There are numerous studies suggesting that complications during pregnancy, birth, or within the first month after birth are important risk factors for at least some types of schizophrenia. Those that have been significantly associated with schizophrenia include preeclampsia, bleeding during pregnancy, umbilical cord complications, premature rupture of amniotic membranes, prematurity, prolonged labor, use of resuscitation, incubator, forcep or suction delivery, abnormal fetal presentation at delivery, low birth weight, small head circumference, and low Apgar scores (McNeil et al., 2000; Lobato et al., 2001). Perinatal abnormalities in particular, collectively called obstetric complications, have been reported in 21 to 40 percent of patients with schizophrenia. In sum, there are several obstetric complications that appear to be risk factors for schizophrenia.
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