Teaching Children with Autism


Is there a cause or cure for autism? The Complete Guide To Finally Understanding Autism. Do you have an autistic child or know someone who has autism? Do you understand the special needs of an autistic person?

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Child Autism Learning To Talk Again

Studies Have Shown That Fathers Have A Positive Impact On Their Autistic Childs Development The University Of Florida Found A Fifty Percent Increase In Communication. This book provides a comprehensive insight into the nature of autism and provides parents with a clear understanding of how individual the disorder is. The examples illustrate how necessary it is for the whole family to have knowledge, accept and be involved, in order to devise the best possible intervention program for their child. The information and examples in the book provide parents with a quide to what is available to help their child and may help them to formulate relevant questions they need to refer to their medical professionals.

Child Autism Learning To Talk Again Summary


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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Child Autism Learning To Talk Again can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

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The Essential Guide to Autism

Here is just some of what you'll learn: 13 common Asd (Autism Spectrum Disorder) misconceptions and the real truth for each this information will greatly help put your mind at ease about this mysterious disorder. The three main signs of autism and how to quickly and easily recognize each. The three broad categories of autism and how to immediately tell in which category someone with autism belongs and what this means for their treatment. The 5 most recent, most accepted theories about the cause of Asds this information may surprise you. 13 questions all concerned parents should ask themselves if they think their child may have autism your responses to these questions will ensure you know what step to take next. 28 additional signs of autism youll know exactly what behaviors to look for when assessing your child or loved one. Common treatments for autism and how to know if a treatment is right for your child or loved one. 18 questions you should always ask before submitting your child or loved one for a particular treatment this information will help ensure your child receives the treatment thats right for him or her. The six most common autism treatments used today plus, whether or not it is good to combine treatments. The positives and negatives of using Applied Behavioral Analysis to treat autism and how to tell if your child is right for an Aba program. How to choose an Aba provider including four things that you should always look for before deciding upon a provider. The five steps involved in a successful Floor Time program if a program doesnt include all five of these steps then it is definitely not right for you child. The effectiveness of the most common alternative autism treatments plus, 14 things that you should always look for before selecting an alternative treatment program. How to use the diet to help control autism naturally diet experts agree that many symptoms can decrease in severity and some may even disappear with a change in diet learn more here. Supplements that have been shown to benefit those with autism and how to ensure your autistic child takes the supplements without having a battle on your hands. 6 tips for a successful supplementation program these tips will help you cut costs and ensure that your child adjusts to the program quickly and easily. How to cope with the stress of raising a child with autism this information will have you feeling better and more relaxed than you have in years. How to ensure the safety of a a child with autism follow these 12 simple tips and your childs safety is practically guaranteed. How to ensure the education needs of your child with autism are being met including seven questions that you should always ask your childs school. How to deal with an adolescent with autism follow these tips to safely navigate your way through this difficult time in anyones life.

The Essential Guide to Autism Summary

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Relationship to Autism

Many of fra(X)'s characteristics are similar to those of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. About 7 of children with autism have fra(X), and 15-28 of those with fra(X) meet criteria for autism (Meyer & Batshaw, 2002). Thus, boys diagnosed with autism are now routinely screened for fra(X). However, the disorders appear to be separate. For example, severe autism rarely occurs with fra(X) (Bailey et al., 1998), and a study (Klauck et al., 1997) of a large sample of autistic boys found no true association between fra(X) and autism.

Autistic Disorder

As pointed out by Kaplan and Hussain,2 the main role of medication in autism is in the management of symptoms. The only trial of SSRIs in this population was open-labelled using fluoxetine in 23 7-28 year-olds, 21 of whom had some degree of mental retardation.24 Fifteen of the 23 showed significant improvement on the CGI scale, though 13 were receiving concomitant psychotropic medication. Individual case reports have provided mixed results.25-28 Ghaziuddin et al25 found that the greatest improvement was when depressive illness was present, emphasizing the need for controlled trials.


Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder. This means that autism is characterized by specific delays and deviance in social, communicative, and cognitive development that are typically manifested within the first few years of life. Although often associated with mental retardation, the disturbances in these domains are both qualitatively distinct from and quantitatively disproportionate to the mental age intelligence quotient (IQ) of the individual who exhibits them. The diagnostic criteria for autism currently emphasize disturbances in three broad areas of developmental dysfunction. These include (1) qualitative disturbances in social interaction, such as impaired use of nonverbal behaviors, failure to develop peer relationships, and poor social reciprocity (2) qualitative disturbances in communication, such as a significant delay in the development of spoken language, an inability to sustain a spoken conversation, stereotyped use of language, or paucity of symbolic or imitative...

Avoidance Learning in Clinical Psychology

Avoidance learning for therapeutic purposes is employed typically by professionals from the disciplines of behavior therapy and behavior modification. Beginning in the early 1960s, several research reports by behavioral psychologists described examples of avoidance conditioning that incorporated extremely aversive stimulation. In one demonstration, children who had autism and were unresponsive to social interaction learned to avoid electric shock by approaching a therapist who called to them, Come here. Faradic and other noxious stimuli such as foul odors and tastes also were programmed with individuals to condition avoidance of cues and situations associated with alcohol ingestion, drug use, and deviant sexual orientation. By contemporary standards these approaches would be unacceptable and viewed by some as dehumanizing. In fact, the majority of behavioral practitioners have essentially abandoned aversive treatment procedures in favor of positively oriented and skill-building...

Ethological Theory and Attachment

Konrad Lorenz, a pioneer in the study of imprinting, demonstrated that newly hatched fowl such as goslings would become fixed upon and follow the first moving proximal object or person they encountered shortly after birth. Niko Tinbergen demonstrated that the fight-flight response in animals evolves into socialized ritualistic behaviors. Robert Zaslow concluded from studies of the pathology of attachment found in infantile autism that the formation of attachment depends on two bonding networks of behavior (1) the body-contact bond, necessary for intimacy and basic trust and (2) the eye-face-contact bond, necessary for integration, focus, and direction of behavior.

Summary Heuristicsquestions For Future Research

Cognitive-extended forms with the help of symbolic language acquisition. Neu-rodevelopmental research into the fundamental mechanisms of consciousness in infants is understandably modest for obvious epistemological ethical reasons, as much of the current neuroscientific work focuses on neural correlates of higher conscious and cognitive activity in adult brains. This suggests that basic research will have to refocus attention on basic neural processes taking place in the first year of life, as core component processes must be brought on-line to operate in an integrated fashion very early in neurodevelopment. Such research into early development will also likely pay dividends clinically in terms of an increased ability to understand and treat disorders of consciousness, such as coma and persistent vegetative state, but also lesser forms of akinetic mutism, autism, and schizophrenia. We suspect that the substrates for the early orienting affective responses of the infant in its...

Reliability and Validity of Dsmiv Diagnoses

Most data reported to date on the reliability and validity of DSM-IV categories have come from the field trials. They suggest modest increments in the reliability of a few diagnostic categories (e.g., Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder in children and adolescents, Substance Abuse and Dependence) and in validity (e.g., Autistic Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder in childhood and adolescence). However, little progress was made in addressing the substantial reliability problems of the Personality Disorders, the Sleep Disorders, the disorders of childhood and adolescence, and some of the disorders within the schizophrenic spectrum.

Classifying things in different categories

One way that we can realize the importance of this process is to look at what happens in the rare cases when it is missing. People with autism often suffer from the lack of the ability to generalize. One of the early signs of autism may be that a child will use a word correctly once and then not use it again, perhaps for years. It has been speculated that the autistic child associates the word with the exact view of that exact object and

Occurrence and aetiology

This is three to four times more common in males than in females. Body rocking usually appears at around 6 months and head banging and head rolling at around 9 months. These movements often disappear by around 18 months of age and are uncommon after the age of 4 years. They can persist into adult life, particularly if there are abnormalities such as mental retardation or autism, or following a head injury, but also occasionally in otherwise normal subjects. Daytime head banging is a separate entity which is usually suppressed during sleep. It is a transient phase in young children, but in adults is associated with learning disabilities, autism and psychotic states.

Cheryl Y Trepagnier1 Beth Mineo Mollica2 Sheela Stuart3 and Carole W Brown4

In no-tech scanning, the conversation partner not only speaks both parts of the conversation, but also plays the role that a device would fulfill, for example by reciting the alphabet until the communicator indicates which letter is intended, perhaps by a facial movement or eye movement. Signs (borrowed from American Sign Language, the native language of many deaf people in this country) are another no-tech method. They have been useful for some hearing, language-impaired communicators with mental retardation, autism, or both, and can be used in combination with speech (Konstantareas, 1987). There is some evidence that using gesture at the same time as speech is helpful to the speaker (Clibbens, 2001). Just as devices can be categorized, device-users are often considered in terms of the disability that is at the root of their need for communication support. This is a useful starting point at the same time, however, it is important to recognize the diversity within any clinical...

Residential Alternatives

Braddock, D., Hemp, R., Bacfedler, L., & Fujina, G. (1995). The state of the state in developmental disabilities. Washington, DC Association on American Mental Retardation. Fixsen, D. L., Wolf, M. M., & Phillips, E. L. (1973). Achievement Place A teaching family model of community-based group homes for youth in trouble. In Hammerlynch et al. (Eds.), Behavior modification. Champaign, IL Research Press. Holmes, D. L. (1990). Community based services for children and adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 339-351. Holmes, D. L. (1998). Autism through the life span The Eden

With Disabilities Education

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires states to provide children with disabilities with a free appropriate public education from the age of three to 21.A child with a disability includes a child with developmental disabilities, a hearing, speech, visual, or orthopedic impairment, a serious emotional disturbance, brain injury, autism, learning disability or other similar health impairment.

Neurodevelopmental disorders

Many of these disorders have abnormalities of sleep, such as an absence of sleep spindles or a reduction in REM sleep duration. In autism and Asperger's syndrome there is an increased number of REM sleep episodes, but they are briefer than normal. There is also an increased prevalence of sleep terrors and an awareness of poor sleep at night.

Clinical Presentation

The differential diagnosis of OCD includes other psychiatric disorders that are characterized by repetitive behaviors and thoughts. To appropriately diagnose OCD, the content of the obsessions and or compulsions cannot be completely attributed to another psychiatric illness. For example, a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa should be made if a person has only obsessive worries about gaining weight and compulsions that are centered on not allowing the consumption of calorie-containing foods. By the same token, all obsessions or compulsions revolve around a fear of a specific animal, situation, or object, a simple phobia should be diagnosed. The obsessions of OCD must be distinguished from the ruminations of major depression, racing thoughts of mania, and psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. The compulsions of OCD must be distinguished from the stereotypic movements found in individuals with mental retardation or autism, the tics of Tourette syndrome, the stereotypies of complex partial...

Childhoodonset Schizophrenia

Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare psychotic disorder that in certain ways resembles a pervasive developmental disorder. Information on its prevalence is limited, in part because diagnostic criteria have changed considerably over the last decade (Volkmar and Tsatsanis, 2002). COS is almost certainly less prevalent than autism, however, and it is often diagnosed in the presence of an autistic spectrum disorder. Males and females seem equally likely to be affected. Premorbidly, COS is associated with a number of developmental delays, including disturbances in motor, general cognitive, linguistic, and social development (Jacobsen and Rapoport, 1998 Nicolson et al., 2000). Some evidence suggests that the premorbid and clinical courses of COS are more severe than those of later onset schizophrenia (Alaghband-Rad et al., 1995). Episodes are more acute, and on average are of longer duration, in younger compared with older children (Werry, 1996). The course of illness is highly...

Childhood Onset Restless Legs Syndrome

Disturbance shows a circadian variation, and is most prominent in the evenings and at night. It is relieved by movement and exacerbated by rest. Some parents have observed that symptoms are more prominent while school is in session rather than during the summer vacation when children are more likely to be involved with vigorous outdoor physical activities. Although childhood RLS is now subclas-sified into probable and definite categories (5), both groups seem to be likely defining the same condition (6). Inheritance patterns, PLMS indices, levels of serum ferritin, and clinical response to therapeutic agents appear to be similar in both groups. The increased nocturnal arousals consequent to RLS may provoke parasomnias such as confusional arousals and sleepwalking. The child may appear unrefreshed upon awakening in the morning. Daytime fatigue, inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and oppositional behavior may coexist. Lower limb motor restlessness as measured by actigraphy may mimic RLS...

Progressive Diseases of Infancy and Childhood

Children with untreated or poorly managed PKU usually end up in institutions. A review of 51 never-treated patients followed for more than 20 years indicated 25 percent had seizures disorders, half were profoundly retarded, and about half were moderately impaired. y Approximately two thirds of untreated patients develop microcephaly. Autistic behavior may also emerge. Aggressive, hyperactive behavior is common in poorly managed patients, which becomes less noticeable on lowering the blood phenylalanine level. In well-controlled patients, ingestion of food with high phenylalanine content, at any time during life, will cause confusion and a clear-cut fall in school performance. Other common causes of childhood mental retardation include hyperprolinemia, homocystinuria, and fragile X- syndrome. Clinically, hyperprolinemia cannot be distinguished from mild PKU except by the amino acid analysis. Patients with a missed diagnosis of homocystinuria will have its classic phenotype, which is...

Associated Neurological Findings

The motor examination may reveal several signs relevant to the assessment of mood and thought. Any abnormality such as a hemiparesis indicates an organic disorder. The finding of myoclonus or asterixis generally indicates a metabolic or toxic disorder and occurs only rarely with focal lesions. Tremor at rest is seen with neuroleptic drug use or Parkinson's disease, and these should be considered. Rigidity and akinesia should also be assessed they may accompany catatonia, neuroleptic use, or any parkinsonian syndrome. Catatonic akinesia may include waxy flexibility and abnormal sustained postures including one limb being stretched out for extended periods. Adventitious movements such as chorea may be seen and usually indicate tardive dyskinesia following chronic exposure to dopamine-blocking drugs. Alternative explanations include dyskinesias in the presence of psychosis in Pd, Huntington's disease, Sydenham's chorea, or systemic lupus erythematosus....

Embryonic Stem Cell Opportunities in Developmental Toxicity and Cognitive Disorders

The nervous system is particularly sensitive to detrimental effects of chemical exposure and it remains to be elucidated to what degree resulting neurotoxicity is involved in determination of diseases such as Parkinson's disease1 and autism.39 Genetic mutations have been identified across a subset of genes for both diseases, yet disease mechanisms are complex, and a potential interplay between genetic and environmental factors as causal effects are yet to be determined. Autism is a syndrome characterized by alterations in social interaction, language development, repetitive movements and patterns of behavior. Its prevalence may affect 1 in 150 US children.40 No single region of the brain or pathophysiological mechanism has yet been identified as the major determinant for autism.41 Genetic causes account for approximately 10 of autism cases with multiple candidate target genes identified, such as the serotonin transporter gene, DBH, GABRB3, UBE3A, RAY1 ST7, WNT2, RELN, SPCH1 FOXP2 and...

World War Ii Through The 1970s The Psychoanalytic Era

Before turning to modern biological psychiatry, it is worth noting that the middle, psychoanalytic era, with its neglect of robust research agendas, allowed mere ideas, often endlessly debatable, too much influence on psychiatric thought. In a sense, this was also a magical fantasy era. Dramatic new somatic therapies, based on marginal research findings, flourished. Perhaps the Reichian concept of libidinal orgone energy and the resulting orgone box (to concentrate that energy) could be taken as symbolic of this era Willhelm Reich (1897-1957), whose own mental stability was eventually questioned, was convicted of fraudulent claims and died during his incarceration in a federal penitentiary. Others, like Bruno Bettelheim, generated needless guilt with concepts such as refrigerator mothering, which allegedly was instrumental in causing early childhood autism. It took many years for that needless guilt trip to become an embarrassment to the discipline (e.g., Pollak, 1997).

The Use of SSRIs to Treat Conditions Other Than Depression

Other conditions where the SSRIs have been suggested to be of therapeutic benefit are premenstrual syndrome, depression resulting from the use of anabolic steroids, anger attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, trichotillomania, negative symptoms of schizophrenia, cataplexy, depersonalization, autism, paraphilia, alcoholism, chronic headache, migraine prophylaxis, fibrositis, diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, hypokinetic rigidity syndrome, Raynaud's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.1,23,46,95,115

Schizophrenia Adolescent And Childhood

Similar to adults, both adolescents and prepubertal children may suffer from Schizophrenia. Historically, both youths with either Schizophrenia or Autistic Disorder were diagnosed under the rubric of childhood psychosis. This phenomenon was likely a reflection of the fact that young people with either Schizophrenia or Autistic Disorder can have profound impairments in interpersonal functioning and substantial disturbances of thinking and behavior. Within the past three decades, it has subsequently become clear that juvenile-onset Schizophrenia and Autistic Disorder are in fact separate conditions with distinct presentations. When juveniles do suffer from Schizophrenia, they suffer from the same symptoms as adults with this condition. These may include hallucinations (most often auditory), delusions, grossly inappropriate affect, avolition, poverty of thought or speech, disorganized behavior, and disorganized speech.

Psychotic Syndromes

Schizophrenia should be differentiated from other primary psychiatric disorders that may have psychosis as a feature, including schizoaffective disorder, the major affective disorders, autism, malingering, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Symptoms of psychosis can be caused by a large number of medical and neurological conditions and may be precipitated by legal and illicit drugs ( T b e 3-3 ). Psychosis and other psychiatric symptoms may present

Diverse Populations

Appropriately designed modeling has obvious application to individuals with disabilities and other diversity who may lack suitable models in their natural environment. Well-documented examples exist in the teaching of daily living skills, such as shopping by young adults with autism. Other types of skills for which modeling-based training has been developed include social skills, recreation, communication (e.g., sign language), vocational skills, and academics. Although it would seem best to use peers as models, often the models are expert adults from the dominant culture. Such demonstrations must be carefully constructed to match the individuality of the intended trainees.


Abnormal neuronal maturation, despite normal migration, is frequently the source of dysplasias that can lead to profound developmental disabilities, including mental retardation. Examples include genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome and Rett syndrome, as well as many unclassified amentias. In these dysplasias, entire brain regions fail to elaborate normally shaped dendritic trees and spines and display altered synaptic densities. Alterations in cortical dendritic length and number of spines have been reported in postmortem tissue from individuals with Down syndrome, a developmental disorder that almost invariably is associated with cognitive deficits. In recent years, with the advent of in vivo imaging techniques, dysplasias can be studied in living individuals and correlated more directly with behavioral changes. Increases in the width of the cerebral cortex in autism and fragile-X syndrome, as well as decreases in width of cortex in Down syndrome, have been observed. These...

Rett Syndrome

Rapid developmental regression (begins around 1236 months duration of weeks to months). Appearance of hand stereotypies, including hand wringing, washing, and mouthing onset of sleep disturbances, breathing irregularities, and seizure-like spells deterioration of cognitive functioning, hand use, and expressive language appearance of behavior that may resemble, and be diagnosed as, autism

Savant Syndrome

Those believing that subnormal intelligence is due to mental retardation have traditionally referred to such an individual as an idiot savant. Those who believe, as Rim-land does, that subnormal intellectual functioning results from autism, refer to the individual as an autistic savant. Treffert (1998, 2002), who has performed an extensive investigation, prefers the term savant syndrome. Oxford University Press. Rimland, B. (1978). Infantile autism The syndrome and its impli

Williams Syndrome

With a prevalence of 1 in 20,000, Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, it is of considerable interest to clinicians and researchers because of its unique phenotype and the genetic mechanisms that produce it. The pheno-type of WS is almost a mirror image of the phenotype of autism. These children are often outgoing, social, and communicative, and many have a special propensity for music, dance, and simple but highly embellished forms of storytelling. Children with WS are typically small, and they often have pixyish facial features, including a broad forehead, prominent ears, full lips, an upturned nose, and a small chin. IQ averages about 50, but the range is considerable and in some children IQ can be within the normal range. The cognitive profile in WS children is distinctive and includes prominent deficits in visuospatial skills. Relative strengths are seen in more verbal domains, including vocabulary, the social use of language, auditory memory, as...


The genetic liability underlying each of these conditions seems uniquely to affect particular neural systems in each of the disorders. Mesial temporal lobe structures that subserve socialization functions seem to be especially important in autism arrest of development of the association cortices caused by the MeCP2 deletion may generate the symptoms of Rett syndrome the hippocampus and other regions involved in learning and memory are important in fragile X and disturbances in parietal cortices likely subserve visuospatial deficits affecting children with Williams syndrome. Abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and possibly parietal lobes likely subserve the psychotic symptoms and cognitive disturbances observed in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Disturbances in the structure and function of particular portions of CSTC circuits seem to underlie the symptoms of Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder the portions of the circuits...


The Z-process is a psychotherapeutic and attachment system, incorporating ethological and attachment principles, developed to overcome resistance to human bonding and growth. The autistic child shows self-destructive aggression and does not direct aggression toward other people. The Z-process treatment of autistic children led to the conclusion that such psychopathology results from a failure to develop two bonding behavior networks essential for the growth of viable attachment (1) body contact, necessary for intimacy and basic trust and (2) eye-face contact, necessary for the direction, integration, and focus of complex emotional and cognitive social behavior. A disturbance in these bonds is called the Medusa complex, which is corrected by holding the child in protest while maintaining eye-face contact. Niko Tinbergen and his collaborators have reported significant success in using the holding approach with autistic children.

Fast Facts

Peek's brain shows abnormalities in the left hemisphere, a pattern found in many savants. What is more, left hemisphere damage has been invoked as an explanation of why males are much more likely than females to display not only savantism but also dyslexia, stuttering, delayed speech, and autism. Also supporting the role of left hemisphere damage are the many reported cases of acquired savant syndrome, in which older children and adults suddenly develop savant skills after damage to the left hemisphere. Peek's overall diagnosis was developmental disorder not otherwise specified, with no diagnosis of autistic disorder. Indeed, although autism is more commonly linked with savantism than is any other single disorder, only about half of all savants are autistic. In contrast with autistic people, Peek is outgoing and quite personable. One thing that does seem necessary for the full development of savant skills is a strong interest in the subject matter in...

Other Stereotypies

Stereotyped motor behavior can occur in normal children and in children with a variety of other primary neurodegenerative conditions. Repetitive head banging, an example of stereotypic activity, is seen in 15 percent of normal children. y In addition, thumb sucking, rocking, and other ritualistic behaviors are common during childhood. Most stereotypies, however, represent evidence of underlying brain dysfunction and hence require recognition. Stereotypic movements occur in at least a third of mentally retarded patients and are a characteristic feature of various autistic disorders such as infantile autism and Rett's, Angleman's, and Asperger's syndromes.y In all these conditions, stereotypies present as repetitive, coordinated, purposeless, involuntary movements such as chewing, lip smacking, body rocking, shoulder shrugging, marching in place, shifting of weight, and thrusting movements of the trunk and pelvis. Respiratory dyskinesia can produce grunting vocalizations,...

Fragile X

Fragile X, a relatively common form of mental retardation caused by a single mutation in the long arm of the X chromosome, occurs once in every 2000 to 4000 live births. Approximately 20 percent of such children exhibit autistic symptoms. Conversely, 8 percent of males and 6 percent of females diagnosed with autism carry the fragile X abnormality. The mutation alters brain development and produces a distinctive physical, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric phenotype. Clinical symptoms are insufficient to make the fragile X diagnosis. Instead, specific genetic abnormality must be evident using molecular diagnostic techniques (Hagerman, 1999).


Oxytocin is not known to be directly involved in any psychiatric disorders however, some interesting correlations have been reported. Autism is a disease characterized by, among other symptoms, deficits in social reciprocity in humans. One study has found that autistic children have decreased levels of plasma oxytocin compared to age-matched control children.


A common, often primary, symptom, hyperactivity is observed in a variety of medical and behavioral disorders, including bipolar disorder, Schizophrenia, autism, developmental disabilities, metabolic disorders, endocrine disorders, toxic exposure (e.g., lead poisoning), and other neurological conditions (brain tumor, encephalitis, Parkinson's disease, etc.). Hyperactivity is not in itself a cause for concern. Instead, it is a nonspecific symptom whose significance depends on demographic and situational factors and

Alan A Beaton

Which (if either) determines the other. Some authors see differences in skill between the hands as fundamental (Koch, 1933 Hildreth, 1950 Annett, 1985). Others (e.g., McManus, 1985a, 1985b) regard preference as primary. McManus and his collaborators claim support for this position from their finding that some autistic children show no skill asymmetry, yet have a clear preference for the right hand (McManus et al., 1992).