Neural Net Models

Neural net models of thinking are reviewed by Doumas and Hummel (Chap. 4), but the contribution of neural net models to cognitive development is considered here. A good way to illustrate neural net models of cognitive development is to examine McClelland's (1995) model of children's understanding of the balance scale. The net is shown schematically in Figure 22.1 together with a balance scale problem. It is a three-layered net, which means that activation is propagated from the input units to...

Confluence Approaches to the Study of Creativity

Many more recent works on creativity hypothesize that multiple components must converge for creativity to occur (Amabile, 1983 Csikszentmihalyi, 1988 Gardner, 1993 Gruber, 1989 Gruber & Wallace, 1999 Lubart, 1994, 1999 Lubart, Mouchi-roud, Tordjman, & Zenasni, 2003 Mumford & Gustafson, 1988 Perkins, 1981 Simonton, 1988 Sternberg, 1985 b Sternberg & Lubart, 1991, 1995, 1996 Weisberg, 1993 Woodman & Schoenfeldt, 1989). Sternberg (1985b), for example, examined laypersons' and...

Capsule History

Thinking and reasoning, long the academic province of philosophy, have over the past century emerged as core topics of empirical investigation and theoretical analysis in the modern fields known as cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience. Before psychology was founded, the eighteenth-century philosophers Immanuel Kant (in Germany) and David Hume (in Scotland) laid the foundations for all subsequent work on the origins of causal knowledge, perhaps the most central...

Thinking and Reasoning

More information - www.cambridge.org 9780521824170 The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning is the first comprehensive and authoritative handbook covering all the core topics of the field of thinking and reasoning. Written by the foremost experts from cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience, individual chapters summarize basic concepts and findings for a major topic, sketch its history, and give a sense of the...

The Deontic Selection Task

It has been known for many years that realistic versions of the Wason selection task can facilitate correct card choices, although it was not immediately realized that most of these versions change the logic of the task from one of indicative reasoning to one of deontic reasoning. An indicative conditional, of the type used in the standard abstract task discussed earlier, makes an assertion about the state of the world that may be true or false. Deontic conditionals concern rules and...

Brief History of Motivated Thinking

Motivational perspectives on thought and reasoning originated most prominently with Freud's (1905) clinical theorizing on the psychodynamic conflicts created by unconscious drives and urges. These perspectives quickly spread to other areas of psychology. Early pioneers of experimental social psychology gave primary emphasis to motivational variables such as drives, goals, and aspirations (e.g., Allport, 1920 Lewin, 1935). The study of personality came to involve the identification and...

References

C., Donoghue, J. P., & Sanes, J. N. (2002). Frontal and parietal lobe activation during transitive inference in humans. Cerebral Cortex, 12(12), 1312-1321. Braine, M. D. S. (1978). On the relation between the natural logic of reasoning and standard logic. Psychological Review, 85(1), 1 -21. Caramazza, A., Gordon, J., Zurif, E. B., & DeLuca, D. (1976). Right-hemispheric damage and verbal problem solving behavior. Brain and Language, 3 (1), 41-46. Cheng, P. W.,...

Cohens andBravers Model

Cohen, Braver, and colleagues (Braver, Barch, & Cohen, 1999 Braver et al., 2001 Cohen et al., 1999 Cohen & Servan-Schreiber, 1992) have proposed a model of schizophrenic information processing (see Figure 21.2 ) in which at least a subset of information processing deficits observed in schizophrenia patients results from a disturbance in the interaction between a cognitive module specialized for the representation, active maintenance, and updating of information regarding stimulus context...

Graphics Relations

Relations among entities preserve different levels of information. The information preserved is reflected in the mapping to space. In some cases, the information preserved is simply categorical space is used to separate entities belonging to different categories. The spaces between words, for example, indicate that one set of letters belongs to one meaning and another set to another meaning. Space can also be used to represent ordinal information, for example, listing historic events in their...

Relevance and Role of Neurophysiological Data

The reader will note that these theories of reasoning are strictly cognitive theories uninformed by knowledge ofthe brain. This is not an oversight. Until recently, the central domains of human reasoning and problem solving have been largely cognitive and computational enterprises, with little input from neuroscience. In fact, an argument advanced by cognitive scientists - based on the independence of computational processes and the mechanism in which they are realized (i.e., the brain) - has...

Implicit Theories of Intelligence

What do people believe intelligence to be In 1921, when the editors of the Journal of Educational Psychology asked 14 famous psychologists that question, the responses varied but generally embraced two themes Intelligence involves the capacity to learn from experience and the ability to adapt to the surrounding environment. Sixty-five years later, Sternberg and Detterman (1986) asked twenty-four cognitive psychologists with expertise in intelligence research the same question. They, too,...

Dynamic Systems Models

Dynamic systems models (Fischer & Bidell, 1998 Fischer & Pare-Blagoev, 2000 van Geert, 1991, 1998, 2000) have offered new ways to analyze developmental data. A dynamic system is a formal system, the state of which depends on its state at a previous point in time. The dynamic system model of van Geert (1998) was designed around principles derived from the work of Piaget and Vygotsky and has a number of interesting properties. It can account for different types of cognitive growth, such as...

Who and What Are the Individualists and Collectivists

This is perhaps the place to stop and define who are the individualists and who are the collectivists. In doing so, I will not present a simple picture. Instead, I will discuss ideal cases, in-between cases, culture change, biculturalism, and culture contact. These complexities take me beyond simple binary distinctions that have bothered some (Rogoff, 2003). My nonbinary starting point is that all human beings are both individual and social. What varies is the extent to which cultures try to...

The Importance of Ethnography

Was there a developmental reason in early socialization for this dichotomy between individual mastery over the physical world and a collectivistic value orientation I turned to the anthropological method of ethnography to find out. Ethnography is often defined in anthropology as participant observation in the course of developing an appropriate participant role or roles in a real-life cultural setting, the researcher is able to record, traditionally by means of in-depth field notes, everyday...

Minihistory

Research on concepts in the middle of the last century reflected a gradual easing away from behaviorist and associative learning traditions. The focus, however, remained on learning. Most of this research was conducted in laboratories using artificial categories (a sample category might be any geometric figure that is both red and striped) and directed at one of two questions (1 ) Are concepts learned by gradual increases in associative strength, or is learning all or none (Levine, 1962...

Influences of Directional Outcome Motivation

Overall, the kinds of phenomena that have been studied most extensively in research on motivated thinking involve directional outcome preferences (i.e., individuals' desires to reach specific conclusions about themselves and others for reviews, see Dunning, 1999 Kunda, 1 990 Murray, 1 999 Pyszczynski & Greenberg, 1987). Although a variety of outcomes have been investigated, people's well-documented preference for viewing themselves, and those close to them, in a generally positive manner...

Retrieval and Mapping

A paradigm for investigating analogical transfer Gick and Holyoak (1980, 1983) introduced a general laboratory paradigm for investigating analogical transfer in the context of problem solving. The general approach was first to provide people with a source analog in the guise of some incidental context, such as an experiment on story memory. Later, participants were asked to solve a problem that was in fact analogous to the story they had studied earlier. The questions of central interest were...

Steven A Sloman David A Lagnado

In its classic formulation, due to Hume (1739, 1748), inductive reasoning is an activity of the mind that takes us from the observed to the unobserved. From the fact that the sun has risen every day thus far, we conclude that it will rise again tomorrow from the fact that bread has nourished us in the past, we conclude that it will nourish us in the future. The essence of inductive reasoning lies in its ability to take us beyond the confines of our current evidence or knowledge to novel...

Visual Pattern Construction A Case of Historical Change

The worldwide direction of change on all critical demographic variables - toward greater population density, formal education, technology, and commerce-based wealth - yields an historical push toward the pole of individualism. I will use the domain of visual representation to provide an example of how historical change can move cognition in the direction of the individualistic paradigm of thought. One of the marks of a collectivistic cultural system is respect for elders and their traditions....

Early Influences

The single most powerful influence on past research into the development of thinking has been the work of Piaget and his collaborators (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958, 1964 Piaget, 1950, 1952, 1953, 1957, 1970), but the influence of Vygotsky (1962) appears to be increasing with time. The work of Luria (1976) deservedly had a major influence on early cognitive development research, but not primarily devoted to thinking. In this chapter, I consider Piaget first, followed by Vygotsky, and then the...

Induction as Scientific Methodology

Induction is of course not merely the province of individuals trying to accomplish everyday goals, but also one of the main activities of science. According to one common view of science (Carnap, 1966 Hempel, 1965 Nagel, 1961 for opposing views, see Hacking, 1983 Popper, 1963), scientists spend much of their time trying to induce general laws about categories from particular examples. It is natural, therefore, to look to the principles that govern induction in science to see how well they...

Differences Between Scientific Reasoning and Legal Reasoning

As Llewellyn said, legal reasoning is not scientific reasoning, although it shares some analytic strategies, most notably the method of comparison and difference (Llewellyn, 1930, p. 43) or, as we might say, convergent and discriminant validity (Campbell & Fiske, 1959) and the technique ofsimultane-ously considering alternative explanations or multiple working hypotheses (Chamber-lin, 1890 Campbell & Stanley, 1966). In fact, the legal decision maker in an adversarial system is forced to...

Larger Size

Cumulative growth in size is a basic dimension of change in a body of declarative knowledge. Adults obviously know more about the world in general than do children (Chi, 1976), and thus children are often referred to as universal novices (Brown & DeLoache, 1978). Similarly, experts obviously know more about their domains of expertise than novices (Chi, Glaser, & Farr, 1988). People routinely accumulate additional facts about the world from sources such as news programs, texts, pictures,...

Early Research on Medical Problem Solving and Reasoning

Medical cognition is a subfield of cognitive science devoted to the study of cognitive processes in medical tasks. Studies of medical cognition include analyses of performance in real world clinical tasks as well as in experimental tasks. Understanding the thought processes involved in clinical reasoning in order to promote more effective practices has been the subject of concern for nearly a century (Osler, 1906). Human information processing research typically has focused on the individual....

Approaches to Intelligence

Psychometric Approaches to Intelligence Psychologists interested in the structure of intelligence have relied on factor analysis as an indispensable tool for their research. Factor analysis is a statistical method for separating a construct - intelligence in this case -into a number of hypothetical factors or abilities the researchers believe to form the basis of individual differences in test performance. The specific factors derived, of course, still depend on the specific questions being...

The Challenge of Creating Cultures of Thinking

Thus far, we've examined four challenges that efforts to teach thinking traditionally have faced. As teachers and program developers seek to meet those challenges, a host of additional concerns arise for example How do we provide enough time, context, and diverse applications so that new patterns of thinking actually take hold How can we best take into account that school learning happens in a social context within a classroom among a group of individuals Is the development of individual...

Intelligence Testing History

Contemporary measurements of intelligence usually can be traced to one of two very different historical traditions. One tradition concentrated on lower level, psy-chophysical abilities (such as sensory acuity, physical strength, and motor coordination) the other focused on higher level, judgment abilities (which we traditionally describe as related to thinking). Francis Galton (1822-1911) believed that intelligence was a function ofpsychophysical abilities and, for several years, Galton...

Multicomponent Working Memory Model

Baddeley Model Working Memory

While exploring the issues described in the previous section, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model that expanded short-term memory into the modern concept of working memory - a term that has been used in several different contexts in psychology.1 Baddeley (1986) defined working memory as a system for the temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning (Ref. 3, p. 34). In a recent...

Brief History

Research on human problem solving has its origins in Gestalt psychology, an influential approach in European psychology during the first half of the twentieth century. (Behaviorism was the dominant perspective in American psychology at this time.) Karl Duncker published a book on the topic in his native German in 1935, which was subsequently translated into English and published 10 years later as the monograph On problem-solving (Duncker, 194 5). Max Wertheimer also published a book on the...

Explicit Induction Abduction and the Creation of Explanations

Induction is the use of knowledge to increase semantic information Possibilities are eliminated either by adding elements to a mental model or by eliminating a mental model altogether. After you have stood in line to no avail at a bar in Italy, you are likely to make an explicit induction In Italian bars with cashiers, you pay the cashier first and then take your receipt to the bar to make your order. This induction is a general description. You may also formulate an explanation The barmen are...

Embedded Processes Working Memory Model

Although Baddeley's multi-component working-memory model has dominated the field for much of the past thirty years, there are alternative conceptions of working memory. Cowan 1988, 1995 has proposed a model that tightly integrates short- and long-term memory systems with attention. In his Embedded-Processes working-memory model Figure 19.4 , Cowan defines working memory as the set of cognitive processes that keep mental representations in an easily accessible state. Within this system,...