It is thought that environmental mutagens stored in the adipose tissue of the breast could affect carcinogenesis through direct exposure to the adjacent ductal epithelial cells, and that evaluating NAF would provide information on carcinogen exposure (Petrakis et al., 1980). A standard assay for the presence of mutagens is the Ames test using one of a variety of Salmonella strains to detect the mutagen. A number of studies using different Salmonella strains have been conducted (Klein et al., 2001; Petrakis et al., 1980; Scott and Miller, 1990). One limitation of the assays performed to date is the need for approximately 10 ml (microliters) of NAF, which is more than is obtained from some subjects. No association was found in the studies between mutagenic activity in NAF and breast cancer.
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