Abridged Dictionaryindex

(Note: All page numbers included refer to the print version of Sauer's Manual of Skin Diseases.)

The purpose of the dictionary portion of this index is to define and classify some of the rarer dermatologic terms not covered in the text. Some very rare or unimportant terms have purposely been omitted, but undoubtedly some terms that are not rare and are important have also been omitted. Most of the histopathologic terms have been defined. Suggestions or corrections from the reader will be appreciated.

Acantholytic dermatosis, transient (Grover's disease). Characterized by intensely pruritic, small, firm, reddish-brown, papules mainly on the upper torso, aggravated by sweating. Seen predominantly in white, older men. Histologically, there is acantholysis of the epidermis. There is also a persistent form.

Acanthosis. An increase in thickness of the prickle cell layer.

Acid skin. An idiomatic term of Afro-Americans for recurrent scaly eruptions, such as tinea versicolor or seborrheic dermatitis, thought to be caused by eating excess "acid" foods.

Acne varioliformis. A chronic inflammatory disorder in adults on the scalp, the forehead, the nose and the cheeks, and rarely the trunk, characterized by the presence of papulopustular lesions that heal within a few days, leaving a smallpox-like scar. Recurrent outbreaks can continue for months and years.

Acral erythema. 88. Intense redness of palms and soles with dysesthesia and occasionally blisters. Associated with anticancer chemotherapy.

Acrocyanosis. Characterized by constant coldness and bluish discoloration of the fingers and the toes, which is more intense in cold weather.

Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, 173, 260. A chronic, biphasic disease seen rather commonly in western Europe. The first phase begins with an erythematous patch on an extremity, which, in weeks or months, develops the second phase of skin atrophy. The cause is believed to be a mixed infection with group B arboviruses, transmitted by the wood tick Ixodes ricinus, and a penicillin-sensitive bacterium or spirochete. Can be a chronic late stage of Lyme disease.

Acrodermatitis enteropathica. Condition of zinc deficiency manifested by inflammatory periorificial and acral dermatitis, alopecia, and diarrhea. When zinc was added to pediatric formulas and to hyperalimentation regiments it became rare. Autosomal recessive.

Acrodermatitis, papular, of childhood. See Gianotti-Crosti syndrome

Acrodynia. Mercury poisoning usually in infants. Itching, painful swelling, pink, cold, clammy hands and feet with hemorrhagic puncta. Stomatitis and loss of teeth occur. Greater than 0.001 mg per liter of urine.

Acrokeratosis, paraneoplastic (Bazex's syndrome). A specific sign of cancer of the upper respiratory and upper digestive tracts characterized by plum-colored acral skin lesions, paronychia, nail dysplasias, and keratoderma.

Acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf. A rare disease affecting the dorsa of the hands and the feet characterized by flat warty papules. Probably hereditary. Differentiate from flat warts and from epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

Acromegaly. Hyperpituitary condition causing gross thickening of the skin with characteristic facies, enlarged hands, feet, digits, hyperhidrosis, hypertrichosis, and hyperpigmentation.

Acropustulosis. A chronic pustular dermatitis of hands and feet identical with or related to pustular psoriasis, pustular bacterid, and dermatitis repens.

Pustular Bacterid

Figure I-1. Rarer dermatoses. (Schering Corp.)

Acropustulosis of infancy. 365. Tiny pustules or vesicles on the distal extremities that occur within the first year of life and are intensely pruritic. Spontaneous resolution usually occurs within the first 2 or 3 years of life.

Actinic prurigo. See Prurigo, actinic

Actinic reticuloid. A chronic photosensitive dermatitis eventuates into a generalized erythroderma seen mainly in elderly males and at times difficult to differentiate from mycosis fungoides clinically and histologically.

Acute hemorrhagic edema (Finkelstein disease, AHE). Benign cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis in children under two years of age. Polycyclic plaques with dark neurotic center in a medallion, target or cockayde configuration sparing the trunk. Resolves in 1 to 2 weeks without sequelae and can be postinfectious.

Adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease). A lipoma-like disorder characterized by irregular and painful deposits of fat in the subcutaneous tissue of the trunk and limbs, more common in women than in men.

Ainhum. Essentially a tropical disease of blacks that results in the amputation of a toe or toes because of constricting bands.

Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Multiple areas of cutaneous ossification, skeletal abnormalities, abnormalities of the parathyroid gland, mental retardation, and shortening of the metacarpal bones.

Albright's syndrome. Large hyperpigmented macules, precocious puberty in females, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. The macules have a jagged border like the coast of Maine, unlike cafe-au-lait macules that usually have a smooth, or coast of California, border.

Allergic granulomatosis. The combination of transitory pulmonary infiltrations of Loffler's syndrome, asthma, blood eosinophilia, and nodular purpuric or erythema multiforme-like skin lesions. Target organs beside skin and lung include kidney, upper respiratory tract, and central nervous system.

Allergy. An altered state of reactivity by a first contact and made manifest by subsequent specific contacts. 9, 66-90, 93, 380, 381f cosmetic, 65, 66, 281

drug, 82-90, 83f, 105, 120, 123, 134, 237, 290, 380, 381f food, 9-10

history taking for, 27

Alopecia, 88, 270-275. From the Greek alopekia, meaning "hair loss." areata, 38, 94, 272-275, 273f, 274f, 371, 371f

Cicatrisata, 275. Congenital triangular. Probably under reported, idiopathic, triangular-shaped temporal area of hair. Present at birth or in the first year of life that can be bilateral. (See congenital triangular alopecia).

male-pattern, 271, 378

mucinosa. See Mucinosis, follicular postpartum, 272

senile, 378

thyroid disease and, 257 in syphilis, 166, 168f, 274 totalis, 273

treatment of, 38,274-275 Alpha-hydroxy acids, 30

Amyloidosis. Cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare condition that can be suspected clinically but should be proven by histologic examination. Amyloid is a protein-carbohydrate complex, which on histologic section assumes a diagnostic stain when treated with certain chemicals. Several biochemical varieties have been delineated. Amyloidosis can be systemic or localized.

Localized amyloidosis (lichen amyloidosis), The skin only is involved. Clinically, this dermatosis appears as a patch of lichenified papules seen most commonly on the anterior tibial area of the legs. These pruritic lesions can be differentiated from lichen simplex chronicus or hypertrophic lichen planus by biopsy. Some authors feel the amyloid deposits are due to keratinocyte breakdown products caused by scratching and lichen amyloidosis is, therefore, a variant of lichen simplex chronicus.

Secondary amyloidosis, Secondary amyloid deposits are very rare in the skin but are less rare in the liver, the spleen, and the kidney, where they occur as a result of certain chronic infectious diseases, and in association with multiple myeloma.

Primary systemic amyloidosis, This peculiar and serious form of amyloidosis commonly involves the skin along with the tongue, the heart, and the musculature of the viscera. The skin lesions appear as transparent-looking, yellowish papules or nodules, which are occasionally hemorrhagic. Commonly (40%) "pinch purpura" which is ecchymosis due to minor trauma. This form is familial.

Anetoderma. See Atrophies of the skin, macular atrophy.

Angioedema, acquired. 88. May be associated with urticaria (see ChapJ.2), other illnesses especially B-cell lymphoproliferative disease (AAE-I) or an autoantibody directed against the C1 inhibitor molecule (AAE-II).

Angioedema, hereditary. Rare autosomal dominant form of angioedema that may be associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. Low level or dysfunctional inhibitor of the first component of complement is the cause.

Angiofibromas. 263, 264f, 312, 314f, 366. Asymptomatic skin-colored or pinkish-brown asymptomatic telangiectatic papules usually symmetrically scattered over central face. When multiple they have been considered pathognomonic for tuberous sclerosis but have been reported with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (Kimura's disease). A rare benign condition, usually seen on the face, characterized by a solitary or, less frequently, multiple dermal or subcutaneous nodules. There is a blood eosinophilia and there are eosinophils in the histologic infiltrate. Some consider Kimura's disease to be the systemic form only with deeper, larger lesions.

Angioma serpiginosum. Characterized by multiple telangiectases, which may start from a congenital vascular nevus but that often arise spontaneously. This rare vascular condition is to be differentiated from Schamberg's disease, Majocchi's disease, and pigmented purpuric dermatitis of Gougerot and Blum.

Angiosarcoma. 384f . Malignancy of vascular tissue usually seen on the face and scalp of elderly male patients, or at the site of chronic lymphedema when it is referred to as Stewart-Treves syndrome.

Anhidrosis. 8. The partial or complete absence of sweating, seen in ichthyosis, extensive psoriasis, scleroderma, prickly heat, vitamin A deficiency, one form of ectodermal dysplasia and other diseases. Partial anhidrosis is produced by many antiperspirants.

Anhidrotic asthenia, tropical. Described in the South Pacific and in the desert in World War II. Soldiers showed increased sweating of neck and face and anhidrosis (lack of sweating) below the neck. It was accompanied by weakness, headaches, and subjective warmth and was considered a chronic phase of prickly heat.

Annular atrophic plaques of the face (Christianson's disease). Rare sclerotic annular plaques mainly on the face. Chronic, progressive, recalcitrant to treatment with unknown cause. May be a variant of scleroderma.

Anthralin. 37, 133. A proprietary name for dihydroxyanthranol, which is a strong reducing agent useful in the treatment of chronic cases of psoriasis. Its action is similar to that of chrysarobin.

Anthrax. 392, 392f. A primary chancre-type disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, occurring in persons who work with the hides and the hair of infected sheep, horses, or cattle. A pulmonary form is known.

Antimalarial agents, 97, 301. Dermatologically active agents include quinacrine (Atabrine), chloroquine (Aralen), and hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil). Their mode of action is unknown, but these agents are used in the treatment of chronic discoid lupus erythematosus and the polymorphous light eruption.

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Hypercoagulable state related to presence of lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. Cutaneous necrosis, vasculitis, thrombophlebitis, and ecchymoses occur. Recurrent inflammatory vascular thrombosis of veins and arteries can occur throughout the body and treatment is based on anticoagulation. Recurrent fetal loss and thrombocytopenia can also occur.

Aplasia cutis congenita. Rare condition showing absence of skin at the time of birth. It presents with ulcerations, especially on the scalp that heal with scars.

Argyll Robertson pupils. Small irregular pupils that fail to react to light but react to accommodation. This is a late manifestation of neurosyphilis, particularly tabes.

Arsenic. 85. Inorganic arsenic preparation include Fowler's solution and Asiatic pills and were used in the treatment of resistant cases of psoriasis. Can cause arsenical pigmentation, actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and underlying malignancies (especially lung and bladder). Other sources are well water and industrial sources such as pesticides, sheep dips, metal ores, and fabric dyes. Organic arsenic agents include neoarsphenamine and Mapharsen, used formerly in the treatment of syphilis.

Arteritis temporal (giant cell arteritis). Inflammation of cranial arteries most commonly the temporal artery that may show overlying swelling, erythema, tenderness and pain in the temporal scalp. Blindness may occur due to involvement of the retinal artery.

Arthus phenomenon. Characterized by local anaphylaxis in a site that has been injected repeatedly with a foreign protein.

Ashy dermatosis. Also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans. An uncommon pigmentary disorder characterized by ash-colored macules that slowly increase in size and number. The border may be erythematous. Could be a variant of erythema perstans.

Asymmetric periflexural exanthem of childhood (APEC). See unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (ULE).

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome (Louis-Bar). 96, 319. Clinically shows oculocutaneous telangiectasia, progressive cerebellar ataxia, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, increased incidence of malignancy, x-ray hypersensitivity, and autosomal recessive inheritance.

Atopic eczema. See Eczema, atopic

Atrophie blanche, 111, 382. See also Atrophies of the skin

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  • kiera
    Can Prickley heat manifest into Grovers disease?
    3 years ago

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