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Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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Labor Pain Free

One of the scariest part of childbirth for most women is the sheer amount of pain that it takes to have a child. Yes, you can have an epidural that will help some with the pain, but since you are numb, the birth will be prolonged since you don't know if you're actually pushing or not. This course is based on self-hypnosis to take away the pain and fear that all too many people assume are a natural part of childbirth However, they DON'T have to be a part of childbirth if you don't want them to be! Even Duchess Kate used hypnosis when delivering the royal baby, Prince George! Children that are born without pain in almost all cases grow up to be far better adjusted and trauma-free than children that undergo a lot of pain during birth. Help both you AND your child through birth with this method today!

Pain Free Childbirth Summary

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Open Closed and Mediated Adoption

It appears wise to allow children who never knew or do not remember their birth parents to meet them early. Very young children take facts as they are and need no explanation. Having one mother who gave birth to the adoptee and another mother to live with is perfectly acceptable, particularly if in the child's mind it has always been that way.

Two Renaissances Ofbreastfeeding Inthe 20th Century

This first renaissance of breastfeeding lasted until the end of the thirties. Paediatricians and nurses supported the enthusiasm of young mothers. In St. Gallen - my birth place-, for instance, the breastfeeding rate rose from 58 to 97 between 1917 and 1934, whereas the birth rate fell from 27 to 15.5 per 1000 inhabitants between 1910 and 1935. Since 1965, the birth rates in Europe have declined relentlessly until now. The fertility index, the number of children per woman in the reproductive age, was 2.7 in 1964 and has now reached 1.4 in Switzerland, 1.2 in Germany and 1.1 in Italy and Spain. A fertility index of 1.2 is less than 60 of the number necessary to maintain a stable reproduction. 1.2 signifies that only two generations from now - in about 2060 - the size ofthe population of the less than 20-year-olds will be less than 50 of its current, already insufficient size. We are living in a dying society. Parallel to the marked decrease of our fertility, breastfeeding has...

Regulation of postnatal growth

As pointed out above postnatal growth during the suckling period is under similar genetic laws as is fetal growth. Do imprinted genes have a role in growth up to weaning First, the major postnatal growth control system based on growth hormone only comes into play shortly before weaning (Table 1). Second, one imprinted gene, Rasgrf1, has already been shown to have a role in postnatal growth specifically from birth to weaning (Table 2 Itier et al 1998). Third, the IGF system is likely to operate from birth to weaning as well. This is because Igf1 and Igf2 are expressed during this period after which Igf2 is silenced in rodents, Igf2 mutants grow at normal rates after birth (INS, IGF1 action Efstratiadis 1998), and Igf1 mutants grow at normal rates to weaning (INS, IGF2 action Wang et al 1999). Finally, placental Igf2 mutants which are born growth retarded (71 of normal) then show accelerated growth to weaning and thus catch up with their normal littermates (INS, IGF1, IGF2 action...

How can a pregnant womans baby become infected

STDs can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to the fetus, newborn, or infant before, during, or after birth. Some STDs (like syphilis) cross the placenta and infect the fetus during its development. Other STDs (like gonorrhea, chlamydia, hepatitis B, and genital herpes) are transmitted from the mother to the infant as the infant passes through the birth canal. HIV infection can cross the placenta during pregnancy, infect the newborn during the birth process, and, infect an infant as a result of breast-feeding.

Breastfeeding In Reality

However, deep interviews with the mothers and the traditional birth attendants (TBA s) who had been informed about the advantages of breastfeeding still showed that some misconceptions remained. It was conceived by some that the breast was empty till the 2nd or 3rd day and that

Pathogenesis of Infections

HPV infection can be acquired in a variety of ways such as abrasions of the skin, sexual intercourse and passage through an infected birth canal, and results in a variety of clinical conditions (Table 1) (Shah and Howley, 1996). Most of these lesions have benign prognoses, but they may be associated with high levels of morbidity. For example, exophytic anogenital warts, one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, usually cause itching, burning and pain, and have a significant negative effect on the psychosexual wellbeing of the individual. Other lesions, however, may undergo malignant transformation. In the case of flat anogenital warts, lesions in the uterine cervix may progress towards invasive carcinoma and 50 of the diagnosed population will ultimately die of the disease, accounting for about 15 of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The progression of benign papillomas to invasive cancers has certain characteristics which are shared in different species (Shah, 1990 Shah...

Pre And Postnatal Development Of Immune Responses To Allergens

Temporary low-level IgE responses to food and inhalant allergens are common during the first years of life19 They are then down regulated in non atopic individuals, while they continue to increase in children who develop allergic manifestations. In a prospective study, the development of serum IgE and IgG subclass antibodies to P -lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, birch and cat was analysed from birth up to 8 years of age20 The levels of IgG-subclass antibodies to P -lactoglobulin peaked at 6 months and to ovalbumin at 18 months and then decreased, while the IgG-subclass antibody levels to the inhalant allergens generally increased with age. The kinetics of IgG antibodies to allergens was largely similar in Sweden with a high, and

The Question Of Safety

Opposition to cloning on the basis of safety alone is almost surely a losing proposition. Although the media have concocted fantasies of dozens of malformed monster lambs paving the way for the birth of Dolly, fantasy is all it was. Of the 277 fused cells created by Wilmut and his colleagues, only 29 developed into embryos. These 29 embryos were placed into 13 ewes, of which one became pregnant and gave birth to Dolly.13 If safety is measured by the percentage of lambs born in good health, then the record, so far, is 100 for nuclear transplantation from an adult cell (albeit with a

Maintenance of the undifferentiated state

While morphology is convenient for monitoring the differentiation state of any cell, including hESCs, it can be misleading if taken as conclusive evidence. Basic embryologists working with model embryos have noticed for some time that cells endowed with closely similar morphology might be expressing genetic programs that are quite distinct and, in fact, remain opposite from each other. The frog blastocyst is a good example of this conundrum, as it is morphologically identical in specific regions of the spherical embryo, yet gives rise to distinct cell fates following regional molecular clues. This led to the use of cell type-specific molecular markers as a diagnostic of cell type, giving birth to the field of molecular embryology in the latter part of the 20th century.

Studies From Industrialised Countries

In the Darling study from California, a group of 41 formula fed infants was compared with a group of 46 infants breastfed up to the age of 18 months4. The weight of the breastfed infants was significantly below the formula fed group between 6 and 18 months, while there was no difference in length and head circumference. There was, however, a significant lower cumulative length gain from birth to 12 months in breastfed boys compared to formula fed boys (23.8 cm vs 25.4 cm, p< 0.05), while there was no difference in girls. In a pooled analysis of data from two longitudinal growth studies from the Copenhagen area, where infants were followed from birth to 12 months, the association between duration ofbreastfeeding and growth was analysed6. At 12 months infants breast-fed for 9 months or more weighed 400 g less (95 CI 70-740 g) and were 1.0 cm shorter (95 CI 0.3-1.8 cm) than infants breastfed for a shorter duration.

Whounicefunaids Hiv And Infant Feeding Guidelines

On the basis ofthis policy, it became possible to develop Guidelines for Decision Makers and A Guide for Health Care Managers and Supervisors, which had universal applicability. These were issued in 199812, and sought to clarify the direction for implementation, as well as to identify gaps in understanding, and unresolved questions that required further research. There were many serious underlying concerns. While it was recognised that breastfeeding can transmit HIV to an infant, the exact risk of transmission remained uncertain, and appeared to vary with a number of factors including the mother's health and viral load, the condition of her breasts and of the infant's oral and intestinal mucosa. Artificial feeding of infants was also recognised to have serious risks, particularly in those countries most severely affected by the HIV epidemic. The term replacement feeding was coined to refer to alternative feeding of an infant of an HIV-positive mother, to draw attention to the need for...

Characteristics of Affected Individuals

Expressivity of fra(X) is highly variable and can only be summarized here. Detailed descriptions are in Hagerman & Lampe (1999), Meyer and Batshaw (2002), and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM, 2002). About two thirds of postpubertal males show a clinical triad (1) moderate-severe MR (2) craniofacial features (large forehead, protruding chin, coarse facies, long face, macro-cephaly, and elongated ears) and (3) large testes (e.g., Sutherland & Hecht, 1985). Females and prepubertal males are more variable. Most prepubertal males show overgrowth from birth, with head size, fontanel, and body measurements exceeding the 97th percentile, but less distinct macroorchidism and craniofacial features. Fra(X) children may also show hyperextensible joints, high arched palate, mitral valve prolapse (a form of heart murmur), flat feet, scoliosis, strabismus, and low muscle tonus. Female carriers, particularly those with subnormal intelligence, may also show facial features, including...

Suggested Reading

Am J Psychiatry 1947 104 369-379. Netchine S, Lairy GC. The EEG and psychology of the child. In Handbook of Electro-encephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 6 The Normal EEG Throughout Life. Part B The Evolution of the EEG From Birth to Adulthood (Lairy GC, ed). Elsevier Scientific, Amsterdam, Holland, 1975, pp. 69-104 Niedermeyer E, Lopes da Silva FH, eds. Electroencephalography Basic Principles, Clinical Applicatons and Related Fields, 3rd ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 1993.

The Range Of Bacterial Shapes

Under balanced exponential growth, the cells grow two-fold in biomass from birth to division. However, even for a well-behaved organism like E. coli, conditions can be such that some organisms grow from one chromosome to two while in the same culture other cells are bigger and grow from two chromosomes to four chromosomes. Some organisms in the population, however, do switch from one mode to the other during growth.

Environmental Exposure To Polychlorinated Biphenyls Pcbs And Dioxins

Prenatally, as well as postnatally through breast feeding, large amounts are transferred from mother to the child. Formula is free of these substances. Considering their potential developmental neurotoxicity, we investigated long term effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on neurological and cognitive development. Given the evidence that PCBs exert oestrogenic effects, and oestrogens are known to suppress lactation, we investigated the effect of maternal PCB body load on lactation performances as well. Methods. A group of 418 infants were followed from birth up to 6 years of age. Half of them were fully breast fed (BF) for at least 6 weeks. Prenatal PCB exposure was measured from cord and maternal blood. Postnatal exposure was reflected by PCB and dioxin levels in breast and formula milk and plasma PCB levels at 42 months of age. Both neurological and cognitive development were taken as outcome variable at 18, 42 months and at 6 years of age. At 18 and 42 months of age...

Comment And Conclusion

Levels of PCBs and dioxins presently encountered in The Netherlands are among the highest in the Western world. However, levels approximately twice as high are encountered in some territories belonging to the sphere of influence of the former USSR and in areas with a high consumption of fish (e.g Faroe Islands). In the present study we followed a cohort of 400 children, considered to be of low risk for brain dysfunction, from birth up to the age of 6 years.

Learning about infertility

At the age of puberty or when HRT is introduced, the doctor explains or re-explains to the girl that the ovaries will be unable to produce egg follicles, and that having babies 'in the usual way' is not possible. At the same time the doctor offers the girl and her parents encouraging information about alternative routes to forming a family, for example through in vitro fertilization (IVF) using egg donation or through adoption. One of my medical colleagues emphasizes to her adolescent patients the similarities they have with other young women - namely the ability to carry a pregnancy, give birth and breast feed. She may talk over the pros and cons of using a known or an unknown egg donor even at this early stage, but notes that her patients do not necessarily ask for further details until much later.

Toxicity Of Hyperoxia To The Retina Evidence From The Mouse

Experiments were conducted according to protocols approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the The University of Sydney and The Australian National University. C57BL 6J mice were raised from birth in dim cyclic light (12h 5 lux, 12h darkness). Animals were exposed to hyperoxia by placing them, in their cages, into a plexiglass chamber in which the concentration of oxygen was increased from normal (21 ) to 75 , by a feedback controlled device (OXYCYCLER, Biospherix, Redfield, NY). The periods of exposure used were 0 w (controls), 1w, 2w, 3w, 4w, 5w and 6 w. In addition, several animals were exposed to 75 oxygen for 3w or 4w and then returned to room air for 1w or 2w. Animals were euthanised with an overdose of anaesthetic (sodium pentobarbitone, 60mg kg) or of halothane, followed by cervical dislocation. Eyes were immersion-fixed in 4 paraformaldehyde for 2h, then cryo-protected by immersion in 15 sucrose overnight and were cryo-sectioned at 20 mm. Sections were placed onto glass...

Social Attachment and Affiliation

Strong social attachments are essential for successful reproduction in mammals. Oxytocin is involved in the formation of social attachments between mother and offspring, and in monogamous species, between mates. In many species, virgin females fail to display nurturing behavior toward infants, but females display extensive maternal care for their offspring beginning moments after giving birth. Virgin rats receiving oxytocin injections into the brain display nurturing behavior toward pups, while interfering with oxytocin transmission interferes with the normal onset of maternal care in parturient dams. Once initiated, blocking oxytocin transmission does not interfere with maternal behavior, suggesting that oxytocin is important for the initiation, but not the maintenance, of maternal behavior. In sheep, oxytocin is released in the brain within 15 minutes of delivery of the lamb. Infusion of oxytocin into the brain of an estrogen-primed ewe elicits full maternal responsiveness within 30...

Models of Experimental Risk Factors

Perinatal complications such as Cesarean birth and anoxia during birth in rats have been reported to produce changes in limbic dopamine function. However, these studies are difficult to interpret since C-sections alone seemed to produce more debilitating effects than C-sections with anoxia.

Breastfeeding Promotion When Where And

To test the efficacy of breastfeeding counseling delivered by peer counselors through home visits, women in a peri-urban community in Mexico were randomized into 3 group15. One group received 6 visits (2 prenatal, and in weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8), the second group received 3 visits (1 prenatal, and in weeks 1 and 2), and the third group served as a control. Peer counselors, selected from the community, were between 25 and 30 years of age, had a high-school education, and received 1 week of in-class training, followed by 2 months oftraining in lactation clinics and in mother-to-mother support groups. Special training materials and visual aids were developed for the study to assist with counseling efforts. The prenatal visits focused on the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding, basic lactation anatomy and physiology, positioning of the infant and latching-on, common myths, typical problems, and birth preparation. Post-partum visits focused on establishing a healthy breastfeeding pattern,...

Hypothalamic Pituitary Dysgenesis

Hypothalamic-pituitary dysgenesis is a form of congenital (from birth) hypothyroidism caused by a failure in the normal formation or function of the pituitary gland and or hypothalamus. A number of genetic mutations cause such failures. Mutations in one particular gene, LHX3, cause a loss of the thyroid and gonadal (sex organs) function of the pituitary gland. Mutations in another gene, HESX1, cause something known as septo-optic dysplasia. This is characterized by poor growth of the optic nerve, defects of parts of the brain, and deficiencies of pituitary hormones. Mutations in other genes cause failure of growth of specific pituitary cells responsible for making TSH and other pituitary hormones. One case of hypothyroidism has been described in which the pituitary cell TRH receptors fail to work because the gene is mutated.

Selection For Gentle Retroviruses And The Mucosal Immune System

Going even farther out on a limb, one can imagine that the mucosal immune response could protect the fetus and the baby during the birthing process, and consequently, the neonate may be disease free. This might be accomplished by a strong IgA or T-cell response, or by an IgG response that is delivered through the placenta into the fetus. If it were possible in terms of the host's im-munological repertoire modulated by some stimulatory action of the pathogen, this would increase the fitness of the STD. Such a situation would lead to continued selection for such genetic variants of the host and in the STD through successive generations of virus and host in an environment with high levels of alternative, but similar, pathogens. These developments would include, of course, changes that would tune the growth of the retrovirus to a particular primate species. These changes may lead to effective prevention of infection by secondary pathogens or superinfection of the resident sexual disease...

Posterior Lobe or Neurohypophysis

The paraventricular nuclei predominantly manufacture oxytocin, which is a smooth muscle-contracting hormone. Oxytocin plays an important role in inducing the contractions of the uterine walls during the birth process that is, oxytocin is responsible for labor pains. In addition, it is required for the release of milk in response to suckling. In males, oxytocin regulates prostate gland function.

Congenital Myopathies

Ihe usual clinical picture of nemaline myopathy is one of mild and progressive myopathy present from birth however, some individuals are more severely affected, and early death is associated. In addition, some patients with adult-onset disease appear to have profuse rods on muscle biopsy but lack the usual clinical phenotype. Typical clinical signs include generalized reduction of muscle bulk, generalized limb weakness, and mild facial weakness but no ocular signs. Cardiac involvement is unusual. Ihe facial appearance is characteristic and is marked by a high arched palate and a long thin face. Respiratory failure, due to involvement of the diaphragm, is an early feature that can have a major impact on the prognosis.

Binomial models and likelihood

Perhaps the simplest model is the Binomial model. An event happens with a probability TC. Suppose the event is the probability of giving birth to a boy and suppose we had five expectant mothers who subsequently gave birth to two boys and three girls. The boys were born to mothers numbered 1 and 3. If TC is the probability of a boy the probability of this sequence of events occurring is tcX(1 tc)XtcX(1 tc)X(1 tc). If the mothers had different characteristics, say their age, we might wish to distinguish them and write the probability of a boy for mother i as TCj and the probability of a girl as (1 TCj) and the probability of the sequence as TC1X (1 TC2) XTC3X(1 TC4)X(1 TC5). For philosophical and semantic reasons this probability is termed the likelihood (in everyday parlance likelihood and probability are synonyms) for

The Premorbidprodromal Phase Clinical Characteristics

The premorbid phase of schizophrenia refers to the period from birth to the onset of identifiable acute or positive schizophrenic symptomatology. The first episode of schizophrenia symptoms typically occurs during late adolescence or early adulthood, with a somewhat earlier age of onset found for males (17-27 years) than females (17-37 years). Research has increasingly focused on the premorbid phase in light of a growing body of evidence that supports the conceptualization of schizophrenia as at least in part a neurodevelopmental disorder. A number of subtle behavioral and socioemotional abnormalities, presumed to reflect the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia, have been identified in preschizophrenics that appear to be relevant for long-term prognosis. Immediately preceding the onset of acute psychotic symptoms an initial prodromal period is usually identifiable, although a clearly defined prodromal period is not pathognomonic for the illness.

Table 121 Anaesthetic implications of cardiac pathophysiology Perianaesthetic factors influencing cardiovascular flow

Gradually during this time, the vascular bed remains reactive. Lesions resulting in high pulmonary artery pressure are initially associated with high pulmonary blood flow, but obstructive vascular disease eventually develops. Small intrapulmonary vessels rapidly become muscularized, and intra-acinar vessels fail to develop from birth. Pulmonary vascular disease is a serious risk if the PA pressure is greater than half the systemic and the pulmonary systemic flow ratio is greater than 3 1. This eventually causes fixed pulmonary vascular obstruction, but in the early stages there is a reactive and reversible component (Hall and Haworth, 1992). PVR is increased by hypoxia and acidosis, sympathetic stimulation and surgical retraction. PVR also increases with hyperinflation (high lung volumes) and atelectasis (low lung volumes).

Foetal Stem Cells The Solution

The concern has been raised that foetal CD34+ cells can persist in the maternal circulation after delivery and potentially interfere with the interpretation of results derived from circulating foetal cells in consecutive pregnancies.24 Using either culture or analysis by FISH and PCR, Coata et al.69 proved that foetal CD34+ stem cells in maternal circulation do not affect diagnosis in later pregnancies by enriching CD34+ stem cells from the peripheral blood of pregnant women including eight with male foetuses, non-pregnant women who have given birth to male offsprings, and women who have never been pregnant (Fig. 2). The analysis of cultured CD34+ stem cells from mothers with positive Y PCR did not detect any male cells in any sample. Coata et al.69 concluded that foetal stem cells do not persist in the maternal blood and also explained the presence of chimeric stem cells as long as 27 years postpartum by probably being of a paternal origin since fallopian tubes are open to the...

Oxytocin Causes Contraction of the Pregnant Uterus

Indicating a possible effect of oxytocin during delivery. (2) The amount of oxytocin in the plasma increases during labor, especially during the last stage. (3) Stimulation of the cervix in a pregnant animal elicits nervous signals that pass to the hypothalamus and cause increased secretion of oxytocin. These effects and this possible mechanism for aiding in the birth process are discussed in much more detail in Chapter 82.

Years old ten weeks pregnant

Now that I am pregnant with this precious child I have begun to worry so much about Baby's health. I never expected this and I am scared now in case something bad happens. Maybe Baby will be damaged by the chemotherapy. It destroyed my eggs all those years ago so what about the ones left behind Chemotherapy was so toxic it made my hair fall out. So maybe my eggs could have been poisoned too. Maybe I'll give birth to a freak. I keep getting these frightening dreams that when Baby is born he has one big cyclops eye in the middle of a grotesquely deformed head. I told my obstetrician about having methotrexate and vincristine chemotherapy but he said he didn't know much about them not exactly reassuring. I can't go back to the oncologists and ask them either, because I haven't been to my check-ups for ages and they stopped sending me appointments. I don't know where to go for answers so I'm just worrying and waiting to see if Baby is healthy.

HIVAssociated Central Nervous System Disorders Children

The true incidence of pediatric HIV-1-associated CNS disease is not yet known. A review of the published literature is difficult to interpret because of differences in terminology, definitions, study populations, and study designs. An incidence of 13 to 28 percent is reported from prospective studies of children followed from birth to early childhood. y , y , y1 , y 1 , W A 23.8 percent rate was reported by Tovo and co-workers in their cohort of 433 HIV-1 perinatally infected children in Italy. y 1 Blanche and colleagues reported a 15 to 20 percent incidence of HIV-1 encephalopathy by age 3 years in their patients followed prospectively from birth and a 10 percent incidence per year thereafter. y In contrast, cohort studies of infants and children, who had already developed AIDS- related complex or AIDS, show a higher prevalence rate. A still higher rate (31 to 75 percent) is reported from cohorts of children who already developed AIDS.y , 125 , 127 The...

General Procedure For Production of Transgenic Animals

In a general scheme, the gene of a desired protein is constructed in a suitable vector carrying the regulatory sequence of a milk protein which to direct the expression in mammary tissues. Promoters that have been used often include those of the genes of P-lactoglobulin and P-casein (major proteins found in milk). The recombinant DNA is then introduced into the pronuclei of fertilized eggs at an early stage by microinjection. The injected DNA is usually integrated as multiple tandem copies at random locations. The transformed egg cell is then implanted into the uterus of a surrogate animal to give birth to transgenic offspring. The transgenic animal can be raised for milking the expressed protein for processing and purification. Stable transmission of the transgene to succeeding generations is a critical factor in establishing transgenic lines of the livestock. Although it is not as frequent, transgenes can also be introduced using nuclear transfer techniques (see Sections 22.2).

General Description and Early Formulations

Family development theory focuses on changes over time in family structure, roles of family members, developmental tasks, stressors and crises, and adaptive and maladaptive coping mechanisms. Historically, theorists conceptualized the family development as consisting of predictable stages and normative transitions through which most families evolve across the life cycle. E. M. Duvall's early work in the late 1950s, for example, defined the family life cycle as consisting of eight developmental stages (1) married couple without children (2) childbearing families (oldest child from birth to 30 months) (3) families with preschool children (oldest child from 2.5 to 6 years) (4) families with school-age children (oldest from 6 to 13 years) (5) families with adolescents (oldest from 13 to 20 years) (6) families that are launching children from the home (from first child to last child to leave home) (7) middle years including empty-nest syndrome to retirement (8) and aging families extending...

Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life

Fetal Circulation

After normal delivery from a mother who has not been depressed by anesthetics, the child ordinarily begins to breathe within seconds and has a normal respiratory rhythm within less than 1 minute after birth. The promptness with which the fetus begins to breathe indicates that breathing is initiated by sudden exposure to the exterior world, probably resulting from (1) a slightly asphyxiated state incident to the birth process, but also from (2) sensory impulses that originate in the suddenly cooled skin. In an infant who does not breathe immediately, the body becomes

Preservation of oocytes

Oocytes Cryopreserve

Although it has proved possible to obtain live births after the frozen storage of mouse oocytes, human oocytes generally have a low post-thaw survival and developmental potential. Consequently, only a small number of babies have been born worldwide from thousands of frozen-thawed oocytes and the live birth rate, even in healthy women, is still very low (Porcu et al. 2000). These disappointing success rates can be attributed in part to the biological properties of oocytes, as human eggs are extremely sensitive to both temperature and toxic shocks, have a short fertile lifespan and have little capacity for repairing damage. The freeze-thaw process can lead to

Abdominal Muscle Contractions During Labor

Once uterine contractions become strong during labor, pain signals originate both from the uterus itself and from the birth canal. These signals, in addition to causing suffering, elicit neurogenic reflexes in the spinal cord to the abdominal muscles, causing intense contractions of these muscles. The abdominal contractions add greatly to the force that causes expulsion of the baby. In about 95 per cent of births, the head is the first part of the baby to be expelled, and in most of the remaining instances, the buttocks are presented first. The head acts as a wedge to open the structures of the birth canal as the fetus is forced downward. Once the cervix has dilated fully, the fetal membranes usually rupture and the amniotic fluid is lost suddenly through the vagina.Then the fetus's head moves rapidly into the birth canal, and with additional force from above, it continues to wedge its way through the canal until delivery is effected. This is called the second stage of labor, and it...

Onset of LaborA Positive Feedback Mechanism for Its Initiation

During most of the months of pregnancy, the uterus undergoes periodic episodes of weak and slow rhythmical contractions called Braxton Hicks contractions. These contractions become progressively stronger toward the end of pregnancy then they change suddenly, within hours, to become exceptionally strong contractions that start stretching the cervix and later force the baby through the birth canal, thereby causing parturition. This process is called labor, and the strong contractions that result in final parturition are called labor contractions.

Comparing Cairo And Florence

Yet Florence, and Christian Europe more generally, recovered far more quickly and completely than did Cairo and the Muslim world more generally. Although in both cultural regions rebuilding the population remained dampened by relatively low birth rates and recurrent epidemics with high death rates, the Florentine economy quickly became aggressive and increasingly capitalistic carefully reinvesting its wealth in making more wealth. The Cairene and Florentine were both highly competitive and wonderful bargainers, but competition among the Italians led not only to lower prices but also to better products. By 1400 Florence was

Abnormalities of Growth Hormone Secretion

This term means decreased secretion of all the anterior pituitary hormones. The decrease in secretion may be congenital (present from birth), or it may occur suddenly or slowly at any time during life, most often resulting from a pituitary tumor that destroys the pituitary gland.

Biological Clocks And Seasonal Behavior

Some authors have suggested a relationship between the season of one's birth and the occurrence of affective disorders. Season of birth conception has also been examined as a possible factor in the depression of women who have given birth. However, although a significant seasonal variation in the occurrence of postnatal depression has been found with the largest peak occurring in autumn, there are discrepancies in the data concerning the influence of the season of conception on the frequency of postpartum mental illness.

Important Findings In The Pediatric Emg Laboratory

Brachial plexus injuries in children most commonly occur at birth, as a result of shoulder dystocia (difficulty in extracting the shoulder from the birth canal). Risk factors include difficult delivery and large birthweight. As might be expected from the mechanism of injury, upper plexus injuries (Erb's palsy) predominate. Lower brachial plexus lesions (Klumpke's palsy) and total plexus injuries (Erb-Klumpke paralysis) are less common. The neonate will have flaccid weakness of one upper extremity.

Vineland Social Maturity Scale

Opmental perspective and was normed on males and females from birth to 30 years of age. Assessment using the Vineland typically involves interviewing a person who is familiar with the individual being evaluated (e.g., parent, sibling). The interview is intended to determine the behaviors customarily performed by the target person. In some circumstances observations or direct interviews with the person being assessed are used.

Fibrous Encapsulating Peritonitis The Cocoon Syndrome

In their description of a most unusual case of SBP in a noncirrhotic patient, Leport et al. described a patient who, in the absence of any history of preceding liver disease, developed pneumococcal bacteremia, but whose ascitic fluid was sterile (42). The patient, a 36-year-old Moroccan woman, who had had no history of alcohol ingestion, abdominal disease, or surgery, developed fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. She had given birth to nine children uneventfully. On physical examination she was an obese woman with a temperature of 39 C. Her abdomen was tender, but not otherwise remarkable. There was no pneumoperitoneum. Her laboratory data were normal except for decreased white blood cells of 2300 per cubic millimeter, 63 of which were polymorphonuclear leukocytes. She exhibited elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity (380 IU) and a decreased serum albumin concentration (2.5 g per dl). Her serum bilirubin and transaminase levels were normal. Serum BUN and electrolyte levels were...

Polyspermous Semen Is Everywhere

A quick survey of various media from the summer of 2005 illustrates other seminal overload. Summer books were full of sperm. Brooke Shields's postpartum depression memoir, Down Came the Rain, fueled by a feud with Tom Cruise, climbed the bestseller lists. In the book, Shields, struggling with infertility, laments the fate of her husband's body fluid in her vagina the little spermies couldn't swim upstream because the poor guys have been jumping into a pool with no water.3 (Ironically, Shields and Cruise's partner, Katie Holmes, would both give birth on the same day in the same hospital a year later in the summer of 2006, proving that the spermies did eventually swim to their target.)

Antipredator behavior

Omaha Beach Day German Photos

Of immediate interest, however, is the extent to which predation pressure in open country compels a free spirited primate, when away from shelter, to operate in highly disciplined collective formations at what seems to be considerable loss of individual freedom to take independent action. A pregnant female hamadryas baboon, for instance, can ill afford to enter labor in daylight when the troop is on the move or foraging. She will usually give birth only at night when the troop is sheltered in its sleeping quarters (Kummer, 1997 204-5). On the other hand, as pointed out above, regimented troop formations typical of baboons on open ground tend to break down as soon as they move under trees or otherwise near shelter from predators. This degree of behavioral flexibility in response to changing predation pressures has analogies in human evolution and some bearing on the development of market exchange.

Abnormalities of Secretion by the Ovaries

Less than normal secretion by the ovaries can result from poorly formed ovaries, lack of ovaries, or genetically abnormal ovaries that secrete the wrong hormones because of missing enzymes in the secretory cells. When ovaries are absent from birth or when they become nonfunctional before puberty, female eunuchism occurs. In this condition, the usual secondary sexual characteristics do not appear, and the sexual organs remain infantile. Especially characteristic of this condition is prolonged growth of the long bones because the epiphyses do not unite with the shafts as early as they do in a normal woman. Consequently, the female eunuch is essentially as tall as or perhaps even slightly taller than her male counterpart of similar genetic background.

Unusual Aspects Of Breastfeeding

Over the course of the centuries, also in profane art, the breastfeeding mother was one of the most frequent motives in drawings, paintings, sculptures and even music (e.g. F.Schubert Lied Vormeiner Wiege). Some of these paintings are rather peculiar, sometimes even of medical interest, as for instance la mujer barbudu (the bearded woman) by Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652). He was a Spanish painter, born in Valencia, but working mostly in Naples, where he was therefore called lo Spagnoletto (Fig.1). Is it really possible that a woman with such a massive virilization can bear and nurse an infant The painter describes important details in the legend next to the figures Magdalena is a 52-year-old woman from the Abruzzes who has given birth to three children. She became severely virilized at the age of 37 and grew a full and abundant beard. The legend does not mention that she had another child thereafter. She was considered a great miracle ofnature, and Ferdinand, the Vice King ofNaples,...

Acute Bacterial Meningitis

There are approximately 25,000 cases of bacterial meningitis in the United States each year, but this disease is much more prevalent in developing countries. Group B streptococci and gram- negative enteric bacilli are the etiological organisms of the majority of cases of bacterial meningitis during the neonatal period in developed countries. In underdeveloped countries, gram-negative bacilli, predominantly Escherichia coli, are the most common pathogens. Risk factors that predispose the newborn to bacterial meningitis include maternal infections, particularly of the urinary tract and uterus, obstetrical risk factors, including prolonged rupture of membranes and birth trauma, prematurity, low birth weight (less than 2500 g), congenital anomalies, perinatal hypoxia asphyxia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and monitoring, prolonged ventilatory support, and intravenous lines. 1 After the neonatal period, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are...

Pasture Fever And Tickborne Fever

Tick-borne fever occurs in sheep, cattle, and very occasionally in goats that are moved from tick-free to tick-infested areas. Infections are usually subclinical but there may be fever, anorexia, coughing, and mild weight loss. Infected lambs may have reduced weight gain (22). Although clinical signs in lambs are usually mild, there are marked hematological changes including high parasitemias (80 ) of neutrophils and lymphopenia, neutropenia, and throm-bocytopenia. Up to 50 of pregnant animals abort or give birth to weak premature offspring, whereas the leucopenia predisposes to a variety of severe concurrent bacterial (lamb pyemia due to Staphylococcus aureus, pasteurellosis, and listeriosis) and viral infections (louping ill). Affected animals, especially sheep, usually become carriers for months to years, and relapses can occur with sudden leucopenia, parasitemia, and transient fever. Deer can also be infected and might also be reservoirs of infection.

Neuropsychological Development

Brain size and mass can also be affected by experience. Exposure to a stimulus rich environment seems to increase brain size, especially in the neocortex. Such enriched stimulus exposure seems to increase the number of dendrites and synapses, especially if the enriched experience occurs early in life. Furthermore, animals with larger brains as a result of more varied experience seem to perform better on a number of behavioral tasks, including those involving memory and learning. In contrast, animals reared from birth with restricted sensory inputs, such as no light to the eyes, possess a reduced number of functioning cells and more abnormal neurons in the appropriate sections of the cortex (e.g., Atkinson, 2000).

How do people get gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact (vaginal, oral, or anal). This includes penis-to-vagina, penis-to-mouth, penis-to-anus, mouth-to-vagina, and mouth-to-anus contact. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired. Gonorrhea can also be spread from mother to child during birth. Gonorrhea infection can spread to other unlikely parts of the body. For example, a person can get an eye infection after touching infected genitals and then the eyes. Individuals who have had gonorrhea and received treatment may get infected again if they have sexual contact with people infected with gonorrhea.

Therapeutic Interventions In The Prevention Of Vertical Hiv Transmission

Using observational data from deliveries of HIV-infected pregnant women in the state of New York, Wade and collaborators showed that the use of abbreviated ZDV regimens, whether by maternal choice or limited prenatal care, were less effective than the complete PACTG 076 regimen but better than no treatment at all. Only 9.3 of the infants who initiated neonatal ZDV treatment within 48 h from birth were HIV infected, compared with 26 of infants with no treatment at all (63) (Fig. 3).

Development of sexuality and sexual identity

We are all born either male or female (with some exceptions covered in Chapter 12), with different chromosome patterns and body chemistry. From birth we are spoken to, handled and usually dressed differently as part of our socialization into our gender roles. As we grow up we learn how boys and girls are supposed to behave and our differing personalities and experiences leave us more or less comfortable with living up to these expectations. Some of these expectations and roles are based on the assumption that we will be parents in the future for example, girls the world over may be given dolls with which to practise nurturing.

Biological Dimensions Of Human Cloning

For example, if my wife's eggs are in some way defective, and if I can take a second mortage or have a free credit card, we will be treated for infertility. Why Because we now say that wholly apart from our need to make love to one another, we feel the separate need to have a biologically similar child, the need to do something to make such a child. The new tool of egg donation implies the possibility we might ameliorate a new kind of need. We want a child, we want it to feel like our child, we want to give birth to it. That need is old. But the need to have a child of such specific parameters is a new one, inspired by our culture's increasing tendency to think of fertility and parenthood as a state of affairs that includes both gestation and genetic relation.16 Our imagination is of a child that is mostly ours.29 But a baby from egg donation, we are told, is not 100 our genetic child. We are not going to be able to completely emulate the fertile state. So, electing to use a donated...

Not the purview of the paediatrician

When professionals are involved in providing care for young children, often from birth, they become connected to the child and the progress that they make as they grow and achieve normal developmental milestones. They have long-term relationships with these children and their families, become comfortable and, in many ways, feel a bit like 'family'. What component of professional training prepares the health and social work team for children growing up and becoming sexually active Making the transition to seeing them in this light, especially when their engagement in sexual activity starts young, can be challenging.

My path to parenthood

After a period of comforting and renewing our intention, we reinitiated our efforts and were soon selected by a young couple. The experience was remarkably different from the first attempt but still fraught with uncertainty at times. Over a two-and-a-half-month period we spent time with the birthparents, which included buying maternity clothes, walking on the beach, going together for pre-natal doctors' visits and attended birthing classes. Ultimately, we were present at the birth of our daughter Sierra Grace.

Kinetic Parameters During Tumour Growth

Why does tumour growth slow down Well, the net rate of growth is defined by the relationship between the rate of cell production - the birth rate - and the rate of cell death or other modes of loss, the cell loss rate. In the earlier phases of growth, as seen in the early exponential part of the curve in Figure 3, most cells are growing exponentially thus every cell which divides contributes two cells to the population, with effectively no cell loss. What defines the rate at which the exponential portion of the curve ascends two parameters - the cell cycle time (the interval between two divisions of the same cell) and the growth fraction, or proliferating population (the proportion of cells in the tumour which are dividing). There is no evidence in solid experimental tumours, at any rate, that the cell cycle time changes at all during tumour growth, but as growth advances, there are substantial studies showing that the growth fraction declines with time. In experiments where the...

Hsp 60 Autoimmunity Can Amplify Or Restrain Inflammation

Interestingly, autoimmunity to hsp 60 can manifest seemingly contradictory effects Some immune responses can be enhanced and others inhibited. Since expression of hsp 60 is upregulated by the stress of inflammation, it is not surprising that natural autoimmunity to hsp 60 can help the initiation of immune responses to other antigens that happen to be at the site of any hyper-expression of hsp 60. The high frequency of anti-hsp 60 T cells present from birth (9) guarantees that some of these anti-hsp 60 will be activated at the site of heightened expression of hsp 60. Thus hsp 60 autoimmunity will be detectable at some stage at the site of every inflammatory response. The natural autoimmune T cells that respond to hsp 60 can add their cytokines to the inflammatory cascade and so can amplify the inflammatory response to other antigens. The automatic activation of anti-hsp 60 cells in inflammatory sites probably accounts for the bewildering associations of hsp 60 autoimmunity with so many...

Methods Results And Discussion

The ongoing study is carried out in the capital Vilnius. Infants are followed from birth to 12 months with home visits at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. At each visit the mother is asked about breast-feeding and when complementary foods were introduced. We present data for the first 165 infants who turned 6 months old before September 1999.

Childrens Behavioral Stages

From birth onward there are new stages in motor, cognitive (thinking), and personality development to be considered. The organism is now in a position to be observed, and much more rigorous research is possible. At birth every infant has a repertoire of reflex behaviors to carry on everyday activities. In addition, sensory awareness begins to develop at a faster pace. Touch appears to be the only completely active sense at birth, but vision and hearing are even more advanced in their development than specialists considered possible only a short time ago. The four stages that Piaget identified were (1) the sensorimotor stage, from birth to approximately 2 years of age (2) the preoperational stage, from approximately 2 to 7 years of age (3) the concrete operations stage, from approximately 7 to 11 years of age and (4) the formal operations stage, from approximately 11 to 15 years of age. Freud is considered a major developmental theorist with a stage-dependent approach. His theory of...

Breastmilk Transmission Of Hiv1 Among Women With Established Infection

Most babies who are exposed to HIV-1 are infants of women with established HIV-1 infection. Evidence for breastmilk transmission has been from birth cohort studies ofinfants ofHIV-1 infected women. Within these cohorts, HIV infection rates have been higher in infants exposed to breastmilk compared to those who were formula fed (Ryder et al. 1991, European collaborative study 1992, Gabiano et al. 1992, Mayaux et al. 1995,).

To boil or not to boil

The existence and general properties of solids and gases are relatively easy to understand once it is realized that atoms or molecules have certain typical properties and interactions that follow from quantum mechanics. Liquids are harder to understand. Assume that a group of intelligent theoretical physicists had lived in closed buildings from birth such that they never had occasion to see any natural structures. Let us forget that it may be impossible to prevent them to see their own bodies and their inputs and outputs. What would they be able to predict from a fundamental knowledge of quantum mechanics They probably would predict the existence of atoms, of molecules, of solid crystals, both metals and insulators, ofgases, but most likely not the existence ofliquids.

Lifespan Development

The point where change occurs throughout the life cycle is critical. Traditional approaches to human development have emphasized change from birth to adolescence, stability in adulthood, and decline in old age. Sears and Feldman have captured the flavor of some of the most important adult changes. The changes in body, personality, and abilities may be great during these later decades. Strong developmental tasks are imposed by marriage and parenthood, by the waxing and waning of physical prowess and of some intellectual capacities, by the children's exit from the nest, by the achievement of an occupational plateau, and by retirement and the prospect of death.

Development Of Human Social Behavior

Social behavior is by definition an interactive process the behavior of any partner to the interaction modifies the behavior of the other person, even as it is being modified by the response of the other person. The interaction begins at birth, hence it may fairly be claimed that the human infant qualifies from birth as a social being. From birth on, the uneven development of the human infants' sensory and motor systems, compared with the young of many other mammalian species, plays a special role in the development of their social behavior. In their ability to respond to visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli, they resemble precocial animals in their inability to locomote and so secure nourishment or mingle with other members of their species by their own efforts, they resemble altricial animals. During the long period until effortless locomotion is achieved, what they see and hear, the objects and persons with whom they have contact, as well as the routines of care, are provided by...

Degenerative Muscular Disorders

Immunoblot analysis of muscle homogenates with dystrophin antibodies confirms abnormalities in at least 95 percent of DMD patients and differentiates DMD from BMD. Analysis of restriction length polymorphisms and a nonradioactive direct test based on PCR amplification provides rapid, precise carrier diagnosis in women whose relatives have a known deletion. Sisters and daughters of mothers who have given birth to boys with isolated cases of DMD or BMD should also be tested and counseled. Such mothers should also consider prenatal diagnosis because the risk for recurrence in additional sons is estimated at 7 percent. Prenatal diagnosis can be performed as early as 8 weeks' gestation. y

Postnatal Environmental Effects on the Human Brain

However, even under these circumstances, the future is not predestined. The human species is notable for the proportion of brain development that occurs postnatally. Other primate brains increase in weight from birth to maturity by a factor of 2 to 2.5, but the human brain increases by a factor of 3.5 to 4. There is a fourfold increase in the neocortex, with a marked elaboration of the receiving areas for the teloreceptors, a disproportionate expansion of the motor area for the hand in relation to the representation of other parts, a representation of tongue and larynx many times greater, and a great increase in the association areas. The elaboration of pathways and interconnections is highly dependent on the quantity, quality, and timing of intellectual and emotional stimulation. The very structure of the brain, as well as the function of the mind, emerges from the interaction between maturation and experience.17

Experience

The process of giving birth to and raising young appears to result in permanent changes in behavior. Recent research has looked in great detail at individual differences in the style of mothering in rats. High licking-grooming dams spend more time grooming their pups than do low licking-grooming dams. It now appears, from cross-fostering studies, that this style of mothering is transmitted to subsequent generations, as offspring of a low licking-grooming dam

Results

Thus, on average, an increase in 1 day of the duration of pregnancy was associated with a gain of weight of 18.4 grams (beta 1 ), and girls are 145 g lighter than boys at birth (beta 4 ), with a 95 confidence interval of -186 -103 g. Moreover, women who already had a child have a tendency to give birth to heavier babies (77 g on average). There is a non-significant tendency to an increase in birth weight with mother's age.

Growth

Population size refers to the number of individuals in a population. Four things determine population size birth rate, death rate, immigration rate, and emigration rate. For example, suppose a town in the Midwest has a population of 10,000 people. If 300 babies are born annually, the birth rate is 300 10,000, or 0.03. If 200 people die annually, the death rate is 200 10,000, or

Culture And Health

One example of health and cultural issues from Indonesia is the overuse of injections not related to diagnosis. Such injections, especially with reuse of needles, increase the risk of communicable diseases such as hepatitis B and HIV. It is important to understand that Indonesians like ceremonies. From birth to death, Indonesians are accustomed to rituals. The practice of injection by a medical worker is like a ritual. The provider has to go through a certain sequence in the injection preparation and process. The patients feel the pain as the soluble preparation is inserted in their bodies. This ritual seems to give both parties satisfaction. The providers have done something, and the patients have received something directly into their bodies.

Syndrome

Russell Barkley (1997a, 1997b, 1998) has summarized the research and developed a cohesive theory to explain ADHD and the disability it creates. As a developmental disorder, ADHD is present from birth, and symptoms manifest at a young age (before age 7). Symptoms are persistent rather than episodic and are present across situations. However, hyperactivity may be more obvious in settings where quiet, calm behavior is required and may go virtually unnoticed in unstructured settings where active behavior is allowed or encouraged, which accounts for the difference in a child's presentation in the classroom, on the playground, and at home.

Microinjection

Transformed plant cells can be regenerated into transgenic plants carrying the cloned DNA. However, animal cells cannot be regenerated into transgenic animals. For the production of transgenic animals, the DNA is injected into the pronuclei of the fertilized egg using a micropipet (Fig. 10.2). For expression purposes, the gene of interest must be properly constructed with a promoter region and other control elements to direct tissue-specific production of the protein. The transformed zygote is implanted into a surrogate mother to give birth to transgenic offspring (see Section 21.1)

Gangliosidoses

Clinical Features and Associated Disorders. Generalized gangliosidosis, first reported by Norman and colleagues in 1959, y affects the brain and organs outside the central nervous system.y There are clinical similarities between children with these diseases and those with both Hurler's disease and Tay-Sachs disease. In type I GM1 - gangliosidosis, affected subjects appear abnormal from birth. Nonpitting edema of the face and extremities produces a dull, heavy-appearing facies with frontal bossing, depressed nasal ridge, low-set ears, and large maxilla. The gums and tongue may be large. Ocular signs include a cherry-red spot in about 50 percent of such patients, but corneal clouding is unusual. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly occur often. Intellectual and motor development are retarded from birth, and children eat poorly, gain weight slowly, and are generally weak and incoordinated. Joints tend to be enlarged, and the long bones are wide in the center and tapered at the ends...

The way ahead

Women who have had genital surgery will require a caesarean to give birth and this may also be necessary for some who have not (Greenwell etal. 2003). All women with CAH need close monitoring during pregnancy to ensure that mother and baby are kept well. Pregnancies are rarely allowed to go to full term for the safety of both mother and baby. The mother will need extra steroid cover with IV steroids to avoid adrenal crisis whether or not a caesarean is performed.

Word roots

-parous producing birthing partum- bear, give birth to path(o)-, -pathy disease pec- fix, make fast comb ped(o)-, pedi- child foot soil pell- skin -pellent drive pelv- basin, bowel pen(e)- need, lack almost pend- hang down -penia deficiency pent(a)- five pep- digest cook per- through, completely peri- around, surrounding pet- seek, tend toward petr- rock, stone pex-, -pexy fix, make fast pha- say, speak phac-, phak- lentil lens phag- eat, swallow -phagous eating, feeding on phan- show appear pharm(ac)- drug toxin pharyn- throat, pharynx phen- show, be seen pher-, phor- bear, carry (-)phil(-) like, love, affinity for phleb(o)- vein, blood vessel phleg-, phlog- burn, inflame (-)phob(-) fear, dread phon- sound phor- show carry, move phot(o)-, phos- light phragm, phrax- fence, wall phren- mind heart phthi- decay, waste away phy- beget, bring forth phyc- seaweed phyl- race, tribe, kind phyla- guard phyll(o)-, -phyll leaf phys- blow, inflate nature pico- one trillionth pil(i)- hair toc(o)-...

A regular monster

Nothing can, however, be more fantastic than that which has occurred, namely that a malformed offspring of a plant which has previously always produced irregular flowers now has produced regular ones. As a result of this, it does not only deviate from its mother genus but also completely from the entire class and thus an example of something that is unparalleled in botany so that owing to the difference in the flowers no one can recognise the plant any more This is certainly no less remarkable than if a cow were to give birth to a calf with a wolfss head.

Channeldisease

This disease is autosomal dominant, inherited with complete penetrance. The predominant symptom is paradoxical myotonia, which is usually present from birth and persists throughout life. The myotonia is paradoxical because unlike classic myotonia, it increases with repetitive movements. It is also exacerbated by cold temperatures, which also cause weakness. The myotonia particularly affects the face, neck, and forearms. Typically, on relief of the myotonia, either spontaneously or with warming of the muscles, a variable degree of weakness occurs, which can persist for several hours. In a warm environment, patients may have no symptoms at all. In some families with this disorder, there is a tendency for attacks of paralysis to occur independently of the myotonia. In many patients, these attacks are precipitated by potassium ingestion, in much the same way as hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Occasional patients are weakened by hypokalemia.

Invisible Goiter

Large and disfiguring goiters were cosmeti-cally distressing and sometimes blocked breathing. Moreover, endemic goiter areas produced a number of people who were retarded from birth, with disfigured faces, and sometimes deaf and mute. Most but not all had goiter, which was also common in their mothers. They were

Early Influences

Piaget's very extensive empirical investigations into the development of infants' and children's cognitions were conceptualized by a succession of distinct logics, which have come to be known as stages ofcognitive development. The first was the sensorimotor stage, lasting from birth to about one-and-a-half to two years, characterized by structured, organized activity but not thought. During this stage, a structure of actions became elaborated into a mathematical group, meaning that an integrated, self-regulating system of actions developed. Piaget believed that the concept of objects as real and permanent emerged as this structure was

Life Span

Mammalian Adult Stem Cells

Differentiated cells and lineage-committed cells have a finite life span. These tissue-specific cells have a mitotic clock of50-70 population doublings before programmed replicative cell senescence and cell death occurs. The mitotic clock for these tissue-specific cells begins at birth. From birth to approximately 20 years of age, about the time an individual attains full stature, there is an exponential increase in the mitotic clock of these cells to about 30 population doublings. From this point, there is an inverse relationship between the increasing age of

Cerebral palsy

This is usually due to birth trauma and the extent of the brain damage correlates with the degree of sleep disturbance. Excessive daytime sleepiness is common and may be due to obstructive sleep apnoeas and an abnormality of sleep control, but also to drugs, especially anticonvulsants, and to poor sleep hygiene.

Doily Mice

Dolly the cloned sheep was derived by nuclear transfer to an enucleated oocyte, using a nucleus from a cell culture grown from mammary gland tissue taken from a 6-year-old pregnant ewe.1 Doubts expressed by a few scientists as to the provenance of the progenitor nucleus have recently been allayed by microsatellite analysis and DNA fingerprinting of Dolly's DNA and that of the donor ewe.2 3 Dolly herself appears healthy and sociable, with no reported signs of premature aging. She has given birth to six lambs conceived by entirely conventional means.

Nicotine

Cigarette smoking contributes to approximately 400,000 deaths annually in the United States and the majority of these deaths are directly attributable to cancer (ACS, 1999 Peto, Lopez, Boreham, Thur, & Heath, 1992). Nicotine stimulates the division of small cell carcinomas, a cancer cell line, by several hundred percent. As a result, tobacco use is associated with many types of cancers, such as lung, larynx, esophageal, bladder, pancreatic, kidney, and colon cancers (ACS, 1996 Centers for Disease Control CDC , 1993a). Tobacco use also leads to an increase in heart disease as well as respiratory diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis (CDC, 1993a). Additionally, women who smoke during pregnancy have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, preterm birth rates, low birth weights, and fetal or infant death (DiFranza & Lew, 1995 Slotkin, 1998).

Conjunctivitis

Bacteria often infect the conjunctiva simultaneously with trachoma (causing acute bacterial conjunctivitis), and the two in combination may blind many individuals. Viruses can also cause conjunctivitis historical descriptions of mild ophthalmia may indicate bacterial or viral conjunctivitis. By contrast, more severe ophthalmias - producing eye-scarring or permanent blindness - were often trachoma. Even today, forms of bacterial and viral conjunctivitis are still confused with trachoma. Severe forms of conjunctivitis include ophthalmia neonatorum, from infection in the birth canal

Hepatitis B

The most serious pattern of hepatitis B infection is seen in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where transmission from mother to child is common. Infection may occur during birth or via mother's milk. The significance of this pattern of transmission is that persistent infection is particularly likely to follow infection in early life, and liver cancer is a common sequela to persistent infection. In these parts of the world, cancer of the liver is the most common of all cancers and a major cause of death in middle age. The situation is self-perpetuating, in that persons infected in infancy are most likely to become carriers and, hence, most likely to transmit to the next generation.