After Birth Ebook

Pregnancy Diet Plan

Pregnancy Diet Plan

The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.

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Pregnancy Without Pounds

This proven program will get you through your pregnancy in better shape than most other women in as little as 27 minutes a day and with minimal effort. It contains all the information that I believe will Help you to look and feel like I did barefoot and beautiful! Inside you will learn Exactly how to avoid unwanted pounds, overcome your food cravings, care for your skin, dress to kill and look like one Hot Mama. Ive also put together Fifty simple, yet extremely effective pregnancy-friendly exercises and stretches to keep you and your body looking and feeling Great (includes 3 different fitness programs depending on Your fitness level)!

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Iiiidentifying phenotype

It is important, when establishing a colony of potentially mutant mice, to examine all mice as soon after birth as possible and at regular intervals (at least every other day during the first two weeks) thereafter. Defects may be observable at birth that make the mutants easy to identify (as is seen in flaky skin fsn mice, which have a mild anemia at birth,6 or juvenile alopecia jal mice, which have easily identifiable abnormalities of the vibrissae as early as 2 to 3 days of age).7 Other defects may develop as the mouse ages, as in harlequin ichthyosis (ichq) mice, which are normal until 5 days of age when they develop thick, scaling skin, then die by 10 to 12 days of age,8 or matted (ma) mutants, in which the hairs form matted clumps, such that mutants can be identified at 2 to 4 weeks of age,9 and chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm), in which the skin lesions become apparent at 4 to 6 weeks of age.10 Some defects may even disappear as the animal ages, as with flaky tail (ft),...

Pancreasderived Stem Cells

The prospect of treating human diseases with stem cell-based therapies has stimulated intensive study of organ-specific stem cells. For some tissues, such as intestine and skin, robust stem cells have been known to exist for many years, and clearly contribute to normal cellular turnover and tissue regeneration, as well as repair in pathologic states. Because p-cell mass continues to increase after birth

Regulation of postnatal growth

As pointed out above postnatal growth during the suckling period is under similar genetic laws as is fetal growth. Do imprinted genes have a role in growth up to weaning First, the major postnatal growth control system based on growth hormone only comes into play shortly before weaning (Table 1). Second, one imprinted gene, Rasgrf1, has already been shown to have a role in postnatal growth specifically from birth to weaning (Table 2 Itier et al 1998). Third, the IGF system is likely to operate from birth to weaning as well. This is because Igf1 and Igf2 are expressed during this period after which Igf2 is silenced in rodents, Igf2 mutants grow at normal rates after birth (INS, IGF1 action Efstratiadis 1998), and Igf1 mutants grow at normal rates to weaning (INS, IGF2 action Wang et al 1999). Finally, placental Igf2 mutants which are born growth retarded (71 of normal) then show accelerated growth to weaning and thus catch up with their normal littermates (INS, IGF1, IGF2 action...

How can a pregnant womans baby become infected

STDs can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to the fetus, newborn, or infant before, during, or after birth. Some STDs (like syphilis) cross the placenta and infect the fetus during its development. Other STDs (like gonorrhea, chlamydia, hepatitis B, and genital herpes) are transmitted from the mother to the infant as the infant passes through the birth canal. HIV infection can cross the placenta during pregnancy, infect the newborn during the birth process, and, infect an infant as a result of breast-feeding.

Breastfeeding In Reality

This was the title of the key note presentation of the first author at our Conference in Oaxaca 1986. At that time we reviewed the data from our studies of the mode of feeding in Pakistan illustrating all the problems with delayed onset ofbreastfeeding, consistent addition of other foods and fluids before and during breastfeeding (prelacteals) with a heavy exposure to various microbes in early life as a consequence74. On the basis of our findings we instituted in one village with a population of 6500 a breastfeeding motivation campaign as part of a health care program. After 3 years we have evaluated some of the outcomes. The results were striking with a 50 reduction both in the prevalence of diarrhoea and in infant mortality (Ashraf, Zaman, Jalil et al, unpublished results). Previously all children were given prelacteals like cleared butter, a herb concoction, sugar or salt water etc. and only 50 ofthe children had had any breastmilk at 48 hours after delivery74. After the motivation...

Ethological Theory and Attachment

Konrad Lorenz, a pioneer in the study of imprinting, demonstrated that newly hatched fowl such as goslings would become fixed upon and follow the first moving proximal object or person they encountered shortly after birth. Niko Tinbergen demonstrated that the fight-flight response in animals evolves into socialized ritualistic behaviors. Robert Zaslow concluded from studies of the pathology of attachment found in infantile autism that the formation of attachment depends on two bonding networks of behavior (1) the body-contact bond, necessary for intimacy and basic trust and (2) the eye-face-contact bond, necessary for integration, focus, and direction of behavior.

When Are Melanocyte Stem Cells Generated

After knowing the location of MCSCs, the first question to be addressed is when the first MCSC is differentiated. (While whisker follicles can be the first site of MCSC differentiation, we will not consider this tissue in this article). In our previous study, we defined MCSs as cells that can survive in the absence of c-Kit signal. When an antagonistic mAb to c-Kit is injected immediately after birth, all first hair becomes Recently, however, evidence indicating that differentiation of MCSs may complete a couple of days later came from the analysis of Bcl2- -mouse. Bcl2- - mice born with pigmented hair but pigmentation is lost from most hair after the first hair regeneration cycle. A recent study conducted by Nishimura et al. demonstrated that MC lineages are found in LPP up to day 4 after birth, whereas they are lost already at P6 (Nishimura et al. 2005). This observation was interpreted to mean that Bcl2 is required for maintenance of nascent MCSCs in the LPP. On the contrary, we...

Cardiovascular Physiology

In the first three months of pregnancy, a woman's blood volume rises rapidly. This increase continues into mid-pregnancy, then slows down. The average overall increase in blood volume is 50 percent but varies among individuals and is connected to fetal weight, placental size, and maternal weight gain. As a result, larger increases are seen

Pregnancy and Autoimmune Disease

Autoimmune thyroid disorders such as Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis are most likely to strike during the first trimester of a pregnancy and within the first six months after delivery, or in the postpartum (right after childbirth) phase. It's normal for the thyroid gland to enlarge slightly during pregnancy because the placenta makes a hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), that stimulates the mother's thyroid gland. Researchers have found that HCG has portions that share a very similar molecular structure to TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). Situations that increase TSH levels often stimulate the enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter). Likewise, the great increase in HCG seen in pregnancy affects the thyroid gland in a similar fashion, working like TSH to cause some enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is possible that this is part of the complex assortment of factors that help induce autoimmune thyroid problems. During pregnancy, the immune system is naturally...

Postpartum Thyroiditis

Women with TPO antibodies are more likely to experience postpartum thyroiditis. This is a general label referring to silent thyroiditis occurring after delivery, causing mild hyperthyroidism, and a short-lived Hashimoto's type of thyroiditis, causing mild hypothyroidism. Until quite recently, the mild hypothyroid and mild thyrotoxicosis symptoms were simply attributed to the symptoms of postpartum depression, those notorious postpartum blues, thought to be caused by the dramatic hormonal and emotional changes women experience after pregnancy. But recent studies indicate that as many as 20 percent of all pregnant women experience transient thyroid problems and subsequent mild forms of thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. See Chapter 13 for more information on postpartum thyroiditis.

In Vivo Function of the Oestrogen Receptors

The development of mice lacking the ERa (aERKO) or ERft (ftERKO) gene have proved to be valuable tools in evaluating the in vivo function of these receptors. The aERKO mice were generated in 1993, and the disruption of ERa expression not only caused infertility in both sexes, but also had profound effects on behaviour (Couse and Korach, 1999). Specifically, pre- and neonatal development of female reproductive organs such as uterus, ovary and mammary gland was almost normal, but maturation of these organs during and after puberty was severely impaired. The aERKO females also failed to display sexual receptivity when treated with the hormonal regime of oestrogen and progesterone that normally induces receptivity in wild-type mice. Surprisingly, adult aERKO males have significantly fewer epididymal sperm than heterozygous or wild-type males, caused by the disruption of spermatogenesis and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which becomes apparent 10 weeks after birth. Furthermore,...

Biological characterization of a new mutation

During the first three weeks of a mouse's life the skin and hair undergo some very dramatic changes. The epidermis of a normal newborn mouse starts out relatively thick and becomes thinner by two weeks of age.34 The hair follicles develop completely during the first week after birth and the first hair fibers begin to emerge at around five days of age.4 The hair cycle is synchronized and short (about 1 week intervals) during the first three weeks after birth, which makes it easy to study. It is important to collect skin from mice at two- to three-day intervals (birth, 3 days, 6 days, 9 days, 12 days, 15 day, 18 days, 21 days) during this time so that you may evaluate all of these features. Other organs undergo similar developmental changes during this period.5 Interval-specific postpartum collection ages can be defined for each organ following this approach.

Fig 76 Transposition of the Great Arteries

Infants suffering from transposition are usually quite cyanotic, and if it is not corrected, they will probably not survive their first year of life. Before the advent of the heart-lung machine, there were some palliative operations developed, but these procedures were not cures. In fact, even today many infants with transposition undergo a procedure to make or enlarge a hole in the atrial septum shortly after birth. This procedure is done in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with a special catheter threaded up through a blood vessel in the groin. The hole in the atrial septum allows mixing of blood and temporarily improves the infant's condition until a surgical repair can be made.

Gender Specific Behavior

There are relatively short critical periods in the development of the animal when manipulation of levels of sex steroids makes a difference in development of adult patterns of sexual behavior. Rats have a 21-day gestation period. The testes appear on the 13th day of embryonic life and secrete androgens until the 10th day after birth. Androgen secretion then virtually ceases until puberty. Castration at the day of birth causes male rats to display female sexual behavior as adults when injected with estrogen and progesterone and mounted by normal males. Male rat pups castrated after postnatal day 10 will not display lordosis as adults. This suggests that there is a short critical period when the brain is influenced by testosterone to develop circuitry for male sexual behavior. Furthermore, the anterior pituitary of both males and females secretes luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). As noted previously, release of hormones from the anterior pituitary is under...

The Conception that Whatever Humans Achieved Derives from the Unrestricted Capacity of Their Brain to Acquire Drives

At the end of the 3rd week after birth enhancer regulation in the rat's mesencephalon starts working on a significantly higher activity level. This is the discontinuation of breast feeding, the crucially important first step to living separately from the mother (Knoll and Miklya 1995). Weaning is obviously the onset of the developmental (uphill) phase of the individual life of the mammalian organism (Knoll 1994, 2001). The period, characterized by a higher basic activity, lasts until the rat develops full-scale sexual maturity (Knoll et al. 2000).

Clinical Features

True branchial cleft cysts typically present shortly after birth or in childhood though they may not be symptomatic until adulthood. They usually present as a painless unilateral mass near or occasionally in the parotid gland, often with associated sinus tracts and fistulae. Superinfection may cause pain 454, 462, 575 .

Is there a vaccine which can prevent hepatitis B

For several years a vaccine has been available which is very effective in preventing, although not in treating, hepatitis B. In the U.S., women who receive prenatal care are screened for hepatitis B infection. For women infected with hepatitis B, transmission to their newborns can be prevented by administering hepatitis B vaccine and immune globulin to their infants immediately after birth and continuing the series of three immunizations over the next six months. In infants born to uninfected women, the hepatitis B series is routinely started within the first two months of life.

Neurotoxicity studies in humans

In Europe an ongoing study (the Dutch PCB dioxin study), revealed 2 weeks after birth an adverse effect of a combination of prenatal and early postnatal exposure of PCBs, polychlorinated- -dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on neurological condition, evaluated by the Prechtl neurological examination (Huisman et al 1995b). Higher levels of PCBs in breast milk were associated with a higher incidence ofhypotonia. In a subgroup, visual recognition memory at 3 and 7 months of age was not affected by the measured perinatal exposures to PCBs and dioxins (Koopman-Esseboom 1995). In the same subgroup of children at 3 and at 7 months of age, there was no effect of perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on the mental scale ofthe Bayley.

Comment And Conclusion

Neurological examination at 18 months and at 6 years of age, but not at 3 years of age, revealed a negative effect ofprenatal PCB exposure on neurological performance. Previous results of the same cohort examined 2 weeks after birth demonstrated an adverse effect of a combination of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to the measured PCBs and dioxins on neurological performance evaluated by the Prechtl neurologic examination. Higher levels of the planar PCBs in breast milk were associated with a greater incidence ofhypotonia. (Huisman et al 1995b) systems) may play a role. Unfortunately, conversion ofthese findings to the human species is hampered by toxico-kinetic differences and in differences of the body distribution of these compounds between the human and most experimental animals. Moreover, from the early stages of gestation and for many years after birth, large morphological changes take place in the central nervous system involving outgrowth and retractions of dendrites and...

Telomere Dynamics in Mature Hematopoietic Cells

Telomere shortening featured by mature hematopoietic cells in vivo follows a cubic function over time, which is marked by a significant drop within the first year of life and a slower, steady decline thereafter (Rufer et al. 1999) (reviewed in (Ohyashiki et al. 2002) ). A recent longitudinal study of telomere length from newborn baboons confirmed the rapid decline in telomere length in granulocytes and lymphocytes in the first year after birth. After around one year the telomere length appeared to stabilize in all cell types, suggesting that HSCs switch to a different functional mode characterized by a decreased turnover rate after an initial phase of rapid expansion (Baerlocher et al. 2007). Individual replicative histories of lymphocytes are represented by heterogeneous telomere length distributions in different subpopulations, namely a shorter mean telomere length in T cells compared with B cells within which memory cells have longer telomeres than naive cells (Baerlocher and...

After the Baby Is Born

During pregnancy, your immune system is naturally suppressed to prevent your body from rejecting the fetus. After pregnancy, your immune system turns on again. But this has a rebound effect in that the immune system is so alert that it is almost too powerful and can develop autoantibodies that attack normal tissue. This is what's known as an autoimmune disorder (see Chapter 5) and may be one reason why women are more prone to thyroid autoimmune disorders after pregnancy. I (Sara) liken the scenario to having a guard dog tied up for nine months (during the pregnancy) and then let out. The dog will be feistier and may even attack his owner.

Environmental Risks Obstetric Complications

There are numerous studies suggesting that complications during pregnancy, birth, or within the first month after birth are important risk factors for at least some types of schizophrenia. Those that have been significantly associated with schizophrenia include preeclampsia, bleeding during pregnancy, umbilical cord complications, premature rupture of amniotic membranes, prematurity, prolonged labor, use of resuscitation, incubator, forcep or suction delivery, abnormal fetal presentation at delivery, low birth weight, small head circumference, and low Apgar scores (McNeil et al., 2000 Lobato et al., 2001). Perinatal abnormalities in particular, collectively called obstetric complications, have been reported in 21 to 40 percent of patients with schizophrenia. In sum, there are several obstetric complications that appear to be risk factors for schizophrenia.

Transient Hypothyroidism

A variety of iodine-containing cleansing agents or contrast dyes used in x-ray imaging tests can be given to the mother during pregnancy or to the baby after birth. Excess iodine can inhibit the production of thyroid hormone by the baby's thyroid. This is more likely to happen in small or premature babies. Likewise, medications given to the mother for Graves' disease, such as methimazole or PTU (see Chapters 11 and 13), can block the baby's thyroid from making thyroid hormone. Since the effects of excess iodine and antithyroid drugs disappear when they're no longer around, they cause only transient hypothyroidism. except that they have the opposite effect on the receptor. Since they've been present through much of the pregnancy, they may cause permanent deficiencies in brain development even though they gradually dissipate after birth.

Aipl1 Chaperonelike Functions In Posttranslational Modification And Posttranscriptional Regulation

Recently, mouse models of LCA with either complete or partial inactivation of AIPL1 expression have suggested that AIPL1 may also function as a potential chaperone for cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) (Figure 65.1) (Liu et al., 2004 Ramamurthy et al., 2004). In both models, normal retinal histology and morphological photoreceptor development were observed at birth, although no recordable photofunction could be detected in AIPL1-- mice and the photoresponse onset and recovery was delayed in the rod photoreceptors of the AIPL1 hypomorphic mutant. Photoreceptor degeneration proceeded rapidly shortly after birth in the absence of AIPL1 but was significantly slowed in the presence of reduced levels of AIPL1. In both mouse models, all three subunits of the cGMP PDE holoenzyme (a, b and g) were reduced by a post-transcriptional mechanism before the onset of photoreceptor degeneration, suggesting that AIPL1 was necessary for the biosynthesis, assembly, or stabilization of PDE to proteasomal...

Normal Organ Development

Normal fetal development of the GU structures begins with successive development of pronephric, mesonephric and metanephric tubules around the third, sixth, and twelfth weeks of gestation in the em-bryo,respectively.After 12 weeks,the urinary bladder has developed and separated from the rectum. The prostate and testes in boys, and the ovaries and uterus in girls, are also formed at approximately 12 weeks gestation. The vagina develops somewhat later. After birth, prostatic and vaginal-uterine growth proceeds very slowly until adolescence, when the organs enlarge during pubertal growth.

Disorders of elasticity

Cutis laxa is a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive and X-linked recessive conditions, which share laxity, not elasticity, of the skin. The skin is soft and progressively loses tone. Affected individuals have a prematurely aged hound dog appearance to the face. X-linked cutis laxa, also referred to as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IX, is caused by a defect in the NMK gene, whose product transports copper. Thus, mutations in NMK result in secondary deficiency of copper-dependent enzymes. Internal involvement includes progressive hydronephrosis and bladder diverticuli, emphysema and pulmonary blebs, and hernias. Intellect ranges from mild mental retardation to normal. The NMK gene is also involved in Menkes syndrome, a much more severe disorder. Skin of affected males is thin and pale, with a prominent venous pattern. The hairs are fine, sparse, and fragile and demonstrate pili torti (twisting). Neurologic involvement is usually severe and progressive. Prenatal diagnosis is...

Transgenic Cloned Animals

Nearly a year after Polly's birth, scientists in the United States reported the birth of calves that had been cloned from fetal cells and transgenically manipulated. After inserting human genes into the fetal cells, the scientists transferred the nuclei of 276 of the cells to 276 enucleated cow eggs. Thirty-three embryos survived a week's growth in the laboratory and 28 were transferred to the uteri of surrogate cows. Four calves were born, but one died shortly after birth.25 The three remaining calves, ACT3, ACT4, and ACT5, shared the same genome, which had been artificially manipulated. Different research groups have experimented with cell source (embryo, fetal, adult) and species of animal, which points to the prospect of rapid developments in the field of cloning and genetic technologies.26

Concerning Human Implications

Monozygotic twins show us that genetically identical individuals are far from identical they may differ from one another not only physically but also psychologically, and in terms of personality. Individuals cloned by nuclear transfer from an adult cell would of course be even more different from their donor, since they would have different mitochon-drial populations, they would be different in age, and they would have had a different environment both before and after birth and a different upbringing. We are not just our genes.

Organisation and Mankind

Organisation of human life is the only organisation in animals inherited overwhelmingly through learning, not just from the DNA, while much of organisation of other animals, for example those of ants and bees, even dolphins, has little cognitive intellectual content. A puzzling feature, however, is that much of the limited external organisation in these lower animals appears to owe itself to learning, that is constructions within the brain after birth. For example, navigation by birds or fish in organised patterns may be in large part inherited but there may also be a learning of the ability to navigate while in possession of a rough map . Birds do have a certain learning ability without doubt but how any basic map provided by genes is inherited is difficult to appreciate, since it implies an inherited construct in the individual's brain of an individual map. Detailed maps have a huge data content and surely genes cannot cope with the storage of them. Even so each animal goes long...

Impact Of Resistance On The Use Of Nnrtis In Developing Countries

In the HIV Network for Prevention Trials (HIVNET) 012 study in Uganda, 111 treatment-naive pregnant women received a single 200-mg dose of nevi-rapine, and neonates received a single dose within 72 h after birth. Thirty-three infants were infected despite prophylaxis. Genotypes were performed in 32 of the transmitting mothers and in 72 nontransmitting mothers. Nevirapine-resis-tance mutations were detected in 7 (22 ) of the transmitting women, and 11 (16 ) of the nontransmitting women. K103N was the dominant mutation in 90 of samples with a mutation. Y181C was seen in six samples. The women in HIVNET 012 had a follow-up genotype at 12 to 18 mo after therapy, which showed a return to wild-type virus in all of the patients (54,55). Seven of the infected infants also had genotypes performed, the K103N mutation was detected in one and the Y181C mutation was detected in two infants. Interestingly, the infected infants had different mutations than their mothers this difference suggests that...

Coronary thrombosis A clot in one of the

Ductus arteriosus A tube connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta. After birth, when the lungs begin to function, this tube normally closes. If it stays open, it's known as patent ductus arteriosus. Over time, this can cause problems such as heart failure and may need to be surgically closed. present in the fetus. If it remains open after birth, it is called a patent foramen ovale.

Human Reproductive Cloning

Safety is itself an ethical issue. Nuclear replacement in animals is at present very inefficient. Few of the reconstructed embryos develop, some develop abnormally, some die at or soon after birth. In humans, the wastage of human eggs and the high risks of miscarriage and congenital malformation alone would exclude any realistic prospect of reproductive cloning. However, since issues of efficiency and safety may eventually be resolved, it is necessary to analyze further the reasons why human reproductive cloning is so widely judged to be ethically unacceptable.

Patients With A Severe And Systemic Mitochondrial Disorder And Partial Deficiency Of hsp

Deficiency of hsp 60 was discovered in cultured skin fibroblasts from two patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. The two patients had a number of symptoms in common, but they also presented with differences in the clinical manifestation of the mitochondrial defect. Patient 1 died shortly after birth of heart failure (21). Patient 2 reached the age of 4.5 years, was mentally and physically retarded, and died from acute, severe acidosis (22). Both children had facial dysmorphic features, a symptom rarely encountered in patients with a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, and they showed directly at birth a severe lactic acidosis and hypotonia. Pathological examination revealed cardiac and lung abnormalities, hepatomegaly, and brain tissue damage. Metabolically, the children differed with respect to the organic acids excreted in the urine. Patient 1 accumulated only lactate in the urine patient 2 also other organic acids like pyruvate, ketone bodies, and 2-hydroxy-glutarate.

Pluripotent Bronchiolar Stem Cells In Distal Conducting Airways

Development of pulmonary acinus in mammals. Pluripotent type II stem cells, which first appear in the pseudoglandular period of lung development, play a key role in the development and maintenance of the respiratory system (ten Have-Opbroek, 1981). The basic structure in pulmonary acinus formation before and after birth is the acinar tubule or sprout (lining type II cells). Growth of the pulmonary acinus takes place by budding (proliferation) of type II cells. The cuboid type II cells also give rise to squamous type I cells, a process that takes place in association with developing endothelium. Fig. 11. Development of pulmonary acinus in mammals. Pluripotent type II stem cells, which first appear in the pseudoglandular period of lung development, play a key role in the development and maintenance of the respiratory system (ten Have-Opbroek, 1981). The basic structure in pulmonary acinus formation before and after birth is the acinar tubule or sprout (lining type II cells)....

Distorted research agendas

Many (probably most) women find the administration of an enema in early labour distressing and degrading, yet this is still a routine in many maternity hospitals. This practice reflects the fact that some health professionals believe that routine use of enemas shortens labour and reduces the risk of maternal and neonatal infection after birth. A Colombian family physician, Luis Cuervo, was concerned about this mismatch between lay and professional perceptions. At the end of 1994 he consulted the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database and found a review of the relevant controlled trials. Although the review confirmed his impression that there was good reason to doubt the validity of the professional rationale for administering enemas to women in labour, he was dissatisfied with the quality of the review. The improved review of the available evidence that he pre-pared22 revealed that the existing trials were unsatisfactory in a number of respects, and so he designed and completed a...

CXCR4CXCL12 Linked to CNS Development and Much More

As mentioned previously, CXCR4 is expressed in glial cells (astrocytes and microglia but not oligodendrocytes) as well as in neurons. In the adult brain, neuronal expression of CXCR4 is localized to cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, globus pallidus, substantia innominata, supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, ventromedial thalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, cerebellum, ento-rhinal cortex, and substantia nigra. Astrocytes represent the major cellular source of the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in the brain. In vitro studies have demonstrated that CXCL12 is a potent chemoattractant for several types of neural cells, including neuronal precursor cells from the external germinal layer, cortical neuronal progenitors, cerebellar granule neurons, and dentate gyrus granular neurons (37,38). Disruption of either CXCR4 or CXCL12 in gene-targeted mice gives similar but not identical pathophysiologic outcomes mice died soon after birth and exhibited severe abnormalities in cerebellar development...

Thyroid Hormones Increase Active Transport of Ions Through

Activator Inhibitor

An important effect of thyroid hormone is to promote growth and development of the brain during fetal life and for the first few years of postnatal life. If the fetus does not secrete sufficient quantities of thyroid hormone, growth and maturation of the brain both before birth and afterward are greatly retarded, and the brain remains smaller than normal. Without specific thyroid therapy within days or weeks after birth, the child without a thyroid gland will remain mentally deficient throughout life. This is discussed more fully later in the chapter.

Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life

Fetal Circulation

After normal delivery from a mother who has not been depressed by anesthetics, the child ordinarily begins to breathe within seconds and has a normal respiratory rhythm within less than 1 minute after birth. The promptness with which the fetus begins to breathe indicates that breathing is initiated by sudden exposure to the exterior world, probably resulting from (1) a slightly asphyxiated state incident to the birth process, but also from (2) sensory impulses that originate in the suddenly cooled skin. In an infant who does not breathe immediately, the body becomes progressively more hypoxic and hypercapnic, which provides additional stimulus to the respiratory center and usually causes breathing within an additional minute after birth. Degree of Hypoxia That an Infant Can Tolerate. In an adult, failure to breathe for only 4 minutes often causes death, but a neonate often survives as long as 10 minutes of failure to breathe after birth. Permanent and very...

Cell Divisions During Spermatogenesis

Cross Sectional Seminiferous Tubules

Cell divisions during spermatogenesis. During embryonic development the primordial germ cells migrate to the testis where they become spermatogonia. At puberty (usually 12 to14 years after birth), the spermatogonia proliferate rapidly by mitosis. Some begin meiosis to become primary spermatocytes and continue through meiotic division I to become secondary spermato-cytes. After completion of meiotic division II, the secondary spermatocytes produce spermatids, which differentiate to form spermatozoa. Cell divisions during spermatogenesis. During embryonic development the primordial germ cells migrate to the testis where they become spermatogonia. At puberty (usually 12 to14 years after birth), the spermatogonia proliferate rapidly by mitosis. Some begin meiosis to become primary spermatocytes and continue through meiotic division I to become secondary spermato-cytes. After completion of meiotic division II, the secondary spermatocytes produce spermatids, which differentiate to form...

Abdominal Muscle Contractions During Labor

For 10 to 45 minutes after birth of the baby, the uterus continues to contract to a smaller and smaller size, which causes a shearing effect between the walls of the uterus and the placenta, thus separating the placenta from its implantation site. Separation of the placenta opens the placental sinuses and causes bleeding. The amount of bleeding is limited to an average of 350 milliliters by the following mechanism The smooth muscle fibers of the uterine musculature are arranged in figures of eight around the blood vessels as the vessels pass through the uterine wall. Therefore, contraction of the uterus after delivery of the baby constricts the vessels that had previously supplied blood to the placenta. In addition, it is believed that vasoconstrictor prostaglandins formed at the placental separation site cause additional blood vessel spasm.

Defects with Fibrous Continuity Between the Leaflets of the Aortic and Tricuspid Valves

Heart Fibrous Continuity

By a deficiency of the interventricular component of the membranous septum. Indeed, during the development of the heart, the interventricular component is frequently not formed until after birth (Allwork and Anderson, 1979). The defect with fibrous continuity between the leaflets of the aortic and tricuspid valves results instead from deficiency of the muscular septum forming the circumference of the membranous area. As such, the deficiency can extend to open toward the inlet, apical trabecular or outlet components of the right ventricle. Because all these defects extend around the persisting components of the membranous septum (Figure 8.6), we term them perimembranous defects. The direction of extension of the defects, although not altering their basic morphology, does significantly affect their relationship to important structures, such as the atrio-ventricular valves or the medial papillary muscle. The general relationship of a perimembranous defect to the atrio-ventricular...

Strategies Using Cell Therapy to Induce Cardiomyocyte Regeneration in Adults with Heart Disease

Congestive heart failure remains a major public health problem and is frequently the end result of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and fibrous replacement after myocardial infarction (MI), a process referred to as left ventricular remodeling. Cardiomyocytes undergo terminal differentiation soon after birth and are generally considered to withdraw irreversibly from the cell cycle. In response to ischemic insult, adult cardiomyocytes undergo cellular hypertrophy, nuclear ploidy, and a high degree of apoptosis. A small number of human cardiomyocytes retain the capacity to proliferate and regenerate in response to ischemic injury. However, whether these cells are derived from a resident pool of cardiomyocyte stem cells or from a renewable source of circulating bone marrow-derived stem cells that home to the damaged myocardium is at present not known. Replacement and regeneration of functional cardiac muscle after an ischemic insult to the heart could be achieved either by stimulating...

Biological Clocks And Seasonal Behavior

The biological rhythms of different functions become apparent at different times after birth. In the infant, the development of rhythmicity must represent a combination of the genetic potential of the maturation process in the brain and of the varying influences of environment. The alternation of light and darkness is perhaps the most obvious of external rhythms, but similar alternations of noise and silence and the attention that the infant receives from adults may also be of importance. In the adult, the biological rhythms are represented by the periodic regular cyclic variations of the biological processes, describing a sinusoidal function with individual characteristics of periodicity and amplitude.

Important Findings In The Pediatric Emg Laboratory

The needle study is the key to determining prognosis. Because examination of the cervical paraspinal muscle is impractical in most infants, the presence of MUPs on needle EMG at various root levels confirms continuity of the axon and, thus, the likelihood of at least partial recovery of function. This assessment can only be made several months after birth, after reinnervation has begun to occur, because a premature examination may yield an inaccurately grim prognosis. In neonatal myasthenia gravis, maternal antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. This occurs in 12 of infants born to mothers with symptomatic or quiescent autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Soon after birth, an affected neonate develops respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and weakness. In one-third of cases, ventilatory support and nasogastric tube feedings are required until the baby clears the antibodies from the circulation, which usually takes several weeks....

Selective Activation Of Rodent Liver Progenitor Cells

Although the rat has been the preferred animal model for studying oval cell activation, several excellent mouse models are now available. As in the rat, a number of these take advantage of the oval cell expansion that occurs following treatment with chemical carcinogens, pertinent examples being ethionine in a CD diet (Akhurst et al., 2001), diethylnitrosamine (He et al., 1994), and N-nitrosodimethylamine in combination with Heliobacter hepaticus (Diwan et al., 1997). SV40 transgenic mice offer a model system not only for studying the role of oval cells in hepatocarcinogenesis but also for examining the factors that lead to their spontaneous activation around wk 10 after birth (Bennoun et al., 1993). Oval cell proliferation also occurs in mouse models of chronic hepatitis induced by infection with cytomegalovirus (Cassell et al., 1998) or treatment with allyl alcohol (Lee et al., 1996). Interestingly, the repair process following exposure to allyl alcohol differs significantly from...

Euroform Healthcare Medical Physiology

Titer Agglutinins

Titer of the Agglutinins at Different Ages. Immediately after birth, the quantity of agglutinins in the plasma is almost zero. Two to 8 months after birth, an infant begins to produce agglutinins anti-A agglutinins For instance, infusion of group A antigen into a recipient having a non-A blood type causes a typical immune response with formation of greater quantities of anti-A agglutinins than ever. Also, the neonate has few, if any, agglutinins, showing that agglutinin formation occurs almost entirely after birth.

Segmentation Cleavage And Midline Defects

The clinical presentation of holoprosencephaly is dependent on the degree of CNS involvement. Infants with severe alobar forms often die shortly after birth. Survivors frequently present with severe mental retardation, seizures (infantile spasms occur early), severe motor impairments, poikolothermia, and endocrine insufficiencies. In the milder forms of holoprosencephaly, longer survival with various degrees of psychomotor retardation is possible. Endocrine dysfunction may become apparent, with diabetes insipidus and growth hormone deficiency having been reported in a number of cases. It should be re-emphasized that only the classic facial phenotypes are predictive of the severe alobar holoprosencephaly with its associated very poor prognosis but that a number of partial facial phenotypes, such as midline cleft lip or midface hypoplasia, are not necessarily associated with the most severe malformations in the spectrum.

Intellectual Deviates

The mentally retarded and the gifted represent the lower and upper extremes of the distribution of intelligence. Because the distribution is continuous, there is no sharp separation between these groups and the norm. In terms of intelligence test performance, mental retardation is customarily identified with IQs below 70, representing about 2-3 of the general population. Decisions regarding the disposition and treatment of individual cases are based not only on the IQ but also on a comprehensive study of the individual's intellectual development, educational history, social competence, physical condition, and familial situation. Although a few rare forms of mental retardation result from defective genes, the large majority of cases can be traced to environmental conditions operating before or after birth and including both physical and psychological influences.

Response of the Mothers Body to Pregnancy

The average weight gain during pregnancy is about 24 pounds, with most of this gain occurring during the last two trimesters. Of this, about 7 pounds is fetus and 4 pounds is amniotic fluid, placenta, and fetal membranes. The uterus increases about 2 pounds and the breasts another 2 pounds, still leaving an average weight increase of 9 pounds. About 6 pounds of this is extra fluid in the blood and extracellular fluid, and the remaining 3 pounds is generally fat accumulation. The extra fluid is excreted in the urine during the first few days after birth, that is, after loss of the fluid-retaining hormones from the placenta. Various attempts have been made to prove that preeclampsia is caused by excessive secretion of pla-cental or adrenal hormones, but proof of a hormonal basis is still lacking. Another theory is that preeclamp-sia results from some type of autoimmunity or allergy in the mother caused by the presence of the fetus. In support of this, the acute symptoms usually...

Study Design Dutch Pcb Dioxin Study

In each area the planned sample size was 100 breast-feeding and 100 formula-feeding mother and infant pairs. Eligible women were approached by their midwives or obstetricians. Inclusion criteria were (1) pregnancy and delivery without complications or serious illnesses (2) first or second born infants (3) born at term (37-42 weeks) and (4) white race. In the BF group, we only included mothers who were able to sustain full breast-feeding for at least 6 weeks. In the FF group, formula milk from a single batch was provided (Almiron M2 NutriciaN.V. The Netherlands). In the latter group, children were exclusively fed on formula-milk during the first 6 months after birth. A wide range ofperinatal factors, including maternal age, body weight and height, parity, formal education, dietary intake and smoking habits were recorded. In addition, the maternal pre-pregnancy body weight and height were measured and used to calculate the body mass index (BMI weight kg height2 m ). Data on the number...

Photic and Nonphotic Zeitgebers

It appears that nonphotic factors such as social factors or social rhythms may also be important in the setting of cir-cadian rhythms in human subjects (Aschoff, Fatranska, & Giedke, 1971 Mrosovsky, 1996 Wever, 1975, 1979, 1988). As well as acting as a direct zeitgeber, social rhythms can indirectly determine when a person is exposed to physical zeitgebers such as daylight and darkness. Moreover, social rhythms also determine when a person goes to bed or gets up and thus set the timing of their sleep-wake cycles. Social entrainment begins soon after birth so that an offspring's eating and sleeping schedules become synchronized with those of siblings and parents.

Reasoning about Ultimate Causes of Behavior

Among birds and mammals the situation is different. Because fertilization is internal, the female is stuck with the zygote in a way the male is not. Female birds put a lot into their eggs, not just figuratively but in fact. Although the eggs of female mammals are much smaller than those of birds, the embryo is nurtured internally and the young are fed after birth by milk secreted by the mother. All of these features place an energetic burden on the female that the male shares only indirectly, if at all. When the female's parental investment is much more extensive than the male's, the female is potentially capable of contributing genes to fewer offspring than the male is. Under these conditions, females are, for males, a resource, and selection tends to favor patterns of reproduction in which males attempt to inseminate many females. For females, on the other hand, there is usually not an equivalent advantage to be gained by multiple matings. Moreover, because for the males the females...

Hereditary hyperekplexia glycine receptor channel

Symptoms of the major form of hereditary hyperekplexia could present early, as in two unrelated patients who had unusual fetal movements during gestation, with sudden forceful jerking lasting from seconds to minutes that increased in severity in response to external stimuli (Leventer et al 1995). Shortly after birth both exhibited rigidity, nocturnal limb jerking and an exaggerated startle response, which are typical findings in the neonatal period in patients with hereditary hyperekplexia. Unexpected stimuli, such as noises or normal handling, could precipitate massive, generalized spasms of skeletal muscles to cause apnoea, cyanosis and even death, during infancy (Kurczynski 1983). Often mistaken for spastic quadriplegia, neonatal stiffness improves in early childhood (Andermann et al 1980). Delay in motor development is common because any sudden sound, touch, or movement could cause patients to stiffen and fall. Diffuse stiffness renders the patients completely powerless in...

The Uncinate Process and the Maxillary Sinus

The maxillary sinus is the largest and most constant of the paranasal sinuses. It is the first sinus to develop in utero. After birth, it undergoes two periods of rapid growth, between birth and 3 years of life, then between ages 7 and 18 years. The maxillary sinus has a pyramidal shape with an anterior wall corresponding to the facial surface of the maxilla. Its posterior bony wall separates it from the pterygomaxil-lary fossa medially and from the infratemporal fossa laterally. Its medial wall does not contain any bone it is formed by the middle meatus mucosa, a layer of connective tissue and the sinus mucosa 19 . This is best recognized at the level of the posterior fontanelle which corresponds to the area between the tails of the middle and inferior turbinates, behind the hiatus semilunaris and under the ethmoid bulla. The poste

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Herpes gestationis (see Figi.i. 26-11.D-E) is a vesicular and bullous disease that occurs in relation to pregnancy. It usually develops during the second or the third trimester and commonly disappears after birth, only to return with subsequent pregnancies. The histologic features are believed significantly distinctive so that this disease can be separated from dermatitis herpetiformis. Immunologic findings of C3 bound to the basement membrane of the epidermis and occasional IgG deposition may be significant. Therapy with systemic corticosteroids is usually indicated.

Prader Willi and Angelman Syndromes

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), with a prevalence of 1 in 10,000, is a rare condition. Children become symptomatic soon after birth. Infants are initially hypotonic and sometimes then fail to thrive. Subsequently, within the first 2 years of life, they become Angelman syndrome (AS), also rare, has a prevalence similar to that of PWS. Infants with AS are often hypotonic. They then develop motor delays, ataxia, and moderate to severe mental retardation. Only rarely do they develop speech. They often have characteristic facial features, including a wide mouth, large mandible, pointed chin, prominent tongue, wide spaced teeth, and blue eyes. Some develop the remarkable symptoms of excessive laughter or of puppetlike limb movements. Seizures usually develop soon after birth, and all with AS have abnormal EEGs.

Special Functional Problems in the Neonate

The blood volume of a neonate immediately after birth averages about 300 milliliters, but if the infant is left attached to the placenta for a few minutes after birth or if the umbilical cord is stripped to force blood out of its vessels into the baby, an additional 75 milliliters of blood enters the infant, to make a total of 375 milliliters. Then, during the ensuing few hours, fluid is lost into the neonate's tissue spaces from this blood, which increases the hematocrit but returns the blood volume once again to the normal value of about 300 milliliters. Some pediatricians believe that this extra blood volume caused by stripping the umbilical cord can lead to mild pulmonary edema with some degree of respiratory distress, but the extra red blood cells are often very valuable to the infant. Arterial Pressure. The arterial pressure during the first day after birth averages about 70 mm Hg systolic and 50 mm Hg diastolic this increases slowly during the next several months...

Role Of Milk Cells In Cmv Detection During Lactation

The highest concentration of leukocytes in human milk is observed in colostrum (1-3 x106 ml). In the milk of the first few days after birth, the different leukocyte types are distributed as follows neutrophils, 55-60 , macrophages, 30-40 , and lymphocytes, 5-10 16 . Phenotypic and functional differences between milk leukocytes and peripheral blood leukocytes are summarized in Table 1. In contrast to blood T-cells, the milk CD3-cells express phenotypic activation markers such as HLA-DR, IL2-receptor (CD25) and CD45RO (primed memory cells). Phagocytes in human milk are also activated. The density ofHLA-DR expression on macrophages is higher compared to peripheral blood monocytes 17 In Figure 3 milk leukocytes of mature milk (day 30 after birth) are shown. The a- naphthyl acetate esterase staining used, allows identification ofmacrophages expressing diffuse red-brown granulation. The fat vacuoles remain unstained. Neutrophils are characterised by their typical polymorphonuclear shape in...

Neuropsychological Development

The time course of synapse formation has been mapped in detail for primates. Synapses begins to form about 2 months before birth and grow rapidly for several months. In humans, synaptic growth is known to continue for at least 2 years after birth. There is some suggestion that experience may affect the survival of synapses. This is based upon the fact that, between about 2 and 16 years of age,

Clinical Features and Associated Findings

Measles during pregnancy has a more severe clinical course and is associated with an increased risk of premature labor or spontaneous abortion. y , '811 Pregnancy is a significant risk factor for mortality during measles. y Measles infection in pregnancy does not, however, appear to be associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, leading to the suggestion that although infection with measles increases the risk of premature termination of pregnancy within the first 2 weeks of onset of the rash, if pregnancy continues, the likelihood of a favorable outcome is high. y It is recommended that susceptible pregnant women exposed to a person with active measles receive serum immune globulin (gamma globulin 16.5 percent) within 6 days of exposure to prevent or modify subsequent disease. All infants born to mothers with active measles in the 6 days before delivery should also receive intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis (500 mg kg) immediately after birth and again 1 week...

Diagnosis Of Pulmonary Tuberculosis In Children

In many countries, newborns receive BCG immunization, and yet childhood PTB still occurs.This shows that BCG is not fully effective in protecting against PTB. BCG seems to give better protection against disseminated disease, such as miliary TB or TB meningitis, than it does against PTB. The effectiveness of BCG against PTB is variable between regions, and the reasons for this are not completely understood. One problem is likely to be the timing of the vaccination. In developing countries where TB is common, children will often be exposed to TB early in life and so immunization needs to be given as early as possible, i.e. soon after birth. However, the immune system of a newborn may be too immature to be able to produce an effective immune reaction to the BCG. BCG has been more effective when given to school-aged children. However, in communities where TB is common, this would be too late to protect against most disease. Other factors that reduce the

How do people contract syphilis

The syphilis bacterium is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore. Sores mainly occur on the external genitalia, vagina, anus, or rectum. Sores can also occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to the babies they are carrying. An infected pregnant woman has about a 40 chance of having a stillbirth (syphilitic stillbirth) or delivering a baby who dies shortly after birth. About 12 of infected newborns will die because of the disease.

Therapeutic Interventions In The Prevention Of Vertical Hiv Transmission

At the time the PACTG 076 protocol was being developed, clinical observations and animal models had documented that the virus could be transmitted in early pregnancy, or after birth through breast-feeding (55-57). The natural history of the disease in children suggested that, although some infants with rapid clinical deterioration were infected in utero, others seemed to acquire their infection closer to the time of birth. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial was selected as the optimal study design to investigate whether or not perinatal transmission of the HIV virus could be averted with antiretroviral treatment (54). Patients who would potentially benefit from the use of antiretroviral treatment (symptomatic patients or those with AIDS) were excluded from participation, and most women were antiretroviral naive at the time of enrollment. Because of concerns of teratogenicity, drug exposure during the first trimester was avoided, therefore, the earliest...

Crucial Role of IGFI in Neurogenesis

In most brain regions of highly developed mammals, the majority of neurogenesis is terminated soon after birth. However, new neurons are continually generated throughout life in at least two areas of the adult mammalian brain, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the sub-

Individual Differences

A major problem in differential psychology is the kind and number of ways an individual can be different. Differences start at conception as a result of the great differences in the chromosomes and genes available in each parent. There are the effects of environment on the selection of chromosomes and genes plus the physical, mental, and emotional state of the mother who carries the child-to-be. Other factors include the nutrition available during the developmental period and after birth, the amount of stimulation available after birth, the types of traumatic experiences that may occur, the others in the individuals' environment, and the kinds of educational experiences available. Sexual differences are observable after birth. Girls tend to develop faster than boys, and this will affect brain development. Early developers have better verbal than spatial abilities, whereas late developers perform better on spatial than on verbal tasks.

Amino Acid Metabolism Essential And Nonessential

Amino acids are utilised as the building blocks for protein synthesis, as well as for the formation of a diverse range of complex molecules of fundamental importance to metabolism. In nutrition, the amino acids have classically been divided into two groups those that need to be provided preformed in the diet, essential amino acids, and those which can be synthesised in adequate amounts by the host, non-essential amino acids910. Even for adults, this division is less sharp than previously recognised, but for the fetus all amino acids have to be provided preformed either from the mother or from the placenta until the pathways for de novo formation are adequately developed and mature. The time and pace of this maturation varies, with some pathways not achieving significant or adequate function until after birth, for example the ability to synthesise adequate amounts of cysteine and taurine. The pattern of amino acids required by the developing fetus is very different to that found in...

Mechanisms Of Pancreas Regeneration Can Mature Cells Transdifferentiate

Pancreas Duct Cell Marker

At high doses, the P-cell mass is nearly completely destroyed and does not regenerate, leading to overt diabetes. At lower doses, there may be some regeneration of P-cells, depending on the species used for instance, mice are more resistant to these toxic agents than rats. In rats, significant (but yet incomplete) regeneration takes place only when the injury is caused immediately after birth, but not in older rats (Portha et al., 1989 Wang et al., 1994, 1996). It has been suggested that adult mouse islets contain progenitor cells that can replace P-cells destroyed by STZ (Fernandes et al., 1997). The IPCs that proliferate following islet injury were characterized as a population of hormone-negative cells expressing the Glut-2 glucose transporter normally found in P-cells, and as a second population of islet cells expressing somatostatin (Guz et al., 2001). In this model, both the glucagon-pro-ducing a-cells and the somatostatin-producing 8-cells of the islets appeared to...

Development Of Germ Cells And Their Relations To Embryonic Stem Cells

Fetal Mesodermal Progeniter

Extraembryonic mesoderm at approximately 7 days postcoitum (dpc) as a cluster of approximately 50 cells that exhibit the alkaline phosphatase activity (7-9). These fetal germ cells are called primordial germ cells (PGCs). PGCs are then transferred from the extraembryonic tissue to the embryo per se at approximately 8.5 dpc and migrate through the hindgut while rapidly proliferating. These cells further migrate through the dorsal mesentery into the genital ridges (fetal gonads) at approximately 10.5 dpc. PGCs continue to proliferate in the genital ridge until approximately 12.5 dpc when the sex differentiation becomes morphologically evident. On 13.5 dpc, approximately 25,000 PGCs can be found in the genital ridge (10) thus, PGCs increase 500-fold in number from the time of their emergence. At the initiation of sex differentiation, female and male germ cells take different developmental pathways (Fig. 1). In females, PGCs enter meiosis and then become arrested at meiotic prophase. In...

Development of the Lung

During this phase of development, the process of branching continues and the smaller airways are formed. Fetal breathing movements are identified as early as eight weeks, and by the end of this phase, the two lobes of the left lung and three lobes of the right lung can be identified. Cartilage and smooth muscle cells are present, and about half of the epithelial cell types that will eventually comprise the mature lung are identifiable. The canalicular phase of development extends from weeks 17 through 26. It is during this phase that the airway branching is completed. Interstitial tissue decreases, and prospective gas exchange regions begin to appear. A differentiation process occurs in the cuboidal epithelial cells, and Type I and II pneumocytes appear. Type I pneu-mocytes are the functional exchange unit of the lung, while Type II pneumocytes produce surfactant, a phospholipid substance that serves to decrease surface tension within the Type I cell and prevent it...

Dermoid Epidermoid and Teratoma

These rare embryonic remnant tumors may present anywhere in the CNS but most commonly occur in the posterior fossa and the cauda equina. They are congenital tumors and may be seen at any age however, they are more likely to occur in children or young adults of either sex. They are slow growing and present with symptomatology specific for compressive syndromes at their location within the central nervous system. These symptoms can be insidious, and blockage of cerebrospinal flow occurs rarely. Seizures or headaches are not common. Skin lesions are commonly associated with these tumors, and any infant with a dermal sinus tract should undergo neuroradiological evaluation to exclude these growths. Communication with a dermal tract may lead to recurrent meningitis, and any patient with repeated meningitis, whether associated with a bacterial cause or not, should undergo evaluation for an unnoticed dermal sinus. Prenatal diagnosis with ultrasound and resection shortly after birth are now...

Brief Overview of Normal Organ Development

The mammary glands are a specialized skin structure. The first indication is found in the form of a band-like thickening of epidermis, the mammary line or ridge. This extends on each side of the body from the base of the forelimb to the region of the hindlimb by the seventh week of gestation. Most of the mammary line disappears quickly, but a small portion in the thoracic region persists and penetrates the underlying mesenchyme, forming the breast bud. The bud sprouts 16-24 cords, which ultimately form the lactiferous ducts surrounded by the alveoli of the gland. The ducts at first open into a small epithelial pit in the bud, but shortly after birth, this pit matures into the nipple by proliferation of the underlying mesenchyme 63 . At birth, the breast of both the male and female is identical. At puberty the female breast bud enlarges first, then the mammary glands enlarge, and an extensive deposition of fat occurs. The nipple and areola enlarge as well 38 .

Gestational Thyrotoxicosis

Gestational thyrotoxicosis is a transient form of thyrotoxicosis caused by rising levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which stimulate the thyroid gland to make thyroid hormone. This is usually found in women with severe morning sickness and is typically diagnosed toward the end of the first trimester. It usually resolves on its own after pregnancy. Temporary treatment with propranolol, a beta-blocker (see Chapter 11), may be used as long as it is definitely necessary and not used for more than a few weeks using it for more than a few weeks can sometimes result in a smaller baby. If the thyrotoxicosis is very severe, antithyroid drugs, such as propylthiouracil (PTU), may be used in smaller than usual dosages.

Embryonic Stem Cell Opportunities in Developmental Toxicity and Cognitive Disorders

Functional toxicities relate to alterations that are detected after birth, and may be persistent throughout an individual's lifetime. Postnatal development alterations are exemplified by neurobehavioral abnormalities and changes in cognitive function, among others. The predictive ability of animal models for functional toxicity is questioned since neurobehav-ioral and cognitive function may be significantly affected by cross-species differences.26 The eye blink conditioning task in one of the few phenotypes in rats which provide information of human learning patterns.27 Developmental anomalies affect 2 to 3 of all babies born in the United States.28 Birth defects are the main cause for infant mortality as reported in a study across 36 countries.29 Approximately 65 of birth defects have unknown causes.30 Therefore, analysis of teratogenic effects of chemicals on established pregnancies are of utmost importance towards development of robust predictive toxicology models. Concern exists...

Transposition ofthe Great Arteries

Patients with this defect have a combination of severe cyanosis and increased pulmonary blood flow. In patients with simple transposition, a Rashkind's balloon septostomy is performed as soon after birth as possible to increase mixing at atrial level, although severe desaturation may persist. If a small ventricular septal defect or persistent ductus arteriosus is present, systemic oxygenation is usually higher. In most cases an arterial switch operation is performed in the first 2 weeks of life before the pulmonary vascular resistance falls, after which the left ventricle weakens and may not support the systemic circulation postoperatively (see Chapter 36).

Sleep EEG changes during childhood

Separate stages of NREM sleep can be identified after the age of 6 months. K-complexes appear between 8 and 12 weeks after birth, and occipital delta activity is superimposed on normal occipital alpha activity from around 2 years of age. It is most obvious between 8 and 14 years and disappears by the age of 30 years.

Defects with High Pulmonary Blood Flow

Immediately after birth, PVR is high but falls soon after, so that most infants have a low PVR and a high pulmonary blood flow, which causes actual or incipient pulmonary oedema, increased work of breathing with tachypnea and varying degrees of cardiorespiratory failure. These conditions may also cause repeated chest infections and failure to thrive, with feeding difficulties, in spite of diuretic therapy.

Peri and Postnatal Studies

Spirulina was given until Day 21 postpartum. After birth, the numbers of live, dead and externally abnormal newborns were counted. Postimplantation loss was calculated and bodyweight and viability were recorded. At approximately 10 weeks of age, the reproductive performance was assessed by mating males and females. Fetuses in the F2 generation were examined for survival, bodyweight and external, visceral and skeletal anomalies. Uteri were examined for implantations and resorptions and

Inability Of Damaged Myocardium To Undergo Repair Due To Cellcycle Arrest Of Adult Cardiomyocytes

Cardiomyocytes undergo terminal differentiation soon after birth and are thought by most investigators to withdraw irreversibly from the cell cycle. Analysis of cardiac myocyte growth during early mammalian development indicates that cardiac myocyte DNA synthesis occurs primarily in utero, with proliferating cells decreasing from 33 at midgestation to 2 at birth (Hescheler et al., 1999). While ventricular karyokinesis and cytokinesis are coupled during fetal growth, resulting in increases in mononucle-ated cardiac myocytes, karyokinesis occurs in the absence of cytokinesis for a transient period during the postnatal period, resulting in binucleation of ventricular myocytes without an overall increase in cell number. A similar dissociation between karyokinesis and cytokinesis characterizes the primary adult mammalian cardiac response to ischemia, resulting in myocyte hypertrophy and an increase in nuclear ploidy rather than myocyte hyperplasia (Hill and Singal, 1997 Heymans et al.,...

Pluripotent Alveolar Type Ii Stem Cells In The Pulmonary Acini

Pulmonary Acini

These findings support the view (Fig. 11) that pluripotent type II stem cells play a key role in the development and maintenance of the respiratory system in connection with its function (i.e., respiration). First, these cells generate the basic components of the primitive pulmonary acinus (i.e., the acinar tubule or sprout). Growth of the acinus takes place by proliferation ( budding ) of type II cells. Second, these cells may give rise to type II cell lineages or become terminally differentiated type I cells. The transformation from cuboid type II cells to flatter type I cells takes place locally, in association with developing endothelium. As a result, the acinar tubules transform into wider derivative structures (smooth-walled ducts and sacs) lined by cuboid type II cells and more or less squamous type I cells. After birth, the smooth-walled ducts and sacs acquire alveolar outpocketings according to the same principle type II cell budding. The type I cells in the lining of the...

Assessment Clinical Findings

The diagnosis of congenital tracheal stenosis and other obstructive anomalies is based on a high degree of suspicion in infants and children with respiratory distress. Inspiratory and or expiratory stridor may be present, accompanied by retraction. Recurrent or persistent cough and exercise intolerance occur. There may be a history of respiratory difficulties of lesser intensity since birth, or shortly after birth, or of repeated and stubborn respiratory infections. Strangely, dyspnea may be episodic. Cyanosis and apneic episodes may occur. In some cases, difficulty in intubation had led to the diagnosis. Late manifestations of congenital stenosis may represent the child's respiratory demands outpacing the ventilation permitted by the stenotic airway. Only then may a clinical history be retrospectively traced to a much earlier time. Other obstructive lesions are manifest in similar ways.


In the analysis, the following factors were positively associated with birth length Maternal height, pregnancy weight gain, gestational age and social status (borderline significant, p 0.07), while there was a negative association with smoking during pregnancy. Length at 12 months was positively associated with maternal height and birth weight and negatively with being offspring of a single mother. Length gain was positively associated with maternal height and gestational age and negatively with birth weight and being offspring of a single mother. Data on weight and head circumference in the same group of infants have been analysed in the same way. Weight data showed the same pattern and the same level of significance as data for length while there were no significant associations between head circumference and duration of breastfeeding (data not shown).

Evolution Of Issue

Reverse causality refers to the situation when the putative cause and effect relationship are reversed. This was, for instance, the reason for the extremely high association between not breastfeeding (putative cause) and infant mortality (effect) originally reported in the literature. The association was mostly due to the fact that children who died shortly after birth never breastfed and not because a lack of breastfeeding caused these deaths (Habicht 1986). In this case an important remaining component ofthe association was never-the-less causal, in that breast feeding did save lives.


However, they are then re-expressed in pathological states such as vascular disease and tumorigenesis, and during tissue remodeling (wound healing, involution). Similarly, tenascin C is expressed in the PNS during development, and is strongly up-regulated after Wallerian degeneration (Sanes et al. 1986 Daniloff et al. 1989 Martini et al. 1990). At the cellular and sub-cellular level, tenascin C is expressed in peri-neurial fibroblasts and pre-myelinating Schwann cells before birth after birth its expression decreases in perineurium and becomes restricted in Schwann cells it is present in nodes of Ranvier in myelin-ated fibres and is absent in non-myelinated fibres (Rieger et al. 1986). Mice in which the tenascin C gene was inactivated showed hypomyelin-ation and myelin degeneration in peripheral nerves (Cifuentes-Diaz et al. 1998), a result that has not been confirmed by other investigators (reviewed in Mackie and Tucker (1999)).

High Tech Cannibalism

Unfortunately, neither the Belmont Report nor the Gelsinger investigation addresses these new methodologies. Nevertheless, the ethical principles now in place to guide medical research can be used to address the problems associated with ES cell research. The Belmont Report and the Gelsinger investigation established the requirement for informed consent and patient advocates. Both requirements are relevant to fetal and ES cell research. Critics argue that since neither the embryo nor the fetus is recognized as a person, in the legal sense, there is no obligation for ES cell researchers to abide by those reports. However, the absence of legal status does not preclude an ethical policy, as evidenced by the fact that abortion in North America and Europe is only permissible up to the fifth month and not beyond (except in very rare cases where the mother's life is at risk), even though the fetus does not attain the legal status of a person until after birth. With this in mind, opponents of...

Language Acquisition

One of the most amazing human abilities is the mastery by infants of a complex linguistic system within a relatively short amount of time. In the first year of life, and even before, infants are learning important distinctions relevant to speech perception. For example, exposure to speech that occurs before birth enables newborns to recognize their mother's voice (DeCasper & Fifer, 1980), and to use prosodic and acoustic cues to recognize a particular story that was read to them while they were in the womb (De-Casper & Spence, 1986). After birth, infants show the ability to distinguish unfamiliar languages from each other based on rhythmic differences, and an increasing ability to distinguish their native language from other languages (Nazzi, Jusczyk, & Johnson, 2000). In the first half-year of life, infants are able to discriminate both phonetic contrasts that occur and those that do not occur in their native language, but before the first year is up, they generally lose the ability...

On Becoming Human

The question of when an embryo becomes human is not a new issue but one that has been debated by philosophers, scientists, and politicians for more than 2,000 years. The Greek philosopher Aristotle, always in the thick of things, believed that life arose in three stages, which he characterized as vegetative, animate, and intellectual. Aristotle was likely referring to the emergence of entire populations, but many people took it to mean that human development traveled this course as well, that is, the embryo, immediately after conception, is in a vegetative stage, followed by an animate stage, when muscles differentiate and limbs begin to move, and finally, the individual develops an intellect. People concluded that the first two stages occurred in the womb, while the final stage appeared only after birth. Thus, in the minds of many, an embryo did not become human until after birth, and this idea has influenced public perception and dialogue ever since.


Cerebral palsy refers to a syndrome of acquired, nonprogressive perinatal encephalopathy due to a variety of insults, including anoxia, hypoperfusion, trauma, vascular events, congenital abnormalities, and kernicterus (less common today). Asphyxia accounts for only a minority of cases, the most common cause reflecting prenatal factors that are difficult to identify with certainty. y Cerebral palsy may be classified based on the type of motor impairment, and its distribution is segregated into spastic types and hypotonic types. Spastic types include spastic diplegia (legs more involved than arms), which is more common in premature infants spastic hemiplegia, which is the most common form acquired after birth and spastic quadriplegia (usually asymmetrical with arms more involved than legs), that is sometimes termed doub e hemip egia. The hypotonic types include athetoid (predominant basal ganglia development) and ataxic (predominant cerebellar involvement). The spectrum of intellectual...

Human Genes

To the brain and directly connected to novel genes. It was a considerable surprise in the 17th and 18th centuries to find the brain so clearly linked to that of earlier species (see Chapter 9), but it was a greater shock to find that human genes are not greater in number than those in some higher plants and animals and are not even different in kind from those of a chimpanzee, with whom we share 99.0 of our genes. The human genome has 3xl09 bases, which express 35,000 proteins, neither of which is unusual for a modern animal or plant. There is no known metabolic pattern different from other animals, nor is there a known significant difference in internal element content or use. The difference between humans and chimpanzees lies as far as we can tell in the functional relationship between observation and brain cell memory based on brain growth and connectivity to the external environment. Although human brains have more cells - there are some one hundred billion, 10u, neurons at least...

Review Questions

Myelination of axons continues after birth, often not reaching maturity until the third to fifth year of life. Smaller axon diameters in infants and children also slow conduction velocities to some extent, but have a more modest effect than incomplete myelination.


Recent evidence has shown that endocrine systems are strongly influenced by pre- and postnatal events. Stress or infections of the mother, raising glucocorticoid levels, or reduced maternal care after birth seem to result in a lifelong programming of specific hormone receptors. There is already strong evidence that these determinants account for later vulnerability for hypertension, diabetes II, and visceral obesity. Even later in life, chronic and traumatic stress can induce permanent endocrine changes and enhance vulnerability for specific diseases.

Long Term Memory

Therefore, soon after birth, there is a principle of use it or lose it that governs the final number of neurons and their connectivities in respective parts of the human nervous system. This is a type of learning. For example, if one eye of a newborn animal is covered for many weeks after birth, neurons in alternate stripes of the cerebral visual cortex neurons normally connected to the covered eye will degenerate, and the covered eye will remain either partially or totally blind for the remainder of life. Until recently, it was believed that very little learning is achieved in adult human beings and animals by modification of numbers of neurons in the memory circuits however, recent research suggests that even adults use this mechanism to at least some extent.

Hormonal Factors

The onset of maternal behavior in the pregnant female rat is coincident with a sharp decrease in progesterone and an increase in estrogen and prolactin. These changes in hormones appear to be both necessary and sufficient for the onset of maternal behavior because, after pregnancy termination, estrogen facilitates and progesterone delays the onset of maternal behavior. How does estrogen prime the brain to influence behavior It is now clear that the effects of estradiol on behavior may be due to its actions on the estrogen receptors, which are hormone-dependent transcription factors. Thus, estrogen is best considered as an early step in a cascade of cellular events that can ultimately lead to neuronal activation, recruitment of a neural system, and ultimately behavioral change.

Of Mice And Sheep

A mere 17 months after the Dolly paper, another paper appeared in Nature, reporting the successful cloning of mice by nuclear transfer, again using nuclei derived from adult cells.5 A few died at or soon after birth (this is not unexpected, since for technical reasons all were delivered by Caesarian section), but more than twenty Dolly mice developed into healthy fertile adults. Many more have been produced since the paper was submitted, including male mice cloned from the tail tip of an adult.6 Successes have also been reported in cattle, including a report of eight calves cloned from a single adult cow,7 and more recently in goats8 and pigs.9 Thus the repro-ducibility of cloning adult mammals by nuclear transfer is no longer in question, although the success rate for all species remains low.

Brain stem

Contrast with phenotypic differences of earlier chemotypes which we have deliberately put to one side. Notice that at birth of a human and some other mammals, such as the mouse, the senses seem to be extremely poorly connected and even the organisation of the nerve connections to the muscles seem of little use in self feeding or movement. It is almost as if the embryo had deliberately insufficient development for self-preservation, so as to allow the brains growth to become environmentally dependent. We only need to contrast a baby fish or a tadpole, which can manage the outside world relatively well immediately after birth, with a baby human which can manage almost nothing, to see the possible advantages and disadvantages of delayed management. The increasing importance of the environment as a source of information in organisms has become strongly related to brain development in humans (see Fig. 9.6). While DNA is fixed and time-independent, the connectivity of nerves yields a...

Port Wine Hemangioma

The port wine hemangioma is commonly seen on the face as a reddish purple, flat, disfiguring facial mark. It can occur elsewhere in a less extensive form. Faint reddish lesions are often found on infants on the sides of the face, the forehead, the eyelids, and the extremities. The color increases with crying and alarms the mother, but most of these faint lesions disappear shortly after birth. When located above the palpebral tissue it can be associated with underlying hemangioma at the meninges occasionally in association with seizures (Sturge-Weber syndrome).


Confetti Macules

Lesions of the central nervous system, bone, endocrine glands, eyes, and skin. Cafe-au-lait macules develop soon after birth and may be found anywhere on the body. These skin lesions can be seen in normal individuals, but individuals having six or more lesions 1.5 cm or greater have nearly always been found to have neurofibromatosis. Axillary freckling (Crowe's sign) is almost always diagnostic of neurofibromatosis. The principal dermatologic manifestation of this disease is cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors (neurofibromas). They vary in size and shape and range from a few to as many as 9,000.

Methods Animals

Tal Damas Wootz

Female common cats were fed a completely defined taurine-free synthetic diet (BioServe, Frenchtown, NJ) for at least 6 months prior to mating. The cats were severely taurine-depleted, with plasma taurine concentrations of less than 1 mole 100 ml (0.1 M) Other females (controls), fed the same diet supplemented with 0.05 taurine, maintained plasma taurine levels of approximately 25-50 M. Male cats were fed the taurine-supplemented diet except during mating with females receiving the taurine-free diet. Surviving F1 kittens were sacrificed at the time of weaning (8 weeks after birth) and used in this study.

Microbial Influences

The gastrointestinal tract ofthe new-born baby is sterile. Soon after birth, however, it is colonised by numerous types of micro-organisms. Colonisation is complete after approximately one week but the numbers and species of bacteria fluctuate markedly during the first three months of life. When the microflora has been established it is surprisingly stable over time and environmental changes, e.g. a treatment period with antibiotics only temporary changes the composition of the microflora.

Of Liver Cells

A significant feature of the developing liver concerns its major role in extramedullar hematopoiesis until birth. This requires the active coexistence of stem progenitor cell populations that simultaneously generate hepatoblasts and hematopoietic cells (6). Immature fetal liver cells exhibit unique gene expression profiles, including expression of the oncofetal marker, a-fetoprotein, which is rapidly replaced by albumin expression following birth (7,8). Moreover, the prevalence of hepatic stem progenitor cells shows a remarkable decline after birth and declines further as an individual becomes older, which is relevant for choosing donor organs (9).


The mammalian pancreas is a mixed exocrine and endocrine gland that produces digestive enzymes and hormones. The enzymes are produced by cells of the exocrine portion, whereas the hormones are synthesized by cells that are clustered in the islets of Langerhans. The pancreas develops from fusion of dorsal and ventral primordia, which appear as buds from the embryonic gut. Each primordium is formed by an endodermally derived pancreatic duct containing undifferentiated precursor cells that migrate away from the duct to generate both islet and acinar cells. In mice, islets achieve a typical mature configuration after birth. Insulin (IN) containing p cells form the core of the islets and the other three classical endocrine cell types, the a, 5, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells, which synthesize glucagon (GLU), somatostatin (SOM), and PP, respectively, are located in the periphery of the islet.