Aerobic Exercise Product
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Aerobic exercise is intrinsically linked to increased oxygen consumption. During exercise the body as a whole uses 10-fold more oxygen than at rest, while in muscle tissue oxygen consumption may increase by 50 to 100-fold 40 .Various studies have demonstrated a connection between this increase in oxygen consumption during exercise and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition it has been shown that macromolecular structures within the cell can be damaged by elevated ROS. In fact, oxidative stress contributes to the accumulation of somatic mutations and oxidative damage to mtDNA. This has been apparent in mitochondrial diseases 41 , tumorgenesis 42 , aging 43 , degenerative diseases 44,45 , and diabetes 46 . However, skeletal muscle not only has the ability to produce ROS, but also has an elaborate system to regulate these reactive molecules and prevent their damaging effects. The cellular antioxidant defense system includes the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of...
There is no question of the critical metabolic role of niacin, but there is no evidence that compromised niacin status in an athletic or general population causes decreased aerobic exercise performance. In addition, the substantial decrease in FFA availability with those on pharmacologic doses of nicotinic acid does not impact performance unless carbohydrate sources are limited.
And TFAM, do not change with age in human muscle. These findings demonstrate that despite age-related functional decline, skeletal muscle capacity for mitochondrial biogenesis remains high in older muscle when stimulated by regular aerobic exercise. Hence, further work on the effect of aging on the action of these and other nuclear signals that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis is needed. These studies collectively raise the question of whether age-related mitochondrial defects are the result of normal aging or conversely, whether they are at least partially acquired through lifestyle and factors other than aging per se.
There is one FDA approved class III surface FES walking system available for use in the USA. Made by Sigmetics Inc., the Parastep system is a four- or six-channel surface stimulation device for ambula-tion with the aide of a walker. The Parastep system uses the triple-flexion response elicited by peroneal nerve stimulation as well as knee and hip extensor surface stimulation to construct the gait cycle. The patient controls the gait with switches integrated into a rolling walker. The electronic controller is housed in a cassette-sized box mounted on the patient's belt. The Parastep System and other similar systems have been used by paraplegics not only for functional standing and walking but also for aerobic exercise (Graupe and Kohn, 1998). In April, 2003, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
The use of protein for energy formation by the bodies of persons that practice fitness is relatively small 1,32 . Controversy exists as to whether aerobic or resistance exercises increase the need for dietary protein, and some evidence exists that aerobic exercise does 3 . It was also demonstrated that strength training results in reduced protein requirements 3 .
Kelley and McClellan (1994) conducted a meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials comparing lower-extremity exercise interventions (walking, jogging, or cycling) with control groups and found a significant reduction in blood pressure with aerobic exercise. SBPs were reduced by 7 mm Hg and DBPs were reduced by 6 mm
So far as the type of exercise is concerned, low-intensity and prolonged aerobic training is usually most recommended 1 , although available evidence suggests that the amount and regularity of exercise could be more relevant than type of activity. Measures to obtain a modest increase in daily exercise (such as regular walking or cycling), or supervised programs with a more vigorous aerobic training, can both promote weight loss. In fact, mod erate lifestyle activity has been reported to be similarly effective as structured aerobic exercise in obese patients 7 . Most authors agree that regularity is more important than type of exercise in promoting weight loss standard recommendations require exercise at least three times a week, and possibly daily 1 .
In theory, the use of supplemental Cr may benefit endurance performance by improving carbohydrate metabolism by increasing insulin sensitivity during exercise.15 However, limited studies have been performed examining the effects of Cr on exhaustive aerobic exercise. Davis et al.41 looked at the effects of Cr(pic)3 and 6 carbohydrate solution (CHO) on time to fatigue in eight active males. Subjects were given CHO alone, CHO + Cr(pic)3 or a placebo in a random repeated measure design, and time to fatigue was measured during a shuttle run at 55-95 of VO2max. There was no difference in performance results in the CHO + Cr(pic)3 group when compared with the CHO alone group. However, both treatment groups did perform better than the control.
The FNB set no RDA for nickel.51 However, based on animal studies, if a dietary requirement is found for humans, it most likely will be less than 100 g day.153 Exercising individuals may have a higher nickel need than sedentary individuals because aerobic exercise increases the urinary excretion of nickel.154
As expected, the exact ratio of carbohydrate and lipid utilized for muscle energy metabolism, a topic recently summarized in an editorial by Layzer, 3 reflects many variables, including the intensity of exertion and its duration, the blood concentration of free fatty acids and oxygen, the amount of blood flow to the muscle, the muscle glycogen concentration, and the muscle's capacity for oxidative metabolism. At rest and during light exercise, skeletal muscle tissue metabolism is aerobic, and consequently it aerobically metabolizes free fatty acids for its energy. As the degree of intensity increases, the supply of lipid-derived energy becomes unable to keep pace with the energy requirement. For this reason, a greater proportion of energy must be contributed by carbohydrate. In general, enough glycogen is available to work intensively for 3 to 4 hours. 4 Should effort continue after the glycogen supply is depleted, the slower rate of lipid metabolism immediately diminishes the...
Niacin, as a component of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), is needed for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production from all the energy-yielding nutrients. Niacin deficiency impairs glycolysis and respiratory metabolism. Compromised niacin status in the athletic or general population does not seem to influence aerobic exercise performance. Supplementation with nicotinic acid reduces the availability of free fatty acids and potentiates the use of carbohydrates as sources of energy. The UL for niacin (as nicotinic acid) for adults is 35 mg day.7 Large doses of nicotinic acid are sometimes used to treat hyperlipidemia and more research on the athletic performance of individuals taking these doses would be interesting.
The capacity of chronic exercise training to reverse this defect in glucose transport phosphorylation activity was then examined 41 .After exercise training, insulin sensitivity and insulin-simulated muscle glycogen synthesis normalized in the insulin-resistant offspring, and this could be attributed to the correction of their defects in muscle glucose transport phos-phorylation activity. These data strongly suggest that aerobic exercise might be useful in reversing insulin-resistance in these pre-diabetic individuals and that it may prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.
Mitochondria are the site of oxidative energy production in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis involves the coordinated action of both nuclear and mitochondrial encoded genomes. Peroxisome proliferator-acti-vated receptor a coactivator a (PGC-1a), an inducible transcriptional coac-tivator, has been implicated as a major regulator of the mitochondrial biogenic program. PGC-1a interacts with nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), stimulating transcription of many mitochondrial genes as well as mito-chondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a direct regulator of mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription. A coordinated reduction of PGC-1a-responsive genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation was found in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from non-diabetic relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes and in subjects with overt type 2 diabetes compared with glucose-tolerant controls 16, 44 . Additional investigations have also shown reduced mitochondrial function in non-diabetic...
A central role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome is the exquisite sensitivity of visceral fat to physical activity. Abdominal fat is quickly released to sustain ATP production during moderate intensity aerobic exercise 23 .Thus, constant physical activity results in a reduction of visceral fat and an improvement of the features of the metabolic syndrome 12 .
Although the essential role of physical activity in the treatment of obesity is widely recognized, the simple prescription of exercise by health care providers does not seem to have any relevant effect on long-term behavior of overweight and obese individuals 8,9 . In fact, the increase of activity levels requires a complex modification of lifestyle, which cannot be achieved through a simple prescription. Two different strategies can be implemented (and have been tested in clinical trials) supervised programs of aerobic training, or behavioral techniques either to increase lifestyle activity or to promote structured unsupervised exercise programs.
The athlete's heart is a hypertrophied heart with an increase in left ventricle volume and enhanced pumping capacity. A high level of VO2max, regardless of whether it is intrinsic or acquired, associates with the athlete's heart. Left ventricular weights scaled appropriately to body mass were 19 higher in HCR vs. LCR 66 . In both HCR and LCR, regular endurance exercise increased left ventricular weights and cardiomyocyte length significantly, but the increase is significantly higher in HCR than in LCR. This suggests that the HCR not only has evolved into having a higher intrinsic aerobic fitness, but also possess a higher responsiveness to exercise training than LCR, which may be traced back to its genome. We have also demonstrated a development of the heart into the athlete's heart in normal Sprague Dawley rats, as endurance training also in this model increases left ventricular mass and cardiomyocyte length and width 72 . It is apparent from our studies and studies elsewhere 45 that...
One problem created by the focus of current missions on Space Station construction is that the duration in microgravity for any given crew member will not exceed 30 days. Such flights would neither be covered by the requirement for DXA measurements nor be likely to provide insights relevant to long-term spaceflight. Thus, epidemiology and monitoring are currently at a standstill. However, there remains an opportunity to derive useful research information from even these short-term missions. Current practice includes collection of multiple urine and blood specimens pre- and postflight. Inclusion of in-flight data collections would provide substantial benefit, but this is not currently part of routine flight procedure. Assessment of bone turnover markers using pre-, intra-, and postflight specimens should afford valuable insights regarding the skeletal effects of flight and of countermeasure intervention. In this regard, by the terms of the ISS Medical Operations Requirements Document...
Changing environment in situations that did not challenge survival. From his perspective, an organism that maintained a perfectly stable physiological equilibrium during a stressful encounter (a nonresponse) might be just as problematic as an organism that exhibited an exaggerated physiological response. Allostasis referred to the body's ability to adjust to a 'new steady state' in response to the environmental challenge (McEwen and Stellar, 1993). To clarify the distinction between homeostasis and allostasis, consider two physiological parameters body temperature and heart rate. For an organism to survive in a changing environment, there exists a very narrow window of acceptable body temperatures. Even though the temperature of the environment can change 50 degrees over the course of a single day, body temperature remains constant. Deviations from a normal temperature are met with a range of symptoms (sweating, chills) that occur as part of our body's attempt to regain homeostasis....
Back exercises are not useful in the acute phase of low back pain, but are useful later for preventing recurrences.14 Guidelines from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) stress aerobic exercise (e.g., walking, biking, swimming) especially during the first two weeks continuing ordinary activities improves recovery and leads to less disability.22 However, a recent systematic review concluded that specific back exercises do not improve clinical outcomes.47 There is moderate evidence that flexion exercises are not effective in the treatment of acute low back pain, and strong evidence that extension exercises are not effective in the treatment of acute low back pain.
Heart-healthy lifestyles should be encouraged in all survivors of cancer treated with potentially car-diotoxic therapies 18 . Activities to be encouraged include maintaining a diet low in saturated and trans fats and implementing a regular exercise program in consultation with a cardiologist and exercise physiologist. Obesity is a major preventable coronary risk factor and its prevalence is greater in survivors of pediatric malignancy, especially ALL 121 . Aerobic exercise can produce symptomatic, physiologic and psychological benefits 122-125 . However, it is important for patients to be monitored by exercise testing to ensure they have stable cardiac status before exercise programs are recommended. Isometric exercises such as weight lifting should generally be discouraged until the results of further studies are avail able. If they are pursued, it should only be under the direct supervision of a cardiologist and exercise physiologist 18 . Rigid dietary restrictions are not...
Reducing resting concentrations of oxidative stress markers.47,50 Persons participating in physical activity, especially those adhering to a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, are specifically at risk for consuming inadequate amounts of vitamin E and therefore might consider supplementation. Elderly subjects may also benefit from supplementation, not only by reducing resting concentrations of oxidative stress markers, but also by reducing blood pressure.49 There is a good indication that vitamin E supplementation prevents, or at least alleviates, exercise-induced increases in lipid peroxidation in those participating in aerobic exercise,24,35,48,50,51 but not necessarily weight train-ing.53 However, the long-term health benefits of lowering oxidative stress levels related to exercise have not been well elucidated and remain an important area for future research.
7 days (1) Vigorous physical activity, defined as activities that take considerable physical effort and make one breathe much harder than normal such as heavy lifting, aerobics, or fast bicycling (2) moderate physical activity, defined as activities that take moderate physical effort and make one breathe somewhat harder than normal such as bicycling at a regular pace or doubles tennis and (3) light physical, defined as walking done to move from place to place or walking done for recreation or sport. For each type of physical activity, students reported the number of days per week and the number of hours per day they engaged in the activity. A frequency score was then calculated as the number of hours per week participants engaged in each of the three intensities of physical activity, by multiplying the two pieces of data obtained by the students.
Most previous works regard VO2max as the single best indicator of an individual's cardiorespiratory endurance capacity 8 . Although traditionally related to endurance performance such as cross-country skiing and running,VO2max has recently been established as a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality 9 . Improved VO2max can be acquired through endurance training and is associated with salutary adaptations in multiple organ systems.An assessment ofVO2max offers a precise measure of the capacity to transport and utilize oxygen that is the functional capacities of the lungs, cardiovascular system, and muscle mitochondria combined. At maximal aerobic exercise, the majority of evidence demonstrates a VO2max that is supply limited 10-14 . This appears to be evident in highly trained athletes 15 and in average fit humans 16 . Consequently, cardiac output and more precisely stroke volume, has a major influence on VO2max 13-18 , whereas maximal heart rate as an inherited and...
Sport and other body coordination skills are widely taught using some form of demonstration by peers, coaches, and experts. Physical therapists also use modeling as the major component in rehabilitation through therapeutic exercises. The commercial video market is replete with examples, usually by experts, for the development of individual skills (golf, tennis, aerobics, skiing, etc.). Participants in team sports watch videotapes of opponents, not just to find weaknesses, but to seek out and imitate superior team playing strategies. Special effects (e.g., slow motion, still frames) in video modeling are most useful in motor performance applications.
Aerobic fitness, muscle strength, andflexibility Previously inactive or less active military recruits have a higher incidence of stress fractures compared with those who are active before beginning basic training 29,48,49 . There are several possible factors contributing to this, including decreased aerobic fitness, decreased muscle strength, lower endurance, and poor flexibility. A study of military recruits found no association between aerobic fitness (predicted VO2max) and stress fracture risk 52 . It is unlikely that aerobic fitness alone accounts for the difference 53,54 . The role of flexibility on stress fractures has yet to be well defined 35,47,55 .
Physical inactivity is associated with both obesity and diabetes, and similarly has been commonly linked to the etiology of essential hypertension (Blair et al., 1984). Among its many benefits, engaging in aerobic exercise is associated with reduced blood pressures, lower heart rate, reduced sympathetic nervous system activity, and increased parasympathetic activity (Scheuer and Tipton, 1977). In a review of the literature, Light (1989) cited two studies that contrasted subjects categorized as low versus high in physical fitness on measures of cardiovascular response to stress (Holmes and Roth, 1985 Light et al., 1987). In both of these studies, physical fitness was associated with lower cardiovascular responses to mental stress. Light also cited other studies that failed to find an association between physical fitness and cardiovascular reactivity to stress, but did find an association between physical fitness and heart rate recovery from stress (Cantor, Zillman, and Day, To address...
It is accepted that regular participation in sport and exercise enhances an individual's physical health. Sport psychologists also attempt to understand how participating in physical activity affects an individual's psychological well-being. Research has indicated that aerobic exercise is associated with reductions in levels of anxiety and depression. Exercise has also shown positive effects on other aspects of emotional life, including increasing feelings of control as well as improving self-confidence and cognitive functioning. The psychological and physiological benefits associated with exercise throughout the life span support the increasing importance of exercise as one ages.
Screening is not effective in reducing the occurrence of job-related low back pain. However, active aerobically fit individuals have fewer back injuries, miss fewer workdays, and report fewer back pain symptoms.66 Evidence to support smoking cessation and weight loss as means of reducing the occurrence of low back pain is sparse, but these should be recommended for other health reasons.66 Exercise programs that combine aerobic conditioning with specific strengthening of the back and legs can reduce the frequency of recurrence of low back pain.44,66 The use of corsets and education about lifting technique are generally ineffective in preventing low back problems.67,68 Ergonomic redesign of strenuous tasks may facilitate return to work and reduce chronic pain.69
Within this context, much research has been directed toward establishing effective behavioral treatments that may be employed alone or in conjunction with a variety of pharmacological regimens. These behavioral treatments include progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, yoga exercises, autogenic training, biofeedback-assisted relaxation, blood pressure biofeedback, contingency managed aerobics and diet, as well as strategies combining two or more of these programs. In addition, when pharmacological intervention is necessary, a variety of classes of antihypertensions are available. These include B-adrenergic receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and others. Treatment may involve one agent or a combination of these antihypertensive agents to attain normal blood pressure, or, at least, lower blood pressure to a more acceptable level.