preservation of the human species. The real reason derives from religious beliefs. It is the sense that cloning leaves God out of the process of human creation, and that man is venturing into places he does not belong. Of course, the playing God objection only makes sense in the context of one definition of God, as a supernatural being who plays a role in the birth of each new member of

The Copenhagen Study

In the Copenhagen study the proportion who breastfed to five months was 20 , and only 3 were breastfed beyond nine months. This very small proportion indicates that longer breastfeeding was not culturally normative in Copenhagen, and the small minority of mothers who did continue were likely to be different from the great majority who did not in multiple ways that affect growth. It is likely that child care and dietary patterns were different in this subgroup, and these differences need to be investigated before one can conclude that observed differences are due to breastfeeding. In the case of Denmark Dr. Michaelsen has pointed out that this seems to be particularly the case for those who breastfeed longest. Is this the reason for the much larger difference in length between the longest breast feeding group and the others The possibility that other factors are responsible underscores the importance of further investigation, particularly because of concern about the adequacy of...

Human Development

Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23, 611-626. Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging The model of selective optimization with compensation. In P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1-34). New York Cambridge University Press. Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (1998). Lifespan theory in developmental psychology. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 1029-1143). New York Wiley. Brim, O. G., Jr., & Kagan, J. (Eds.). (1980). Constancy and change in human development. Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press.

Culture And Cloning

The data are fairly clear that tomorrow's children will not be raised in the world of birds and bees. Perhaps the most common model for parenthood in our time is that of the ants and termites, who live in large groups with distributed parental roles. We live in a culture in which children are frequently raised by some combination of nongenetic parents, or by those who are not parents at all. More than 40 of those born after 1998, we now believe, will have more than one mother or father by age 18. The majority of American children are effectively raised in day care, while all three or four of their parents pursue careers. Many in our society have long believed that a critical role one can play in the life of a child is that of godparent, or coach, or foster parent, and many families in many ethnicities have well articulated roles for these mentors. But our habits in making our own families are only part of the culture of reproduction. Parenthood is for some purposes at the luxury of...

Effectiveness Trials

Treatment outcome studies consistently have found differences in favor of MST on putative mediators of change (e.g., improved parent-child relationships) as well as ultimate outcomes (e.g., reduced criminal behavior). More recently, mediational analyses conducted on two independent samples of antisocial youth corroborated key features of the theory of change underlying MST. MST improved parenting and global family functioning and reduced youth association with deviant peers these changes, in turn, were associated with reductions in criminal activity.

Parental Approaches

Dreikurs and Grey (1968), students of Alfred Adler, adopted a democratic position of parenting that forged a middle ground of parental authority. They stressed that children should be encouraged to balance freedom with responsibility. The combination of teaching children both freedom and responsibility added new challenges to the task of parenting. Parents no longer had an either or solution of tyranny or indulgence, but needed to creatively encourage children through natural and logical consequences.

Inheritance of RTH

There are fewer than one thousand people with RTH identified around the world to date, making this a rare disorder. Most cases of RTH are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, meaning that there is a fifty-fifty chance that each of your children will receive the gene if you have it, regardless of their sex. In some cases, their parents don't seem to have the mutation, suggesting that these cases represent a new germline mutation. A key point is that each person with RTH is born with it, meaning that this is not a condition that you can later develop as an adult.

Final Comment

American Psychological Association Online. (2002, March 6). New Mexico governor signs landmark law on prescription privileges for psychologists. Retrieved September 26, 2002, from http www.apa.org practice nm_rxp.html. Breggin, P. (1991). Toxic psychiatry. New York St. Martin's Press. DeLeon, P. H., Folen, R., Jennings, F., Willis, D., & Wright, R. (1991). The case for prescription privileges Alogical evolution of professional practice. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 3, 254-267.

The Survey

We developed a simple survey form and asked families to indicate their interests, the hours and days preferred, and the topics and preferred methods of instruction. The families of our patients did indicate an interest in a program and expressed their preferences for topics and instructional methods. Most responses indicated that the greatest interest was in learning about serious mental illness and how the medications would help. Our families were also interested in how to obtain support in the community and other local resources. The survey asked about barriers to attendance, such as transportation and possible child-care problems, but such barriers were not always acknowledged as problems. Our families' preferred instruction methods were lectures with handouts, pamphlets, and video presentations. However, our survey was not especially helpful in determining a day or time for the program because the responses reflected no consensus, we selected a time when all presenters would be...

Impact on Parent

The most common initial reaction to single parenthood is depression. Often the parent feels victimized, alone, and angry. He or she tends to worry about unpredictable income and poor housing and to feel inadequate (Miller, 1980). Other emotional reactions experienced by single parents include guilt or a sense of failure about a marriage breakdown, grief, fear, anxiety, confusion, and, in some cases, relief (Burgess & Nystul, 1977). The advent of single parenthood may also result in increased strain on the single parent's time, energy, emotions, and ability to work (Burgess & Nystul, 1977). There has been a limited amount of research on the factors associated with successful single-parent families. Barry (1979) identified tasks for the adjustment period and tasks for the new family period that promote a positive single-parenthood experience.

Conclusion

The observations reviewed here have raised the question of the link between sensori-motor plasticity and cognitive space representation, extending on Piaget theories on child development. Although unilateral neglect is no longer considered a unitary syndrome (Halligan and Marshall, 1998), it is striking that prism adaptation, as well as other physiological manipulations (review Rossetti and Rode, 2002 Rode et al., 2003 Revol et al., in press), have been shown to improve many aspects of neglect including line bisection (Rossetti et al., 1998 Farne et al., 2002). In addition adaptation to prisms was found to affect line midpoint perception in normals (Colent et al., 2000 Berberovic and Mattingley, 2003 Michel et al., 2003a,b Girardi et al., 2004). Hence series of results collected both in healthy subjects and unilateral neglect patients suggest that visuo-manual adaptation can modify spatial tasks on a cognitive level. However all tasks performed to date involved either a manual or a...

Social Isolation

Social interaction is integral to mental health across development. Lack of social interaction, or social isolation, not only is a painful experience but also can negatively impact child development. For infants and young children, lack of interaction with a primary caretaker can lead to marked delays in cognitive, socioemotional, linguistic, and motoric development. Furthermore, dysfunctional parent-child interaction patterns can contribute to child social incompetence and social isolation. For school-age children and adolescents, peer interaction becomes an increasingly important socializing agent that provides them with opportunities for social, emotional, and cognitive development. Through interpersonal interaction, children develop the skills of collaboration, perspective taking, empathy, and social competence, which help to promote prosocial behavior and decrease inappropriate, immature, or annoying behavior. The development of these social skills also contributes to chil

Recent Issues

In addition, topics within areas of socialization, such as child development, adolescence, and family socialization studies, have become specialties in their own right, and thus many more topics such as processes of learning, deviance, and emotions are being addressed in the context of socialization.

Defining Monogamy

Yet other researchers have distinguished between social monogamy and sexual monogamy, arguing that, although U.S. culture assumes that social monogamy and sexual monogamy are synonymous, they aren't (Barash and Lipton, 2001 Hrdy, quoted in Morell, 1998). In contrast to sexual monogamy, social monogamy refers to the pairing up of individuals to live together, share resources, copulate, and produce and raise children. It has been asserted that there is simply no question whether sexual desire for multiple partners is 'natural'. It is. Similarly, there is no question of monogamy being 'natural'. It isn't (Barash and Lipton, 2001 2). A similar dichotomy has been suggested by the distinction made between sexual exclusivity and possession and the creation of a long-term or life-long project with another person (Francis and Gontier, 1987). Accordingly, it has been argued, aspiring monogamists are going against some of the deepest-seated evolutionary inclinations with which biology has...

Viewing Structure

Of all visual structures, the single-rooted tree is perhaps the easiest to comprehend. Most OVT applications support the conventional indent-based tree structure (Figure 9-2a) some also support an alternative tree layout, named treemap (Figure 9-2b). Compared to the conventional tree, treemap uses shape inclusion to depict parent-child relationships, freeing the edges to depict other dimensions of information. Both tree-based structures, however, are limited in their ability to concisely display multiple inheritances. Because by definition a tree-node can not have more than one parent-node, to show multiple inheritances with a tree-based structure, a single entity must be given multiple representations. In both Figure 9-2a and 9-2b, for instance, G0 0031410 appears twice in the graphs.

Discussion

Not all children and young people currently think about having children of their own in adulthood. However, many indicated that parenthood is certainly something they expect to achieve in their twenties or thirties. It is clear that some are already aware of the societal expectation of reproduction and can anticipate how it may feel to have this 'right' removed from them (see Chapter 2). Many interviewees referred to adoption as an easy solution to involuntary childlessness and were clearly unaware of the difficulties and delays involved. Social researchers are increasingly acknowledging the importance of understanding children and young people's perspectives as these may differ from and be better developed than accounts based on what adults think children think. (See, for example, Alderson 2000 Borland etal. 1998.) The sophisticated and sensitive responses of children as young as 11 or 12 in this study reinforce the need for adults not to underestimate children and young people's...

Conduct Disorder

Ized clinical research trials have identified empirically supported treatments for Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder. Brestan and Eyberg (1998) have identified two parent-training intervention programs with well-established positive effects (Patterson et al., 1992 Webster-Stratton, 1994) and ten other programs as probably efficacious for treating Conduct Disorder. Kazdin (1998 Kazdin & Weisz, 1998) has similarly identified several positive treatment approaches for Conduct Disorder, including Parent Management Training, Functional Family Therapy, Cognitive Problem-Solving Skills Training, and Multisys-temic Therapy. Parent Management Training and Functional Family Therapy are directed at dysfunctional parenting processes and have produced significant improvements in parenting practices and reductions in children's aggressive conduct problem behavior (Alexander & Parsons, 1973 Eyberg, Boggs, & Algina, 1995 Peed, Roberts, & Forehand, 1977 Webster-Stratton,...

Play Therapy

Child relax and become comfortable with the therapist. In addition, games with rules (e.g., checkers) can teach children about fair play (e.g., Gardner, 1993). Symbolic or pretend play, however, is especially important for psychotherapy, because such play expresses children's experiences beyond their limited capacity to verbally explain themselves. psychotherapy (pp. 3-11). New York Basic Books. Erikson, E. (1977). Toys and reasons. New York W. W. Norton. Foote, R., Eyberg, S., & Schuhmann, E. (1998). Parent-child interaction approaches to the treatment of child behavior problems. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 20, pp. 125-143). New York Plenum Press.

Early Influences

Development of thinking, and his contribution is becoming increasingly influential even today (Lloyd & Fernyhough, 1999). Three of Vygotsky's most important contributions were his ideas on the relation between thought and language, his emphasis on the role of culture in the development of thinking, and the zone of proximal development. Early in the history of cognitive development research, there was considerable debate as to whether thought depends on language development, as implied by Bruner, Olver, & Greenfield. (1966), or the reverse, as implied by Slobin (1972). Vy-gotsky (1 962) proposed that thought and language have different origins both in evolution and in development. Language was initially social in character, whereas problem solving was initially motor. Language and thought develop independently for some time after infancy then the young child develops egocentric speech, the beginning of the representational function. Finally, children develop inner speech, which...

Atopic eczema

The course varies from a mild single episode to severe chronic, recurrent episodes resulting in the psychoitchical person. The infantile form usually becomes milder or even disappears after the age 3 or 4 years and approximately 70 of cases clear by puberty. During puberty and the late teenage years, flare-ups or new outbreaks can occur. Young housewives or househusbands may have their first recurrence of atopic eczema since childhood due to their new job of dishwashing and child care. Thirty percent of patients with atopic dermatitis eventually develop allergic asthma or hay fever.

Other Stereotypies

Rett's syndrome occurs only in girls and is believed to be linked to the X chromosome but is lethal in hemizygous males. y Some authors have suggested that Rett's syndrome is a result of disordered lipid metabolism, whereas others believe that these children have a derangement of the neuronal mitochondria. Typically, these children develop normally through the first 6 to 12 months of life, but then motor abnormalities (stereotypies, dystonia, chorea) emerge, accompanied by cognitive regression. Ihe stereotypies observed most frequently in girls with Rett's syndrome include clapping, wringing, clenching, washing, patting, and rubbing behaviors. Other hyperkinetic disorders of movement include oromandibular dystonia, other dystonias, scoliosis, myoclonus, and choreoathetosis. All patients also have gait disturbances, and parkinsonian findings are manifest chiefly as hypomimia, rigidity, and bradykinesia. y , y

Double Bind

This capacity if they are blocked from learning how to learn about meaning, serious adulthood disorders may result. The double bind involves a communication style which is pernicious in its reliance upon internal contradictions and blocked learning. As studied in the families of schizophrenics, it appeared often in mother-child relationships in which the mothers seemed not to want to be understood They could accept neither their children nor their rejection of those children. The double bind describes their covert pursuit of distant relationships disguised by reciprocal shows of loving behavior. Such parents appeared to invite closeness at one level while negating it at another. A child who responded by approaching was covertly rebuffed, yet efforts to withdraw were also punished. In addition, efforts to shift levels and to question the meaning of the interactions were punished, impairing the child's capacity to form and trust impressions of reality.

Waldorf Education

Steiner's view of child development holds that the time at which a subject is introduced, as well as the manner in which it is presented, is of utmost importance. The curriculum integrates the arts, sciences, and humanities, and teaching is done from an artistic point of view, taking into account that individuals learn at different rates and in different ways. The stress of Waldorf education is on the development of the whole human being socially, artistically, physically, and intellectually.

Theories

Early theories of child psychology were largely implicit, children being thought of as miniature adults. Not until the late nineteenth century and the emergence of a formal discipline of psychology did theories about child behavior become prominent. An early psychologist, G. Stanley Hall, proposed a biogenetic theory emphasizing biological growth and genetic predispositions.

Research Methods

Since the days of the baby biographies, child psychology has progressed in methodology as well as theory. Using a longitudinal approach, investigators follow the same subjects over the years of interest and observe age changes. With the cross-sectional approach, the researcher tests subjects of different ages. A combination of the two procedures has been suggested (Schaie, 1970) as a more powerful approach. Research methods have included questionnaires ratings and rankings by teachers, peers, parents, and oneself interviews observation projective tests personality and intelligence tests and direct experimentation. A good source for understanding the basic information on research methods in child psychology is Research Methods in Human Development (Brown, Cozby, Kee, & Worden, 1999).

Peer Influences

For ensuring effective socialization and development. Child-child relationships have been assumed to be, at best, relatively unimportant and, at worst, unhealthy influences. Such views were mistaken. Prominent theorists such as Sigmund Freud, George H. Mead, Jean Piaget, Erik Erick-son, Lawrence Kohlberg, and many others have argued that high-quality peer relationships are essential for an individual's development and well-being, and hundreds of research studies have validated their views (see Bukowski, Newcomb, & Hartup, 1996 Johnson, 1980 Johnson & Johnson, 1999 Ladd, 1999).

Jane Davies

It's often somebody outside who helps us. I'm not underestimating what it is to be infertile, but I came to realize that it's not the most important thing in life. Whether your child has an illness or a disability or is infertile -whatever it is - you need to keep a sense of proportion. Though infertility is a very important thing, it's not the whole picture and we need to remember that. My son and daughter-in-law have two lovely children now through using donor conception treatment and I have five grandchildren altogether. If somebody had said to me before about donor conception, I think I would have said that I had reservations. I had always got pregnant so easily and it seemed alien to think about using medical treatment. I worried that it might solve one set of issues but create another lot to face, such as issues around identity and how to tell the child. But with all things where your children are involved, you look at it afresh and remember that nothing in life is ever...

Fertility

Research indicates that adolescent and young adult cancer survivors worry about their ability to have children and or the health of their offspring (Langeveld etal. 2003 Schover etal. 1999 Weigers et al. 1998). Additional reports suggest infertility comes as a surprise and many young adult survivors do not recall being warned at the time oftheir treatment that they were risking their fertility (Schover 1999 Zebrack etal. 2004). Others studying cancer survivorship in young adults have indicated that concerns about raising children, when to share one's cancer history with a new partner and the impact of treatment on sexuality, intimacy and relationships are of the utmost importance (Roberts et al. 1997 Thaler-Demers 2001). Young adult survivors have expressed concerns about how and when to divulge the possibility of infertility with potential spouses or life partners some express fears of being rejected as a result (Zebrack etal. 2004). The following comment from a young woman survivor...

Burnout

Burnout usually occurs in people who are in caregiving roles or professions, such as nursing, therapists of any kind (including occupational therapists or speech therapists), clinicians, and unpaid caregivers. Child-care workers, teachers, and elder-care workers are also vulnerable to burnout. The term burnout is now a common term in all healthcare literature it is characterized by physical and emotional exhaustion, feeling per

Sperm Of Tomorrow

While It's So Amazing comes close to providing a more progressive option that expresses the range of variation of origin stories for children, this book, similar to all the others, still relies on age-old gender-based illustrations of sperm and eggs. More books are needed that depict variations of origin stories featuring adoption, single parenting, sperm donation, assisted reproductive technologies, and blended families. But more than that, an alternative method is needed to separate out the stereotypical gender roles that are inscribed into human reproductive cells.

Research Design

The design is a multicenter randomized clinical trial using cluster randomization. (Cluster randomization was chosen over individual randomization in order to minimize the possibility of contamination, which would inevitably occur if individual women and infants with postpartum stays at the same maternity hospital and attending the same polyclinic were exposed to different interventions.) Maternity hospitals and their corresponding polyclinics (the outpatient clinics where children are followed up for routine child care and illnesses by pediatricians) were originally paired according to geographic region (Minsk city, Minsk region, Brest, Mogilev, Gomel, Vitebsk, and Grodno), urban vs rural status, number of deliveries per year ( 500 if < 2500, or > 2500), and breastfeeding initiation rates at hospital discharge ( 5 ). One member of each pair was selected at random to receive the WHO UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital 18-hour training course, using a double-randomization procedure....