Evidence of the Athletes Heart

The athlete's heart is a hypertrophied heart with an increase in left ventricle volume and enhanced pumping capacity. A high level of VO2max, regardless of whether it is intrinsic or acquired, associates with the athlete's heart. Left ventricular weights scaled appropriately to body mass were 19 higher in HCR vs. LCR 66 . In both HCR and LCR, regular endurance exercise increased left ventricular weights and cardiomyocyte length significantly, but the increase is significantly higher in HCR than...

Motivation to Physical Activity

Despite the evidence about the benefits of exercise, many diabetologists do not spend time and efforts convincing type 2 diabetic subjects to practice physical activity. It is likely that the limited diffusion of exercise as a standard therapeutic tool among endocrinologists is caused by the poor adher ence of older adults to comply with their recommendations. Survey studies have shown that adults with diabetes are less likely than adults in general to engage in regular physical activity 24 and...

References

Driskell JA,Wolinsky I (eds) (2002) Nutritional assessment of athletes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 2. Williams MH (2006) Sports nutrition. In Shils ME,Shike M,Ross AC,Caballero B, Cousins RJ (eds) Modern nutrition in health and disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1723-1740 3. Williams DP, Teixeira PJ, Going SB (2005) Exercise. In Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG, Wang ZM, Going SB (eds) Human body composition. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, pp 313-330 4. Blair SN,Cheng Y,Holder...

Ways to Promote Physical Activity in Obese Patients

Although the essential role of physical activity in the treatment of obesity is widely recognized, the simple prescription of exercise by health care providers does not seem to have any relevant effect on long-term behavior of overweight and obese individuals 8,9 . In fact, the increase of activity levels requires a complex modification of lifestyle, which cannot be achieved through a simple prescription. Two different strategies can be implemented (and have been tested in clinical trials)...

Mechanisms Mediating the Beneficial Effects of Exercise

Exercise reduces blood glucose through an increase of insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport to working muscles 13 . Exercise increases the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) to the surface of muscle cells 14 . There is evidence for the presence of two distinct pools of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle, one responding to exercise and one responding to insulin 15, 16 . Muscle contraction increases the AMP ATP and creatinine phosphocrea-tinine ratios, which rapidly...

Exercise in the Treatment of Obesity

Physical exercise is known to be an effective therapy for overweight and obesity 1 in fact, exercise, when combined with dietary advice, enhances weight loss 2 and prevents weight regain 3, 4 . An increase of physical activity, which induces an increase of exercise-induced and resting energy expenditure, can effectively counterbalance the reduction of energy consumption determined by decreased food intake 1 , while preventing the reduction of lean mass associated with weight loss 5 ....

Mitochondrial Dysfunction Might Underlie Type 2 Diabetes

Increased deposition of lipids in muscle and liver is a marker of insulin resistance 10 , but whether this is causal in the development of insulin resistance is less clear. More recently, it has been hypothesized that impaired mitochondrial function leads to the accumulation of lipid metabolites and alters insulin signaling 4,11,16,42 . Recent experiments have shown that insulin resistance in the elderly could be attributed to intramyocellular lipid content, which in turn is linked to a...

Physical Activity and HRQL in Diabetes

The levels of physical activity of patients with various chronic diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, depressive symptoms, or current depressive disorder, are associated with subsequent functioning and well-being 37 . Greater levels of exercise were also associated with better functioning for patients with chronic conditions over a 2-year period. Physical activity has become an essential component of prevention and treatment of type...

Physical Activity and HRQL in Obesity

The negative effects of obesity on HRQL are clearly demonstrated. Both physical and mental components of HRQL are remarkably impaired when compared with population norms, particularly in subjects seeking treatment 21 and in those with psychological or psychiatric distress 22,23 .Also in subjects where obesity is superimposed on other chronic illnesses, a further deleterious impact is observed 24 , limited to physical components. Behavior therapy produces a systematic improvement in all scales...

Group and Gender Differences in Appearance Fitnessand Health Beliefs

At each assessment, students, on average, expressed positive evaluations about themselves in terms of physical appearance, fitness, and health, and considered these dimensions to be quite relevant and important to them. For all 5-point judgments, students' mean scale scores were at or greater than 3.6 (and standard deviations smaller than one unit), thus suggesting homogeneous positive endorsement. These trends varied somewhat across gender. Male students reported significantly more positive...

Value Systems in the Relation Between Physical Activity and Health Behaviors

In lieu of these differences in the value and self-evaluation ratings, we examined whether they could qualify the patterns of longitudinal relations we observed between physical activity and health behaviors. In other words, we evaluated whether the strength of these relations would change depending upon the degree of participants' endorsement of value systems conceptually related to physical activity and health. For instance, we wondered whether any effect of early physical activity on later...

Inherited Low Maximal Oxygen Uptake Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Metabolic Syndrome

A specific aim of our research has been to determine whether rats selected on the basis of low versus high intrinsic exercise performance also differed in VO2max, mitochondrial oxidativepathways, and cardiovascular risk factors linked to the metabolicsyndrome.After eleven generations of selective breeding based upon aerobic treadmill running, contrasting rat lines of Low Capacity Runners (LCR) and High Capacity Runners (HCR) were obtained 66, 67 . HCR were superior to the LCR for distance run...

Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Alterations Associated with Insulin Resistant States

In type 2 diabetes patients treated with steady-state plasma concentrations of insulin, muscle glycogen synthesis was 50 lower than in normal individuals and accounted for almost the entire insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both normal and diabetic subjects 17 . These studies demonstrate that under hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic conditions, muscle glycogen synthesis is the major pathway for glucose utilization in both normal and diabetic subjects and that impairment in muscle glycogen...

Aerobic Capacity

Aerobic capacity consists of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), anaerobic threshold (Than), and work economy 8 . Most previous works regard VO2max as the single best indicator of an individual's cardiorespiratory endurance capacity 8 . Although traditionally related to endurance performance such as cross-country skiing and running,VO2max has recently been established as a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality 9 . Improved VO2max can be acquired through endurance training and...

List of Abbreviations

Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside adenosine monophosphate protein kinase muscle-heart specific isoform of mitochondrial apoptosis-protease activating factor 1 apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease redox effector factor Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cAMP response element binding protein direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with a low growth retardation, aminoaciduria, cholestasis, iron overload high temperature...

Exercise Induced Improvements in Maximal Oxygen Uptake

In contrast to many studies 46, 47, 70, 71 we find that regular exercise training induces a substantial increase in VO2max in the rat-treadmill-model VO2max increases on average 10 per week until it levels off after 6-8 weeks of exercise training 42, 43, 72 . This is likely a result of the high aerobic intensity of the training regimen. Differences in training response reported in the literature are probably due to different training regimens used and or insufficient control of relative...

Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Aging

Mitochondrial DNA alterations in aging postmitotic cells have been examined extensively. Aging is associated with both mtDNA deletions and mtDNA point mutations. The highest levels of age-associated multiple mtDNA deletions are observed in postmitotic tissues with high energy demands such as heart, skeletal muscle, and brain 70,71 . The search for mtDNA point mutations in tissue homogenates of aging individuals gave rather disappointing results with very low levels of specific mutations (0.04...