Assertiveness Training

Your Perfect Right

Your Perfect Right

Always wondered if you could use assertiveness and equality in your relationships and in your life? Here are some great information on how to be more assertive! Do you want to improve your career and the amount of money that you bring home? Do you want to break all the sales records in your office? Do you want to bring home more money? Do you feel as though you are just short of reaching all of your goals?

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Assertiveness Training

Assertiveness training (AT) was introduced by .Andrew Salted, developed by Joseph Wolpe, and popularized by Wolpe and Lazarus. Rarely used alone, AT is used most frequently as one aspect of a broader therapeutic program. The goals of AT include (1) increased awareness of personal rights (2) differentiating between nonassertiveness, assertiveness, aggressiveness, and passive-aggressiveness and (3) learning both verbal and nonverbal assertiveness skills. Assertiveness skills involve saying no asking for favors or making requests expressing positive and negative feelings and initiating, continuing, and terminating conversations. Assertiveness training, as generally practiced, requires determining the specific situations where the client characteristically behaves maladaptively, that is, either unasser-tively, aggressively, or passive-aggressively. While self-report inventories are available for assessing the client's general responses to situations that require assertiveness, most...

Case study 2 Assertive community treatment for severe mental disorders

Assertive community treatment (ACT) is a multidisciplinary team based approach to care for the severely mentally ill in the community. It is assertive in that it continues to offer services to uncooperative and reluctant people, and places emphasis on treatment compliance with the aim of improving mental state. A systematic review comparing ACT to standard care (which consists of outpatient appointments and assistance from community mental health teams) found three trials that assessed mental state at around 12 months.33 The results are shown in Table 15.5.

Approaches to Career Counseling

Cussed is the developmental approach. This approach emphasizes the client's coping with developmental tasks in the past and in the current choice situation. Such an analysis may focus on the client's readiness to cope with emerging roles and skill requirements, relinquishing roles that are no longer appropriate, and acquiring the attitudinal and behavioral elements of career adaptability required in the current life stage planfulness, exploration, time perspective, assertiveness, flexibility, reality orientation, and so forth.

Developing a Client Control Profile Assessing the Theory

A client control profile is based on clinical assessment with the SCI, which has undergone extensive reliability and validity testing (including an investigation of neurobiological correlates of control using positron emission tomography). The 187-item, nine-scale SCI inventory is a clinically reliable and valid multidimensional instrument that measures four primary and interrelated components of clients' control profiles (1) desire for control (i.e., where they want control and why they want it) (2) current sense of control in both general and specific domains (3) the modes by which they seek control (assertive change and yielding accepting) and (4) use of both self and other agencies in gaining control. Research shows that this method of assessing client control profiles is the most sensitive inventory yet devised to differentiate among clinical disorders and between clinical and normative populations.

Control Based Interventions

Based on the goal selected, individually tailored cognitive and behavioral strategies are utilized to help clients regain a sense of control through one or both of the positive modes of control. The assertive change mode of control, which has historically been emphasized by Western scientific psychology, involves having individuals learn to identify, monitor, and gain active control of those aspects of their lives that are or should be amenable to change.

Crosscultural Counseling

In the 1970s research demonstrated that mental health services were being underutilized by minority groups and that behavior described as pathological in a minority culture, such as individualistic assertiveness, may be viewed as adaptive in a majority culture client. Asian Americans, Blacks, Chicanos, American Indians, and other minority groups terminate counseling significantly earlier than Anglo clients (Sue & Sue, 1999). In most of the research literature these examples of underutilization are explained by cultural barriers that hinder the formation of good counseling relationships, language barriers, class-bound values, and culture-bound attitudes.

Female Sexual Arousal Disorder

Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is operationalized as the difficulty in reaching and maintaining vaginal lubrication or genital swelling until the completion of the sexual activity (ApA, 2000). Recently, theorists have argued that diagnosis of FSAD should consider not only the physiological dimension of sexual arousal (i.e., lubrication) but the psychological experience as well. Women of all ages may experience difficulty lubricating, although it tends to be more of a problem in later life, typically after menopause. Female sexual arousal disorder is generally assessed and treated in conjunction with female orgasmic disorder or HSDD. To date, there are no validated treatments that focus exclusively on treating female arousal problems, although a number of pharmacological agents for enhancing vaginal engorgement and lubrication are currently under investigation. Techniques are often employed to help the patient become aware of her anxiety or her sexual turn-off thoughts,...

Models of the Acute Stress Response

Among all the potential acute stress response variables examined in this chapter, cardiovascular response to stress emerges as the variable that has received the strongest support for linking stress and essential hypertension. Furthermore, it is the only factor reviewed in this chapter that possesses prospective evidence connecting it to both increased incidence of hypertension among middle-aged adults and increases in blood pressure among young adults. This is not to state that the findings pertaining to differences in certain cognitive (repressive cognitive response style) and behavioral responses to stress (inappropriate assertive skills) that have been observed between hypertensive and nor-

Rosenzweig Picturefrustration Pf Study

It is essential to observe that aggression in the P-F and in the construct on which it is based in not necessarily negative in implication. In the context of the P-F, aggression is generically defined as assertiveness, which may be either affirmative or negative in character. Need-persistence represents a constructive (sometimes creative) form of aggression, whereas ego (ethos) defense is frequently destructive (of others or of oneself) in import. This point is particularly noteworthy because in many technical theories of aggression this distinction is overlooked and aggression is thought to be practically synonymous with hostility or destructive-ness. Common parlance, when not contaminated by psychoanalytic or other psychological conceptualizations comes close to the broader usage of the term aggression, which the P-F Study employs.

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

Individuals who have high scores on the Psychoticism subscale (27 items) have the potential to develop a psychotic disorder, as they may exhibit similar characteristics to those who have had a break with reality. These individuals may also have high levels of anger and are inclined to exhibit some types of conduct or behavioral disorders. They may be described as hostile or unempathic, and they may disregard societal conventions via nonconformity, recklessness, manipulation of others, and impulsivity. Other potential traits of people with high psychoticism scores include tough-mindedness, aggression, egocentrism, assertiveness, and dogmatism. Although there has been limited research on

Adolescent Sex Offenders

Earlier studies on the etiologies ofjuvenile sexual abuse revealed that the adolescent child molester is a loner, has few friends or social peers, prefers interaction with younger children, has a limited occupational history, is an under-achiever, is immature, and identifies with a dominating mother. More recent research has suggested other clinical dimensions of the adolescent offender (i.e., feelings of male inadequacy low self-esteem fear of rejection anger toward women aberrant erotic fantasies and identification with adult models of aggression, violence, and intimidation). A central characteristic of the offender is poor psychological adjustment and adaptation, which is evident in poor social skills, social isolation, lack of appropriate assertiveness, and deficits in communication skills.

Communication Skills Training

Havioral strategies to the treatment of a diversity of behavioral problems. It was quickly recognized that before psychiatric clients could be deinstitutionalized or normalized they would have to learn an extensive array of communication skills, such as conversational skills and job acquisition and maintenance skills. Those behaviorists working with neurotic clients quickly learned that many of their clients required assertiveness training. Communication skills training usually is focused upon two broad sets of interpersonal skills skills for interacting with one or more persons, and skills involving interpersonal or shared problem solving. Conversational skill training is directed toward the enhancement of an individual's ability to initiate and maintain conversations with other people. This form of training has been employed with institutionalized and formerly institutionalized persons and with individuals experiencing social anxiety. Communication skills training is a central...

Interpersonal Behaviors

Kalis et al. (1957) conducted a similar study comparing hypertensive women with a control group of working women with normal blood pressure. In this study, the content of the interpersonal scenes was modified to be more appropriate for community-dwelling women (dealing with a friend who has not paid back a loan talking with an unsympathetic neighbor about joining an exclusive club). Hypertensive women exhibited greater increases in both SBP and DBP during the conflict scenarios. Regarding behavioral reactions, hypertensives were generally rated as being less persistent, more submissive, and more likely to suppress anger than the normotensive women. Interestingly, hypertensives were also rated as being more hostile than nor-motensives during the role-play in which their goal was to impress their neighbor regarding access to the exclusive club, behavior that would certainly not be adaptive in this situation. Arguments of nor-motensive controls were rated as being more effective and...

The Dimensions and Structure of Temperament

Pen Eysencka

Curiously enough, it is difficult, if not possible, to find in Eysenck's publications a typical definition of these factors. The three superfactors are defined in terms of observed intercorrelations between traits (H. J. Eysenck, 1990b, p. 244). Thus extraversion, as opposed to introversion, is composed of such traits as sociability, liveliness, activity, assertiveness, and sensation seeking. Neuroticism, for which emotionality is used as the synonym, has the following components anxiety, depression, guilt feelings, low self-esteem, and tension. The opposite pole of neuroticism is emotional stability. Psychoticism, the opposite of which is impulse control, consists of such primary traits as aggression, coldness, egocentrism, impersonality, and impulsiveness.

Interpersonal Perception

Impression management may be defensive in remedying a spoiled identity resulting from negative behaviors, or in warding off negative impressions in advance of behavior. For example, the actor may offer accounts or explanations for a problematic behavior. Such accounts may take the form of excuses, generally helping the observer to make environmental attributions for the behavior, or justifications that argue that the beneficial effects of the behavior outweigh the negative effects. Impression management behaviors may also be assertive in the sense that the actor tries to establish a preplanned identity in the eyes of the observer. For example, when positive effects are produced by behavior, the actor will try to get the observer to make a personal attribution. If a personal attribution is made, the actor will gain responsibility and credit for the positive effects, and is apt to gain approbation or other rewards for so doing.

Psychological Approaches to Blood Pressure Reduction

Individualized Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Programs Based upon a more comprehensive understanding of the cognitive, physiological, and behavioral responses to stress, recent efforts at developing stress management programs have extended beyond those interventions that primarily operated on the physiological arousal system. In other words, both cognitive and behavioral response patterns to stress have been recently incorporated into the types of stress management programs being used with essential hypertensive patients. Linden and Chambers (1994) referred to this relatively new breed of programs as individualized stress management programs, due to their focus on individual factors involved in the stress response. As such, although one element of an individualized stress management program may be labeled cognitive therapy, the exact nature of the thoughts targeted in this approach depends upon the unique cognitive responses of a given individual. Likewise, although anger...

Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancers in Children

There is good news about treating these types of cancers, however they seem more responsive to radioactive iodine therapy than in adults. This suggests the need to use appropriate and assertive treatment after the thyroid surgery, making sure that the physician is intent on giving radioactive iodine treatment with effective methods of preparation as outlined in Chapters 2, 9, and 12. Children with distant spread of their thyroid cancer to body regions outside of their necks, such as the lungs, may need specialized care using maximal safe dose radioactive iodine (a technique known as dosimetry, discussed in Chapter 12). Follow-up, as in adults, is lifelong. Radioactive iodine scans (and appropriate treatments when needed) should be performed at regular intervals, and the dose of thyroid hormone (levothyroxine) should be carefully adjusted to suppress TSH (to levels less than 0.1) without causing thyrotoxic symptoms. Follow-up includes using blood tests for thyroglobulin to check for...

Benefits of Control Therapy

Third, drawing from both Eastern and Western psychological traditions, control therapy involves specific assertive change and yielding accepting modes of control intervention techniques, and the matching of these techniques to a client's control profile, goals, and clinical problem.

What Role Does the Acute Stress Response Play in the Association between Stress and Hypertension

Through integrating the body of literature linking stress with hypertension and theoretical and empirical work on the effects of stress on the body itself, multiple demographic, constitutional, psychological, and social factors have been associated with increased risk for essential hypertension. Central to the model presented in Figure 4.1 was consideration of the mediating role of the acute stress response, comprised of affective, behavioral, cognitive, and physiological response domains. Although there is little evidence to suggest that hypertensives respond to stress with differential affective responses (namely, anxiety or anger) than normotensives, there is consistent evidence to suggest differential behavioral, cognitive, and physiological responses to stress between hypertensives and normotensives. Hypertensives, for example, have been shown to make less assertive responses to confrontation than normotensives, particularly in the nonverbal domain of eye contact. Regarding acute...

Self Control Strategies and Goals of Self Control

Critical in the development of self-control and the use of self-control strategies is the concept of choice, or decisional control that is, What is the goal for which the person wishes to develop and exercise self-control Several schools of thought are now beginning to integrate the traditional change model of self-control with an acceptance model of self-control. For example, a person who dislikes his or her body image may make a choice to learn self-control strategies involving an assertive change mode of control such as exercising more and developing healthier eating habits. Or such individuals may choose to learn self-control strategies involving meditation and cognitive instructions of self-acceptance to honor their bodies as they are. Depending on the person and the circumstances, either self-control goal may be healthy and bring about a sense of control and well-being.

Control Therapy

Control therapy is an integrated approach to psychotherapy and health care that combines theory, research, and practice. It is based on the premise that issues of control (e.g., fear of loss of control, desire for control, power struggles) underlie most concerns brought to therapy. A reliable and valid standardized psychological assessment inventory (the Shapiro Control Inventory, or SCI) was developed to both measure the theory and provide an individual client control profile. Control-based therapeutic techniques, including an assertive change mode of control and an accepting yielding mode of control, are matched to the client's control profile and taught as interventions. The theory, test construction, and interventions have been developed and empirically tested over a period of 25 years involving research and clinical work with thousands of individuals in over a dozen countries.

Female Sex Therapy

Sex therapy starts with the correct diagnosis of the sexual dysfunction presented by the patient. This is not an easy task considering the vague diagnoses provided by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association, 2000), the high comorbidity of sexual dysfunctions, and the lack of age-related norms for the female sexual response. The common agreement is to look at medical etiology of the sexual complaints and then to follow with the investigation of personal and relational aspects. After this initial phase, the most liberal therapists discuss potential goals and patient's expectations, which are not limited to sexual intercourse but could include skills such as communication and assertiveness, or feelings of enjoyment and comfort during sexual behaviors. The techniques used in sex therapy vary according to treatment goals, dysfunction, and patient characteristics. Because sex therapy is a symptom-oriented...

Summary

Although our patient, Franklin, was convinced that stress caused his elevated blood pressure, he was willing to consider that he perhaps possessed some maladaptive stress coping skills. In order to examine his acute stress response profile more completely, Franklin agreed to complete a comprehensive evaluation of his response to stress. As part of this evaluation, he completed three laboratory tasks (mirror tracing neutral interaction confrontation interaction) during which measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and state measures of affect were obtained. Additionally, his behavioral responses were videotaped and coded across a number of different domains of assertive communication. Figure 5.3 shows the results of this evaluation in comparison to average cardiovascular responses of hypertensive patients exposed to the same three stimulus conditions. In contrast to other hypertensive patients, who tended to show slightly higher reactions to the confrontational role-play scenes than...

Moral Emotion

The psychoanalytic theory of guilt-motivated morality was presented by Sigmund Freud. Briefly, Freud contended that children experience Oedipal Electra feelings. Fear of paternal retaliation prompts them to introject the same-sexed parent's rules and prohibitions the superego or conscience is thereby formed. In subsequent situations, children experience self-punishment or guilt when tempted to violate these internalized rules. Research indicates, however, that power-assertive parental practices are associated with an externalized morality children comply with normative standards because they fear detection and or punishment (Hoffman, 1994). A more internalized morality results when parental discipline is coupled with explanations about the harmful consequences of children's behavior for others. Such practices may contribute to moral development by enhancing children's tendencies to anticipate the consequences of their actions and to empathically experience another's emotional state...

Table 7 I Continued

Given the observation of Franklin's tendency to exhibit overly assertive behaviors during the confrontational role-plays described in Chapter 5, one might expect him to endorse elevated scores on measures of anger expression (Anger-Out). However, when he was administered Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, all scaled scores for state and trait anger as well as anger expression were within normal limits. In contrast, he scored in the 'aggressive' range on a scale of assertiveness (Rathus, 1973) and was categorized as exhibiting Type A behavioral characteristics on the Framingham Scale of Type A Behavior. In a sense, interpretation of Franklin's self-report measures yielded mixed findings. Although the data from the assertiveness scale and Type A categorization are congruent with behaviors observed in the laboratory, his relative normal scores on anger and anger expression are perplexing. In that some degree of emotional defensiveness has been shown to be common among...

Sex Therapy Female

Sex therapy starts with the correct diagnosis of the sexual dysfunction presented by the patient. Making a correct diagnosis is not an easy task due to the vague diagnoses provided by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR American Psychiatric Association ApA , 2000), the high comorbidity of sexual dysfunctions, and the lack of age-related norms for the female sexual response. The common agreement is to look at medical etiology of the sexual complaints and then to follow with the investigation of personal and relational aspects. After this initial phase, the most liberal therapists discuss potential goals and patient expectations, which are not limited to sexual intercourse but could include skills such as communication and assertiveness or feelings of enjoyment and comfort during sexual behaviors. The techniques used in sex therapy vary according to treatment goals, dysfunction, and patient characteristics. Because sex therapy employs a symptom-oriented...

Prosocial Behavior

The family and caretaker milieu have been suggested to be critical contributors as models and sources of specific standards of prosocial behavior. Parents and caretakers of children who exhibit prosocial behavior are typically prosocial in their own actions and seek to promote such actions. For example, they point out models of prosocial behavior and direct children toward stories, television programs, movies, and videos that illustrate cooperation, sharing, and empathy and encourage generosity, helpfulness, and sympathy. These significant adults also employ inductive disciplinary methods as opposed to power-assertive practices. Interactions with siblings and peers also provide opportunities for trying out caring behavior and learning to see oth