Surgery and HPLC methodology

Male Wistar rats, 200-250g, 6 in each group, were anaesthetised with chloral hydrate (400mg kg). A guide cannula was inserted into the hippocampus CA2 region using standard stereotaxic techniques (A P -4.3 mm M L 4.0 mm D V -3.0 mm) of Paxinos and Watson11. The dialysis experiments commenced 48h post operation. The probe was connected to a micro-infusion pump (Infusion syringe pump 22, Harvard apparatus) and continuously perfused at l min with Ringer solution containing 145 mM NaCl 4 mM KCl 1.3...

References

Hall J.A., Kirk J., Potts J.R., Rae C., Kirk K. 1996. Anion channel blockers inhibit swelling-activated anion, cation, and nonelectrolyte transport in HeLa cells. Am. J. Physiol. 271 C579-C588. 2. Henderson L.M., Chappel J.B., Jones O.T. 1989. Superoxide generation is inhibited by phospholipase A2 inhibitors. Biochem. J. 264 249-255. 3. Hoffmann E.K., Pedersen S.F. 1998. Sensors and signal transduction in the activation of cell volume regulatory ion transport systems. In Cell Volume Regulation,...

Regulation Of Taurine Biosynthesis

Contrary to taurine transporters, which have been cloned and characterized133661, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms in the regulation of CSAD activity. Jerkins and Steele26 reported that the hepatic CSAD activity was decreased in female rats, adrenalectomized rats and rats fed L-methionine. The decrease of CSAD activity was due to reduction in CSAD protein. The same authors also reported that CSAD activity in liver of rats fed with sulfur amino acids was markedly reduced24,...

Release Of Taurine From Son Astrocytes

Application of hypotonic stimuli increases the basal release of both endogenous taurine12 and pre-loaded 3H -taurine from acutely isolated supraoptic nuclei from adult male rats (Fig 1A)7. Both uptake and release of 3H -taurine are inhibited by the selective glial metabolic blocker fluorocitrate, whereas they are unaffected by the elimination of all SON neurons by an excitotoxic treatment with NMDA7, in agreement with the specific astrocytic localization of endogenous taurine in this...

Results

Fig. 2 shows the effects of taurine on mitochondrial swelling induced by 5 mM Pi plus Ca2+ at different (50, 25 and 10 M ) concentrations in mitochondria energised by 10 mM succinate. The addition of Pi in the presence of Ca2+ was followed by a fast and extensive Ca2+-dependent decrease of absorbance, indicative of mitochondrial swelling. The absorbance change correlated with the concentration of Ca2+ and was completely reversed by 0.5 M cyclosporin A (CsA), but was not affected by 10 mM...

Results And Discussion

The 3H -taurine uptake through the BBB in SHR at different perfusion times is shown in Table 1. The brain volume for the distribution of 3H -taurine (Vd) values, corrected for the brain volume using the sucrose space, in the SHR were 4.98, 11.7,13.2 l g at 10, 15, 30 s perfusion, respectively. There was a time-dependent increase. But the BBB permeability-surface area product (PS) value was 45 decreased at 30 s perfusion, to 26.5 l min g. Table 1. Brain uptake of 3H -taurine and uC -sucrose in...

Results In Vitro Experiments

The experimental conditions used to carry out the various in vitro studies with PHZ were established on the basis of the release of K+ from RBCs as a function of the incubation time, concentration of added PHZ and the timing of the pretreatment with the doses of TAU listed in Figs. 1 to 3. From these studies, an incubation time of 60 min, a concentration of TAU (or a related sulfur compound) of 150 mM, and a concentration of PHZ of 75 mM in the RBC suspension were adopted. Because of assay...

Results Tissue Ultrastructure

After treatment normoxic rats survived well, hyperoxic rats suffered and one of the saline-treated group died. Hyperoxic treatment caused tissue damage in the untreated group, with diffused hematoma in liver and lungs and edema in the thorax. Hypotaurinetreated hyperoxic rats and, to a lesser extent, taurine-treated ones appeared normal from the anatomic point of view. It is well known that hyperoxic treatment causes severe damage to mitochondria and membrane derangement. In our study,...

Resultsand Discussion

The hydrolytic activity of MMP-9 activated by various amounts of LPS (lng ml-10000ng ml) in murine PEC is shown in Fig 1. EDTA inhibited the hydrolytic activity of MMP-9 by chelating Zn ++ and Ca ++ that is required for the reaction. 1,10-phenanthroline, which chelates divalent metals, also inhibited MMP-9 activity. However, PMSF, an inhibitor of serine protease such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, did not inhibit MMP-9 activity, consistent with the characteristics of this enzyme620. There was no...

Role of Osmotic Stress in Altered Calcium Transport

Another action of taurine that may contribute to altered calcium transport in the taurine depleted heart involves an osmotic linked mechanism. Car-diomyocytes exposed to medium containing 5 mM B-alanine lose 50 of their intracellular taurine pool, a large enough change to affect the osmotic balance across the cell membrane and trigger a volume regulatory mecha-nism44. This compensatory mechanism is important to the cell, not only because it restores cell volume and osmotic balance, but because...

Rtpcr

First strand cDNA was prepared from poly(A)+mRNA using Superscript II (Life Technologies) with oligo-(dT) primers. PCR primers identical to those used for amplification of TAUT from rat brain18 were used, with the following sequences 5'-3' (sense) tgt ctg aaa gac ttc cac aaa gac atc antisense tca tga ggg ttg ctc tgg agt gaa agg. 2.5 U Amplitaq Gold (Perkin-Elmer) and the following amplification conditions (GeneAmp 2400) were used heat activated 94 C, 10 minutes 43 cycles of 94 C for 30 seconds...

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Isolation and Calcium Uptake Measurements

Both EDL muscles of male Wistar rats aged 3 months were quickly removed and homogenized at 0 C in 1 ml of a buffer solution (200 mM sucrose, 10 mM sodium azide, 1 mM EDTA, 40 mM L-histidine, pH 7.8). The light fraction of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was isolated according to the method of O'Brien13. The rate of Ca2+ uptake by the SR was determined with the Ca2+ fluorescent indicator fura-2510. The assay was initiated by injection of 15 g SR in 200 l assay medium which contained 10 M Ca2+, 5 M...

Serum and tissue analysis in chronic hyperosmolality

Serum osmotic pressure and ion concentrations of cardiac tissue of rats subjected to chronic hyperosmolality are shown in Table 1. Cellular shrinkage by elevation of serum NaCl or glucose over a 4-5 day period is accompanied by an accumulation of cellular osmoles and, in consequence, a partial mitigation of cellular shrinkage. In contrast, elevation of serum osmolality by heightened urea levels following bilateral nephrectomy does not result in either cellular shrinkage nor the accumulation of...

Skinned Fiber Preparation and Ca2 Sensitivity Determination

Bundles of rabbit psoas muscle were chemically skinned as described by Brenner2. Bundles of about 10 fibers were dissected and mounted on a force transducer. Sarcomere length was measured by laser diffraction1 and adjusted to 2.2 m. Fibers were stimulated by immersion in a solution containing 0.54 M buffered free Ca2+, 5 mM EGTA CaEGTA, 10 mM imidazole, 5 mM MgATP, 10 mM caffeine, 20 mM taurine or 20 mM GES, pH 7.2 and ionic strength x 2 adjusted at 138 mM. Fiber bundles were relaxed between...

Slice Preparation

Experiments were performed on 400-pm-thick transverse hippocampal slices obtained from adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g), following standard methods. Briefly, after the rat was decapitated, its brain was rapidly removed and dropped into ice-cold standard medium (composition in mM NaCl 119, NaHCO3 26.2, KCl 2.5, KH2PO4 1, MgSO4 1.3, CaCl2 2.5 and glucose 11) pregassed with 95 O2 and 5 CO2. Once the hippocampi were dissected out, they were sliced by a manual tissue chopper and placed...

Solutions

Drugs applied by addition to the standard perfusion solution included, ethylene glycol bis-(b-aminoethyl ether N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), propane (bepridil hydrochloride), kynurenic acid, nickel chloride, nifedipine, picrotoxin, taurine, tetraethyl-ammonium chloride (TEA) and thapsigargin (all from Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA). Taurine was used in these experiments at a concentration of 10 mM. The osmolality increase caused by adding 25 mM TEA chloride to the standard medium was balanced...

Spectrophotometry Analysis of Quinones

In order to address the mechanism of action of taurine and related analogs in the reduction of oxidative damage to DNA, an experiment was performed to measure quinone formation from the oxidation of L-dopa. Taurine and taurine analogs were all tested at a concentration of 10 mM. Reaction conditions were identical to those described for the DNA damage assays, except at the end of the 15 minute incubation period the samples were immediately read in a spectrophotometer at 490 nm to measure...

Statistical Analyses

For the evaluation of statistical differences in the microdialysis experiments, the mean baseline value for taurine was calculated by averaging the concentration of the three perfusate sample values immediately before injection of either ethanol or ethanol + MK801 in the acute studies or during the first 2 hours of withdrawal in the chronic studies. The variation of taurine concentrations in each perfusate was then expressed as a percentage of the baseline value and then analysed by two-way...

Statistical Analysis

All samples were run in duplicate and each value of N represents an independent replication. An N 5-6 was used in all experiments. In pilot studies, mean concentrations of the adducts (nmol adduct nmol guanine per sample) were calculated. The mean adduct concentrations from the damaged samples were compared to the mean adduct concentrations from the damaged with taurine. Statistical comparisons were made to determine the protective effects of taurine in reference to individual adduct...

Statistical Analysis of the Data

The experimental results were analyzed for statistical significance by unpaired Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey's post-hoc test using a commercial software program (StatMost for Windows 2.01 from Datamost Corporation, Salt Lake City, UT). Differ-ences were considered as statistically significant at p 0.05. Values were reported as the means SEM for n 6. Table 1. Effect of sulk-containing compounds on PHZ-induced K+ leakage, MDA formation, GSH depletion and...

Subjects

Twenty one male patients, aged 75 to 95 years, sufferhg from coronary heart disease, multiple cerebral infarction, cancer, subdural hematoma or respiratory failure, were grouped according to the duration of tube feeding, as shown in Table 1. Table 1. Characteristics of old aged male patients undergoing long term enteral nutrition (EN) Table 1. Characteristics of old aged male patients undergoing long term enteral nutrition (EN) * Figures represent mean value SD ranges in brackets. * Figures...

Surgical procedure

Wistar male rats (220-280 g) were anaesthetised with urethane (1.80 g kg) and fixed in a stereotaxic frame. A burr hole of 3 mm diameter was drilled through the skull. A microdialysis (MD) probe (2 mm length, 0.5 mm outer diameter, Carnegie Medicin, Stockholm Sweden) wasimplanted in the parietal cortex. As perfusate artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF composition NaCl 125 mM KCl 3 mM CaCh 1.1 mM MgCh, 0.8 mM N2HPO4, 0.5 mM NaHCO3 25 mM D-glucose 6 mM) was used at a flow rate of 2 l min....

Swellinginduced Leak Pathways

If mammalian cells are exposed to a hypotonic solution, they initially swell as almost perfect osmometers. They reach a maximal degree of cell swelling within the first minutes, and thereafter they regulate their volume back towards the initial value. This back regulation, termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD), involves net loss of KCl and net loss of organic osmo-lytes. Taurine is an important organic osmolyte in mammalian cells, and loss of taurine is often taken to indicate a reduction in...

Synthesis of chlorotaurine

Chlorotaurine was synthesized freshly each day by reaction of taurine and NaOCl in a 1 1 molar ratio. Chlorotaurine formation and hypochlorite disappearance were monitored by W absorbance, absorbance maxima at 252 nm ( 429 M-1.cm-1), and 291 nm ( 142 M-1. cm-1), respectively9. The first order decay of chlorotaurine to sulphoacetaldehyde could then be measured by HPLC after incubation of various concentrations of chlorotaurine (0 to 3.65 mM) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer for various times at 37 C,...

Synthesis Of Taurine Analogues From Alkenes

Preparation of 2-aminocycloalkanesulfonic acids Fabrizio Machetti, Martina Cacciarini, Fernando Catrambone, Franca M. Cordero, *Maria Frosini, Francesco De Sarlo Dipartimento di Chimica Organica U. Schff , and Centro di Studio sulla Chimica e la Struttura dei Composti Eterociclici e loro Applicazioni, C.N.R., Universit di Firenze, Via G. Capponi 9, 1-50121 Firenze, Italy. * Istituto di Scienze Farmacologiche, Universit di Siena, Italy Abstract ( )trans 2-Aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid and (...

Taurine and skeletal muscle potassium channels

K+ channels comprise a large family of genetically distinct entities with distinct biophysical properties and physiological roles. In heart taurine modulates the function of many types of K+ channels, such as delayed rectifier K+ channels, important for action potential duration, and ATP sensitive K+ channels (Katp) that in excitable tissues couple cell metabolism to membrane electrical activity2223. Katp channels are abundantly present on sarcolemma of striated muscle fibers, where they exert...

Taurine and skeletal muscle sodium channels

It is well known that voltage-gated Na+ channels play a pivotal role in excitable tissues for the generation and propagation of the action potential. Genetic defects of skeletal muscle Na+ channels result in changes of excitation pattern and muscle contractility being responsible for recessive hereditary disorders ranging from myotonias to paralyses. Figure 2. Effect of in vitro application of taurine on resting macroscopic chloride conductance of fast-twitch extensor digitorurn longus (EDL)...

Taurine Composition Tables

In preparing taurine composition tables of animal food and algae, data on 91 foods containing taurine were collected from reference papers. Also, 51 processed foods and others were analyzed for taurine content (mg l00g). In this analysis, food samples were first homogenized with 3 sulfosalicylic acid solution, then each homogenate was centrifuged to obtain the supernatant for an amino acid analysis. An automatic amino acid analyser determined the concentrations of the amino acid.

Taurine Intake And Excretion In Patients Undergoing Long Term Enteral Nutrition

Chen2 'Dept. Food Science andNutrition, Dankook University, Seoul 140-71 4, Korea, 2Institute of Sports Medicine, The Third Teaching School of Clinical Medicine, Beijing Medical University, Beijing 100083, China Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether serum concentration and urinary excretion of taurine are influenced by marginal taurine intake. Twenty one male patients (75 to 95 years old), suffering from coronary heart disease, multiple...

Taurine uptake assay

The assay used in measuring taurine uptake was performed as previously described13. Briefly, the reaction was performed in KBR solution and for uptake kinetic experiments, unlabelled taurine was added in varying concentrations (10 M - 10 mM). For other experiments, unlabelled taurine was added to a final concentration of either 50 M or 1.5 mM. Equal amounts of 3H taurine were added to each test tube (1 Ci) and incubated in a 37 C water bath for 2 minutes. The reaction was initiated by the...

TG Polymorphism is a Strong Enhancer for the Promoter Function of the Rat Taurine Transporter Gene

To determine the role of the TG repeat (TG22) that is found upstream of the basal promoter DNA sequence (from -19 1 to -235), a p-177 reporter with TG repeat deletion was prepared by PCR. As shown in Fig. 5, transient transfection of the p-269 reporter (which contains the TG repeat) into MDCK and LLC-PK cells showed a 100- to 200-fold increase in luciferase reporter gene expression, as compared with control (pGL3-Basic vector). However, transient transfection of the p- 177 reporter, which does...

The Biological Sulfur Cycle

The biological sulfur cycle, showing the various oxidation states for reduction and oxidation (odd-numbered oxidation states require dimeric intermediates). Sample oxidation states are -2 sulfide 0 sulfur +2 sulfinate, thiosulfide +4 sulfonate, taurine +6 sulfate. Major entry points of inorganic sulfur into the cycle are indicated in gray boxes. Mammals are capable only of sulfur oxidation. Plants, bacteria and fungi can perform the complete cycle. Unlike the rest of the biosphere,...

The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition And Taurine

'Mitri Palmi, 'Gisele Tchuisseu Youmbi, 'Giampietro Sgaragli, 'Antonella Meini, 'Alberto Benocci, 'Fabio Fusi, 'Maria Frosini, 'Laura Della Corte, 3Gavin Davey and 3Keith Francis Tipton 'Istituto di Scienze Farmacologiche, Universit di Siena, Siena, Italy 2Dipartimento di Farmacolog a Preclinica e Cl nica, Universit di Firenze, Firenze, Italy 3Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland Abstract Perturbed cellular calcium homeostasis has been implicated in both apoptosis and...

The Possible Role Of Taurine And Gaba As Endogenous Cryogens In The Rabbit

'Maria Frosini, 'Casilde Sesti, 'Mitri Palmi, 'Massimo Valoti, 'Fabio Fusi, 'Piero Mantovani, 2Loria Bianchi, 2Laura Delia Corte and 'Giampietro Sgaragli 'Istituto di Scienze Farmacologiche, Via Piccolomini 170, Siena, Italy 2Dipartimento di Farmacolog a, Viale Pieraccini 9, Florence, Italy Abstract We investigated whether heat-stress induced hyperthermia could enhance release of both endogenous taurine and GABA from nerve cells into the extracellular compartment, thus acting like endogenous...

The relationship between intracellular taurine content and taurine cardioprotection against ischemic injury

The myocardial taurine content is elevated in response to the chronic stresses that trigger the development of heart failure1819. Conversely, in acute episodes of stress, myocardial taurine levels decline2021. There is no evidence that elevated levels of taurine are harmful to humans, As shown in Figure 5, exposure of the cells to 20 mhM taurine for 24 h elevated the intracellular taurine content from 240 pmol to 1600 pmol mg protein. (A) HPLC Analysis Profile of Taurine (B) Taurine...

Time min

Effect oftaurine on mitochondrial membrane depolarisation induced by Ca2+ and Pi. Mitochondria (lmg ml) were incubated in medium (195 mM mannitol, 65 mM sucrose, 3 mM HEPES, pH 7.2) containing 13.3 M rotenone, in the presence or absence of 10 mM taurine. AY was measured by using a TPMP+-ion selective electrode. After the calibration, 10 mM succinate (K+ salt) was added, followed by addition of50 M Ca2+. At steady-state Ca2+ accumulation, addition of 5 mM Pi was made. All traces are...

Tissue analysis

Rats were anaesthetised with ether, and killed by cutting through the neck with secateurs. Blood was collected from the severed neck, immediately centrifuged, and osmotic pressure (Wescor 5500 vapour pressure osmometer), and ion concentration (Na+ and K+) (flame photometry) were measured in the serum. The hearts were removed and quickly transferred to liquid nitrogen. In some cases, a small amount of tissue (about 20 mg fresh weight) was removed from the ventricle, and extracted fresh in 7...

Transcription Factor Sp1 is Critical for the Basal Promoter Function of TauT

The TauT basal promoter sequence contains four potential Sp1 sites, located at -162 to -168, -155 to -150, -144 to -139, and -133 to -128 in relationship to the transcription start site. To test if Sp1 transcription factor is Figure 3. Deletion analysis ofthe proximal 5'-flanking region ofthe TauT gene. Recombinant plasmids containing nested deletions of the proximal 5'-flanking region of TauT (in pGL3-Basic) were generated by PCR. A (top) Constructs are numbered according to the position...

Treatment of DNA

DNA was damaged using a Fenton type reaction with FeCk, H2O2 and L-dopa, similar to the method described by Spencer et al.12. Reaction mixtures contained (final concentrations) PBS (phosphate buffered saline) (pH 7.4), calf thymus DNA (100 g tube), H2O2 (2.8mM), FeCl3 (60 M), and L-dopa (100 M). Taurine or taurine analogs were tested for their effects on oxidative damage to DNA. Control tubes contained only DNA and PBS. The final assay volume was 1 ml, and reaction mixtures were aliquoted into...

Uptake Experiments in Isolated and in Cultured Cells

3H Taurine (Amersham, 24.1 Ci mmol -200,000 dpm) was used with non-radioactive taurine in concentrations from 0.003 to 100 M. Time-dependent and inhibition experiments utilizing B-alanine, hypotaurine, or GABA, 0.1 nM to 3 mM, were performed in the presence of 40 nM 3H taurine. The cell preparation (250 300,000 per ml) was preincubated at 25 C for 2 min in Ringer solution. Incubation was started by the addition of the substrate. After 2 min the process was stopped by filtration through glass...

Uptake of 3Htaurine into oocytes

3 days after cRNA injection into Xenopus oocytes, single oocytes were used for determination of taurine uptake. Oocytes were incubated for 4 hours in standard saline containing 3H-taurine. For experiments with drugs and inhibitors, the bathing solution contained taurine at a concentration of 0.1 mmol, for periods up to 4 hours. At the end of each experiment the oocytes were washed rapidly three times in taurine-free solution, external fluid blotted free, and, after lysing in 10 sodium dodecyl...

Visible Spectra

The formation of a ternary copper(II) - Gly-Gly - taurine complex in aqueous solution was confirmed by visible spectroscopy. UV-visible spectra of the copper(II) - Gly-Gly and copper(II) - Gly-Gly - taurine (1 1 1 and 1 1 8) systems were recorded at various pH values. The values and molar extinction coefficients as a function ofpH are summarised in Table 2. The Xmax values for the copper(II) - Gly-Gly system do not show a pH dependence in the pH range studied as the two species present in this...

Western and Northern Blot Methods

The purified IgG fraction from rabbit anti-CDO serum and the cDNA for CDO were gifts from Dr. Yu Hosokawa (National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan)12. The cDNA fragment was cloned into pBluescript SK+. A partial CDO cDNA was prepared using complementary DNA probes corresponding to bp 459-717 of rat liver CDO13. DECAprobe template-actin-mouse and DECAprobe tem-plate-18S-mouse (Ambion, Inc., Austin, TX) were used as internal standards for Northern...

Taurine and calcium ion availability in skeletal muscle

As already stated taurine is able to control excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling in cardiomyocytes by modulating Ca2+ channels and therefore the influx of Ca2+ that is pivotal for cardiac contraction22. As a consequence all the other Ca2+-dependent mechanisms are affected26. The e-c coupling of skeletal muscle fiber is almost independent of external Ca2+ nonetheless, taurine modulates intracellular Ca2+ levels. As proposed by Huxtable, intracellular taurine can bind, with a low affinity, to...

Cloning of the 5Flanking Region of the Rat Taurine Transporter Gene

The rat P1 genomic DNA library was screened (Genome Systems, Inc., St. Louis, MO) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using three sets of Taurine 4, edited by Della Corte et al. Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers, New York, 2000. oligonucleotide primers based on the DNA sequence of rat brain taurine transporter cDNA (rB16a)17. The primers used for generating the PCR probes were sense primer 5'-GCCAACGCCGCGATCGCCGCCAA-3 ' antisense primer 5'-CTCCTCGTTTTGCTTGAGAGGC-3 ' sense primer 5'-AT...

Materials And Methods Chemicals

All the amino acids and sulfur-containing compounds used in the study were obtained from local commercial sources TAU, hypotaurine (HYTAU), isethionic acid (ISA), N-acetylcysteine (NACY S), L-cysteic acid (CA) and aminomethanesulfonic acid (AMSA) were from Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO ethanesulfonic acid sodium salt (ESA) and 1,2-ethanedisulfonic acid (EDSA) were from Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, WI B-alanine (BALA) and N-(2-acetamido)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (ACES) were from TCI...

Effects Of Long Term Treatment With Taurine In Mice Fed A High Fat Diet

Improvement in cholesterol metabolism and vascular lipid accumulation by taurine Shigeru Murakami, Yukiko Kondo, and Takatoshi Nagate Medicinal Research Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co.Ltd., Ohmiya, Japan Abstract Hypocholesterolemic effects of taurine in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet are well established. However, there are few studies on long-term effects of taurine on cholesterol metabolism. In the present study, taurine was dissolved in drinking water and given to...

Appendix Some Taurine Analogues Referred To In This Book

(a) Some metabolites and natural analogues 2-aminoethane-sulfonic acid NH2-CH2-CH2-SO3H 2-aminoethane-sulfinic acid NH2-CH2-CH2-SO2H (hypotaurine) (CYSTEIC ACID) cysteinesulfinic acid 2-amino-3-hydroxy-1 -propanesulfonic acid HOOC-CH(NH2)-CH2-SO2H N-(1-carboxyethyl)-taurine cerilipin CO-NH-CH2-CH2-SO3H (b) Substitutions and simple modifications

Cell Culture and Taurine Transport

RAW 264.7 cells were cultured and maintained in 90 mm culture dishes in DMEM medium containing 10 heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS) and penicillin (100 U ml) streptomycin (100 Mg ml), and in 6-well plates for taurine uptake experiments. Cultures were maintained at 37 C in 5 CO2 incubator until they reached confluence. Taurine transportation study was performed according to the previous report21, i.e., when the cells were confluent on the dish, the medium was removed from the monolayer...

Participants

Fernanda Amicarelli Dip. di Biologia di Base Universita dell' Aquila Via Vetoio Dr. Junichi Azuma Dept. Clin. Evalut. Med. & Therapeutic Osaka University 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi Osaka 565-0871 Dr. Steven I. Baskin USA Medical Research Inst. of Chemistry 3 100 Ricketts Point Road Aberdeen Proving Grd-EA., MD Dr. Jennifer J. Bedford Dept. of Physiology University of Otago P.O. Box 913 Dunedin New Zealand Ms. Francesca Bellucci 1 st. Scienze Farmacologiche Universita di Siena Via ES...

The Functions Of Taurine Bile Salt Conjugation

One clear mammalian function of taurine is a metabolic one that of bile salt synthesis. In addition, taurine can conjugate with various xenobiotics. In mammals, xenobiotic conjugation seems to be a relict pathway, significant for certain compounds in certain species but in general quantitatively minor compared with GSH, sulfate, and glucuronide conjugation. Invertebrates contain surface tension-lowering substances in the alimentary canal. These are typically sulfate or taurine conjugates with...

Hsch2ch2chnh2co2h

Mammalian transsulfuration. Figure 7. Cysteine metabolism in mammals. The Functions and Metabolism of Cysteine The functions of cysteine include protein synthesis and GSH synthesis for redox and conjugation functions. Cysteine is both neurotoxic and readily oxidized to cystine, a poorly soluble compound. GSH serves as a transportable form of extracellular cysteine as it is less susceptible to oxidation. Cell cysteine levels are lower than GSH levels. Cysteine acts at the NMDA...

Recovery of taurine transporter activity by ionomycin

AS the intracellular concentration of Ca2 is important for the activation of macrophages, RAW264.7 cells were co-treated with rapamycin and ionomycin IM simultaneously. The concentration of rapamycin was fixed at 1 ng ml and the concentration of IM was increased 10-fold from 20 to 2,000 ng ml. When the concentration of IM was increased in the rapamycin-treated cells, the recovery of the activity of TAUT was not altered by the addition of IM Table 11 . However in the case of co-treatment with...