Athens Greece

Sage species (Salvia spp.) have been used extensively as pharmaceutical herbs since antiquity. From ethnobotanical surveys (Palevitch et al., 1982 Skoula, 1994) it follows that infusions from dry or fresh plant parts are used against abdominal pains, coughs, throat-aches, stomatitis, gingivitis, tooth-aches, diarrhoea, stomac-aches, diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism and skin diseases. They are also used as abortifacients, expectorants, cerebral sedatives, psychotropics, stomach stimulants, for...

S sclarea

Souleles and Argyriadou (1997) analyzed the essential oil of Salvia sclarea growing wild in Greece. The oil was obtained by steam distillation of the leaves and flowers (yield 2.5 ). It has a characteristic odor and refractive index of n25D 1.535. The preliminary GC analysis showed that the oil contained a large number of components 72 of the constituents were identified. The identification of the individual GC peaks was made by comparing their retention times with those of the authentic...

Salvia plebeia RBrown

The species is widespread as a weed in southern and eastern Asia. In India it occurs throughout the plains, and up to 1 900 m, in the hills Watt, 1893 . In China it occurs throughout the country, except in the north-west and Tibet Iconographia, 1974 No. 3298 , and in this part of Asia it extends to Korea. In the Philippines it occurs in Luzon, in and about towns at low altitudes Merrill, 1923 . Confinement to these localities suggests that the species has been introduced at some early date, and...

Pharmacology 11 The Biologicalpharmacological Activity Of The Salvia Genus

Slovenian National AGRIS Centre, Biotechnical Faculty University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1111 Ljubljana, Slovenia Sage (Salvia species) has been used as a herb with beneficial healing properties for millennia. The name itself comes from the Latin word for health (salvare or heal). Ancient authors called it elelisphakon. This term most likely refers to several species, such as Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia pomifera L. (Rivera et al., 1994). A tenth century...

Institute of Materia Medica Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Peking Union Medical College 1 Xian Nong Tan Street

The genus Salvia has a variety of more than one hundred species distributed in several regions in China. Thirty of them are used as traditional and folk medicines (Huang 1991). The dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, called Danshen, is one of the most well known traditional Chinese medicines among these species. It has the effect of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis, and is widely used for the treat ment of coronary heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, hepatitis,...

Salvia yunnanensis CHWright

S. bodinieri Vaniot S. esquirolii Levl. The species goes under various book-names and local names in China, many of then having Lake Tien miltiorrhiza Iconographia 1974 No. 5292 , Lake Tien being the major lake in the eastern Yunnan, near Kunming, and among other names in Yunnan Small miltiorrhiza and Purple miltiorrhiza. The species appears to be confined to south-western Provinces of China, where it occurs in south-western Sichuan, Guizhou in the western part, and from the north of...

Botanical Source Of 12-demethylmulticaulin

Also by norditer-penoids and diterpenoids from S. multicaulis, the most potent substances being 12-demethylmulticaulin (structure 10), 12-demethylmultiorthoquinone (structure 11) and 12-methyl-5-dehydroacetylhorminone (structure 12) (Ulubelen et al, 1997). Among anitibacterial active hypargenins, i.e. abietane diterpenoids isolated from the root extract of S. hypargeia, hypargenin F (structure 13) showed antituberculous activity (Ulubelen et al., 1988). Also some flavonoids proved to be active...

Research Unit for Plant Growth and Development Department of Botany University of Natal Pietermaritzburg Private Bag

Salvia species of Africa, particularly southern Africa, have not been very well studied. With regard to taxonomy, a revision of Salvia in Africa was carried out by Hedge (1974). The 59 species recognized were divided into 18 species-groups, of which the seven occur in southern Africa. The author, however, pointed out that further work on African Salvia is required, especially a comparison with other Old World species would be of value. Most of the species are restricted to Africa. The...

Asexual Propagation

Sage plants are asexually propagated by means of cuttings, secondary stems, and tissue culture. Since tissue culture is the subject of a separate chapter, only the first two techniques are discussed here. They are segments of 8 to 12 cm length cut from the annual stems and then planted for rooting in pots or trays containing mixtures of soil, perlite and manure. Sage cut tings do not produce roots easily when compared with other Lamiaceae species (Table 1). Table 1 The rooting percentage and...

Preface

One of the widest-spread members of the Labiatae family, it features prominently in the pharmacopoeias of many countries throughout the world. From the Far East, through Europe and across to the New World several of the almost 1000 Salvia species have been used in many ways, e.g. essential oils used in perfumery, the flowers used as rouge, the leaves used for varicose veins, the seed oil as an emollient, the roots as a tranquiliser. The range of traditional...

Effect of the Developmental Stage

It is important to keep in mind that Salvia spp. is cropped for leaf oil rather than total plant production, while an inverse relationship exists between oil production and biomass, with the highest yield occuring after flowering is complete (Pitarevic et al., 1984, Putievsky et al., 1986, Hay 1993). For example, Mueller-Riebau et al. (1997) indicate that the best harvest time to obtain essential oils from S. fruticosa with the highest active ingredients is July. Perry et al. (1996) identified...

Labdane and Pimarane Type Diterpenoids

These type of diterpenoids are rather rare in Salvia species, although they are found in other Labiatae plants. Michavila et al. 1986 b isolated sclareol Fig. 79 and 6a-hydroxysclareol Fig. 80 from S. moorcrattiana. The aerial parts of S.wiedemannii has yielded 7 -hydroxysandracopimaric acid Fig. 81 and 14-oxopimaric acid Fig. 82 together with abietane diterpenoids Topgu and Ulubelen 1990, 1991 . A study of S. candidissima subsp. occidentalis yielded manoyloxide Fig. 83 Ulubelen et al., 1992 b...

Intraspecific Hybrids and Heterosis Breeding

Intraspecific hybridisation is widely used in the genetic improvement of Salvia species. The most important achievements in the case of clary sage are reported here. The hybridisation work of Elnir et al. 1991b is of great importance first of all from a theoretical point of view. Wild cultivated chemotypes of S. sclarea originally from Israel and Russia which differed in oil composition were crossed to study the inheri tance pattern and to gain new oil composition. The essential oil distilled...