Contributors

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK Department of Anaesthesia, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA02114, USA Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Freiburg University, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany Emeritus Professor, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France Dept. of Medical Microbiology, Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg, 29120 Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, Germany D partement d'Ing nierie et d'Etudes des Prot ines (DIEP) bat 152,...

Major Achievements In Toxin Research From 1975 To Date

The major facets of toxin research of the past 29 years concerned mainly the discovery and characterization of roughly 120 novel toxins among them (a) Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (see Chapter 24 of this volume ). (b) Several Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxins three ADP-ribosyl transferases exotoxin A, Exo S, Exo T, the adenyl cyclase Exo Y, the phospholipase Exo U (Iglewski et al., 1977, 1978 Yahr et al., 1998 Krall et al., 2000 Maresso et al., 2004 and Chapter 14 of this volume)....

Discovery of clostridial neurotoxins

Two other major toxins were to follow soon after the discovery of diphtheria toxin tetanus toxin in 1890 and botulinum toxin in 1896, produced by Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum, respectively. Tetanus was recognized since ancient times and described by Hippocrates who first reported the symptoms of a sailor affected by a syndrome characterized by hypercontraction of the skeletal muscles. He termed such a spastic paralysis tetanus (from the Greek word xexavuo, tension). A clinical...

Section Iii Toxins Acting On The Surface Of Target Cells Except Superantigens

Paradigms and classification of bacterial membrane-damaging toxins 507 27. Membrane-damaging and cytotoxic phospholipases 516 Richard W. Titball and Ajit K. Basak 28. Bacteroides fragilis toxins 535 Cynthia L. Sears, Augusto A. Franco, and Shaoguang Wu 29. Structure and mode of action of RTX toxins 547 Albrecht Ludwig and Werner Goebel 30. Genetics and phylogeny of RTX cytolysins 570 31. The family of two-component cytolysins of Serratia and other bacteria 578 32. Alpha-helix and...

Toxin evolution and transmission in aquatic environments

Other studies have shown that the concentrations of bacteriophages in natural aquatic environments can be high enough to be conducive for phage transduction Miller, 2001 Paul et al., 2002 , but can be especially high in contaminated water systems Davison, 1999 Chee-Sanford et al., 2001 Teuber, 2001 . A recent study showed that a broad range of E. coli strains harboring stx2, and to a lesser extent stx1, genes are commonly found in municipal sewage and various animal waste-waters Garcia-Aljaro...