These drugs are also categorized as stimulants and primarily include amphetamine, methylphenidate, and pemoline. They cause the release and weakly block the reuptake of NE, DA, and 5-HT. Amphetamine was available on an over-the-counter basis until the FDA reclassified it as a prescription drug in 1938 and further restricted its availability in 1951 due to widespread misuse and abuse (Grinspoon and Hedbloom, 1975).
The literature on the use of monoamine releasing agents in the treatment of depression is surprisingly large and disappointingly poorly controlled given the beneficial effects usually reported (Garvey et al., 1990). Almost all large, controlled trials were conducted before 1970, and different studies used different dosing strategies, diagnostic methods, and outcome measures. No long-term trials have been conducted. More recent studies have focused on medically ill or geriatric patients with MDE (Katon and Raskind, 1980; Woods et al., 1986; Fisch, 1985; Kaufmann et al., 1982).
Monoamine releasing agents are rapidly metabolized into inactive compounds and generally have relatively short half lives (4 to 8 hr). The most common side effects are insomnia, drowsiness, restlessness, nausea, weight loss, weight gain, and hypertension. At high doses these agents can cause a characteristic paranoid psychosis. These drugs are generally well tolerated in the clinical dose range (5 to 30 mg d-amphetamine/day), with most patients experiencing no side effects and insomnia being the most common side effect reported.
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A Guide to Natural Sleep Remedies. Many of us experience the occasional night of sleeplessness without any consequences. It is when the occasional night here and there becomes a pattern of several nights in arow that you are faced with a sleeping problem. Repeated loss of sleep affects all areas of your life The physical, the mental, and theemotional. Sleep deprivation can affect your overall daily performance and may even havean effecton your personality.