Histopathology of Paratendinous Alterations

Inflammatory cell reaction, circulatory impairment, and edema formation occur in the acute phase of Achilles paratendinopathy.1,2 Movement of the Achilles tendon within a paratenon filled with fibrin exudates may result in clinically palpable crepitus. If the management or the natural healing process of this acute condition fails, the fibrin may organize and form adhesions that interfere with the normal gliding-movement between the tendon, paratenon, and crural fascia.4,19 In chronic Achilles...

Murphy Procedure Achilles Tendon

Murphy's procedure with anterior advancement of the Achilles tendon for spastic conditions. Figure 24.17. Murphy's procedure with anterior advancement of the Achilles tendon for spastic conditions. Generally, Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius lengthening should be reserved for patients requiring significant foot reconstruction related to a tight gastroc-soleus complex, and for those needing to avoid forefoot ulceration such as diabetics. Diabetic patients benefit from Achilles...

Nqh

Bacterial infections, of complex Achilles tendon region wounds, 208 Badminton players, Achilles tendon ruptures in, 43 Becker's muscular dystrophy, 248-249 Biomechanics of the Achilles tendon, 5, 7, 12 of musculoskeletal disorders, 70-73 Boots, for Achilles tendon rupture management, 145 Bruising Achilles tendon rupture-related, 142, 153 calf muscle tear-related, 156, 157 anatomy of, 9, 10, 12, 29, 133 dimensions of, 34 function of, 133 imaging of, 10, 25, 34, 136 impingement of, 135...

Cerebral Palsy

Lower Extremity Free Flap

Movement disorders in cerebral palsy result from ante-, peri- or post-natal insult to the immature brain. Although the primary neurological injury is nonprogressive, secondary musculoskeletal pathology deteriorates in untreated children. Depending on the level and extent of the brain lesion, the child may suffer from hemiplegic, spastic diplegic, or total-body-involvement cerebral palsy. This chapter focuses on ankle and foot abnormalities in cerebral palsy, and refers to the spastic rather...

Complications

Multiple Percutaneous Longitudinal Tenotomies Four patients developed a subcutaneous hematoma from one of the stab wounds, and a further patient suffered from a superficial infection of one of the stab wounds. This was treated by oral antibiotics for five days, and healed uneventfully. Three patients complained of hypersensitivity of the stab wounds. They were counseled to rub hand cream over the stab wounds several times a day, and were asymptomatic by six postoperative weeks. One patient...

Custom Foot Orthotics

Functional custom foot orthoses were initially developed between 1954 and 1966.18 These devices have long been prescribed to active individuals in their exercise shoes to increase comfort, to prevent complaints of injury, or to rehabilitate from injuries. The potential benefits of functional foot orthotics as an intervention between the foot and the ground reaction forces on the lower extremity allow individuals to pursue their sports and remain functionally active. The success rate of custom...

Does the Use of NSAIDs Affect Achilles Tendon Healing

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in soft-tissue disorders. Many different drugs exist within this category and their use is not without potential side-effects, such as gastrointestinal disturbances and renal damage. What is the evidence that they are helpful in the management of Achilles disorders, and is there any evidence that their use might be potentially harmful Physicians have frequently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Achilles...

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Tendon injuries can be acute or chronic and are caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, either alone or in combination. In acute trauma, extrinsic factors predominate. Overuse injuries generally have a multifactorial origin.4 In chronic tendon disorders, interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors is common.5 There is sparse scientific knowledge about the etiology and patho-physiology of chronic painful tendon conditions, and most hypotheses put forward have not been substantiated by...

G

241-245 clubfoot surgery-related, 237 heel-to-toe, 72, 73 phases of, 241-242 gastrocnemius-soleus complex in, 72 Gastrocnemius muscle muscle, 6, 7-8 anatomy of, 6-7 fascicular shortening in, 21-22 function of, 72 tears to, 226 length of, in cerebral palsy patients, 242-244 tight, 218, 219 Gastrocnemius recession, 222 in cerebral palsy patients, 244, 245 endoscopic, 226-231, 232 indications for, 167 open, 224, 225 Gastrocnemius-soleus complex, 141. See also Soleus muscle Achilles tendon...

Genetic Susceptibility to Achilles Tendon Injury

Genetic factors may be associated with an individual's susceptibility to Achilles tendon injury.810 This was originally proposed in studies reporting an association between the ABO blood group and Achilles tendon ruptures or chronic Achilles In a retrospective study, Jozsa et al.11 compared the frequencies of the ABO and Rh blood groups of 292 Hungarian patients with primary Achilles tendon ruptures or re-ruptures and 540 patients with various other tendon ruptures with a control group...

Grf

In a spastic diplegic child with crouched knee and toe-to-toe gait, the ankle is actually in a neutral position. Excessive lengthening of Achilles tendon causes excessive ankle dorsiflexion, Figure 25.4. In a spastic diplegic child with crouched knee and toe-to-toe gait, the ankle is actually in a neutral position. Excessive lengthening of Achilles tendon causes excessive ankle dorsiflexion, leading to a calcaneus gait. (Illustration taken from Hetting JA, ed., Tachdjian's...

H

Haglund's deformity, 115 clinical features of, 123 differentiated from Achilles insertional tendinopathy, 123, 130 Haglund's syndrome, 133 flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer treatment for, 101, 103 as heel pain cause, 113, 121 radiographic appearance of, 115-116,124 resection of, 125, 127, 128 surgical management of, 12, 117, 133 differentiated from Haglund's deformity, 133 Haglund's triad, 113, 115, 123 Heat therapy, 84 Heel, ulcers of, 245, 246 Heel lift, as phase of gait, 72, 73 Heel...

Idiopathic Toe Walking ITW

Idiopathic toe walking should be considered a possible diagnosis in any child who toe walks after the age of two. ITW is a diagnosis of exclusion. Neurological conditions that cause toe walking, such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spinal cord abnormalities, and poliomyelitis, should be excluded. A comprehensive developmental history and clinical examination should establish the diagnosis, although additional gait analysis and EMG studies may occasionally be necessary to differentiate...

Info

Anterior curvature. (G) Here, both gastrocnemius and soleus have been partly removed so as to demonstrate the intramuscular tendon of soleus (arrow). MS, muscle belly of soleus. (H) The union of the tendons of soleus (TS) and gastrocnemius that form the Achilles tendon at mid-calf level. (I) A sagittal section through the calcaneus to show the Achilles tendon enthesis (E) and the prominent pre-Achilles fat pad (F). The tip of the fat pad is quite distinctive from the rest and protrudes into the...

Management

Most patients can be successfully managed non-operatively.1,31,32 The various nonoperative modalities produce an 85 to 95 success rate.7'33 Even the more active or competitive athletes should persevere with nonoperative management.7 Modifications in training and the use of ice, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and heel-lifts in conjunction with stretching and strengthening exercises can be effective for athletes. Nonsteroi-dal anti-inflammatory medications may only provide...

Management of Achilles Paratendinopathy

Alleviation of pain and prevention of progression of acute to chronic paratendinopathy are the main goals of management in the acute phase. In chronic cases, the alleviation of pain predominates the management strategies, while predisposing factors and etiological causes are actively sought and corrective measures are taken. Little reliable experimental or clinical scientific work has been performed on the pathophysiology, etiology, natural course, and management of Achilles tendon overuse...

Muscular Dystrophies

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy, occurring in 1 in 3,500 boys. DMD usually manifests before the age of 3. Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD) is less common, with disease onset at 7 years of age. Other forms of muscular dystrophy are much less common. Both DMD and BMD are X-linked recessive genes affecting only boys. The life expectancy in BMD is significantly better than in DMD, and patients with BMD may retain independent ambulation into early...

Operative Technique

The patient is placed prone with feet protruding over the edge of the operating table. Both legs are prepped and draped, allowing intraoperative comparison to adjust the tension of the reconstruction. If considered necessary, a tourniquet is applied to the thigh of the affected leg, the leg exsanguinated, and the tourniquet inflated to 250 mmHg. A 10- to 12-cm longitudinal skin incision is made just medial to the medial border of the Achilles tendon, and sharp dissection is carried out through...

Paralysis of Triceps Surae Muscle in Poliomyelitis

Flaccid lower motor neuron paralysis of triceps surae is very disabling. The patient lacks push-off, and walks with a calcaneus limp. The lack of push-off during the third foot rocker leads to an upward displacement of the anterior end of the calcaneum and head of talus. There is increase in the range of dorsiflexion and the normal posterior heel prominence disappears. Compensation by other plantarflexors such as tibialis posterior, long toe flexors, and the peronei result in equinus of the...

References

Achilles tendon tendonitis and heel pain. Oper Tech Sports Med 1997 4(3) 179-188. 2. Paavola M, Orava S, Leppilahti J, Kannus P, Jarvinen M. Chronic Achilles tendon overuse injury Complications after surgical treatment an analysis of 432 consecutive patients. Am J Sports Med 2000 28(1) 77-82. 3. Kvist M. Achilles tendon injuries in athletes. Sports Med 1994 18(3) 173-201. 4. Astrom M, Rausing A. Chronic Achilles tendinopa-thy A survey of surgical and...

Rupture of the Achilles Tendon and Antibiotic Usage

An association between the use of certain antibiotics and tendinopathy has been acknowledged for some time. In particular, the use of fluoroqui-nolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, enoxa-cin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin, has been associated with such injuries. This is a serious effect as it may progress to spontaneous tendon rupture. The number of such reports is increasing,63,69-72 with the Achilles tendon most often implicated. Ruptures of the Achilles tendon were first reported in...

Surgical Technique

The patient is placed in the prone position under general or regional anesthesia. If the feet are left on the operating table, there is a tendency to push the ankle joint in hyper-plantarflexion due to the weight of the leg. During the repair, this can lead to overtightening the repair. Instead, it can be helpful to bring both feet down off the end of the table or to place a soft roll underneath the distal tibia. Both feet will assume an unforced, more neutral position. Prior to the repair, the...

Tendo Achillis in Spina Bifida

Tendo Achilles Lengthening

Foot deformity is found in 75-90 of patients with spina bifida,52 depending on the level of the lesion. Lower lumbar and sacral lesions result in calcaneus deformity, while in upper lumbar and thoracic lesions equinus is more common. Equinus, calcaneus, equinovarus, vertical talus, and valgus ankle deformities are all seen in this condition.3 The loss of sensation makes children with this condition prone to pressure sores, particularly when casting is used. For the same reason, fractures of the...

The Anatomy of the Achilles Tendon

Achilles Tendon Anatomy

Suzuki, and H. Toumi The Achilles tendon (tendo calcaneus) is the strongest and thickest tendon in the body and serves to attach the triceps surae (soleus and the two heads of gastrocnemius) to the calcaneus (Fig. 2.1). It is a highly characteristic feature of human anatomy and it has even been suggested that the tendon has helped to shape human evolution. The emergence of man is critically linked to his ability to run, and man's unique combination of moderate...

Operative Technique Central Flap

Equinus Plaster

The patient is placed in prone position. Anesthesia should ensure maximal muscle relaxation. Make a linear curvilinear medial incision (to minimize the risk of injuring the sural nerve) from the midcalf to the calcaneus, taking care not to cross the midline in the distal part, in order to avoid scarring the tendon (Fig. 19.1). Incise the deep fascia in the midline after freeing it from the skin, thus making sure that the fascial incision lies fully under the skin flap. The site of the Achilles...

Indications and Contraindications

A delay in presentation of Achilles tendon rupture of greater than 8 weeks results in filling up of the gap between the ruptured ends with fibrous nonfunctional scar that needs excision. If the gap with the ankle in maximum plantarflexion is between 5 and 9 cm, peroneus brevis transfer can be utilized. We do not use this technique if the gap between the ruptured ends of the Achilles tendon is greater than 8 cm, or the ipsilateral peroneus brevis has been used for other reconstructive procedures...

Lower Extremity Composite Free Flaps

Early composite grafts included free groin flaps with a sheet of external oblique aponeurosis, iliac bone, or abdominal fascia.27-29 Advantages of these groin flaps included the ability to transfer iliac bone with the graft for a calcaneal defect, as well as the location of the donor scar, which was usually hidden by underclothing. Disadvantages included a short and thin superficial circumflex iliac artery pedicle, the need for repair of the external oblique in the donor site with foreign...

Upper Extremity Composite Free Flaps

Radial forearm and lateral arm constructs have also been developed to address the problem of complex Achilles region reconstruction. A radial forearm flap raised with extensor carpi ulnaris and palmaris longus tendons was used to reconstruct an area of the posterior lower leg that did not require much tissue bulk.19 Other radial forearm composite flaps have included the tendons of the brachioradialis and palmaris longus as well as the superficial radial nerve or the lateral antebrachial...

What Are the Possible Complications Following Surgery for Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy

Paavola et al.61 studied 432 consecutive patients following surgery for Achilles tendinopathy. They reported an overall complication rate of11 , with the majority (54 ) due to problems with wound healing. However, other complications observed included sural nerve problems, scarring, rupture, and thrombo-embolic disorders. Overall, 3 of patients required further surgery to deal with complications. However, the authors stressed that, despite the complications, the long-term prognosis for pain...

Diagnosis of Achilles Paratendinopathy

Patients with Achilles paratendinopathy present with pain in the Achilles tendon region or posterior heel region. The severity of pain is used to classify the severity of the disorder and is also used as an outcome measure.1 Clinical examination reveals that the tendon is diffusely swollen on palpation, and is tender in the middle third of the tendon. A crepitus may be occasionally palpable in the acute phase 4,9 however, the swelling and tenderness does not move when the ankle joint is...

Paratendinopathy of the Achilles Tendon

Sayana, and Nicola Maffulli There has been a dramatic increase of Achilles tendon overuse injuries in the past four decades. This is in line with the increased prevalence of overuse sports injuries in Western countries due to increase in the demands on competitive and professional sports performances. Achilles tendon overuse injuries not only affect competitive athletes, but also affect recreational sports participants and individuals in occupations where the lower limbs...

A

Force-relaxation (A), creep (B), and mechanical hysteresis (C). The arrows at the bottom graph indicate loading and unloading directions. In the first few loading-unloading cycles in a mechanical hysteresis test, the tendon resting length increases. This is referred to as conditioning. Figure 3.1. Typical force-elongation plot in a tendon tensile test to failure. I toe region II linear region III and IV failure regions. Stiffness is the slope of the curve in the linear region....

Complex Wounds

Complications from failed surgery, severe infection, or massive trauma may leave a complex wound involving the soft tissue around the Achilles tendon. A tendon defect in the setting of large tissue loss is a more difficult problem than simple repair of a ruptured or lacerated tendon. Successful reconstruction must include three essential elements (1) tendon repair sufficient to provide strength, durability, and tension (2) a soft tissue cushion thick enough to protect the area but thin enough...

Percutaneous Hemisection Achilles Tendon

Achilles Lengthening Procedure

Figure 24.3. (A) Stretching with the knee straight creates tension on the gastrocnemius. (B) Stretching with the knee bent creates tension on the soleus and deep posterior muscle compartment. as well. Commonly prescribed stretching regimens designed long term to eliminate contracture are probably more effective at preventing further contracture than at decreasing the tightness already present. Eccentric strengthening for up to one year is beneficial in reducing pain and allows for increased...

Operative Details

As a prosthesis is used, intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary. General anesthesia is normally used and the operation is always undertaken under tourniquet control. The patient is placed prone on the operating table with a pillow under the mid-shin area with the foot and ankle sufficiently free of the end of the table to allow accurate assessment to be made of the range of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion at each stage of the operation. This is especially important when the polyester...

The History of the Tendo Achillis and Its Rupture

The story of the tendo Achillis is bound up with both ancient Greek mythology and paleoanthropology.1 The tendo Achillis does not occur in the great apes Fig. 1.1 , our immediate ancestors, and is a hallmark of bipedal man. Its presence may be related to the greater relative length of the tarsal bones in man. The name is derived from the Iliad by the Greek poet, Homer, written between 750 and 650 B.C. Achilles was a magnificent warrior and, according to myth, made invulnerable in infancy by his...