Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor

Breast Cancer Survivors

Get Instant Access

Abgrall S, Orbach D, Bonhomme-Faivre L, Orbach-Arbous S (2002) Tumours in organ transplant recipients may give clues to their control by immunity. Anticancer Research 22(6b): 3597-3604.

Adams J, Carder PJ, Downey S et al. (2000)Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in breast cancer: comparison of plasma, serum, and tissue vegf and microvessel density and effects of tamoxifen 1. Cancer Research 60: 2898-2905.

Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Watson JD (1994) Internal organisation of the cell. In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3rd edn. New York: Garland Publishing.

Allen RE (1990) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, 8th edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Altfeld M, Rosenberg ES (2000) The role of CD4+ T helper cells in the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to HIV. 12: 375-380.

American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) (1996) Clinical practice guidelines for the use of tumor markers in breast and colorectal cancer. Journal Clinical Oncology 14: 2843-2877.

ASCO (1998) 1997 update and recommendations for the use of tumor markers in breast and colorectal cancer. Journal Clinical Oncology 16: 793-795.

American Urological Association (2000) Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) best practice policy. Oncology 14: 267-272, 277-2778, 280 et seq. (; accessed Nov 2002).

Andre FT (2003) Vaccinology: past achievements, present roadblocks and future promises. Vaccine 21: 593-595.

Andreeff M, Goodrich DW, Pardee AB (2000) Cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In: Bast RC Jr, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. (eds), Cancer Medicine, 5th edn. Hamilton, Ont: BC Decker.

Anon (2001) Porton Down probe launched. The Guardian 30 July 2001

Antequera F, Boyes J, Bird A (1990) High levels of de novo methylation and altered chromatin structure at CpG islands in cell lines. Cell 62: 503-514.

Appay V, Rowland-Jones SL (2002) Premature aging of the immune system: the cause of AIDS? Trends in Immunology 23: 580-585.

Armstrong AC, Hawkins RE (2001) Vaccines in oncology: background and clinical potential. British Journal of Radiology 74: 991-1002.

Armstrong K, Eisen A, Weber B (2000) Assessing the risk of breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 342: 564-571.

Association of Clinical Biochemists in Ireland (1999) Guidelines for the Use of Tumor Markers ( acbi.html; accessed Oct 2002).

Avery OT, Macleod CM, McCarty M (1944) Studies on the chemical nature of the substance introducing transformation of pneumococcal types. Journal of Experimental Medicine 79: 137-158.

Baildam A, Keeling F, Noble M, Thompson L, Bundred N, Hopwood P (2001) Nurse led follow-up for women treated for breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Surgical Oncology 27: 792.

Baker C, Wuest J, Norager-Stern P (1992) Method slurring: the grounded theory/phenomenology example. Journal of Advanced Nursing 17: 1355-1360.

Balmain A (2001) Cancer genetics: from Boveri and Mendel to microarrays. National Review of Cancer 1(1): 77-82.

Baselga J, Albanell J (2001) Mechanism of action of anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibodies. Annals of Oncology 12(suppl 1): S35-S41.

Baselga J, Norton L, Albanell J, Kim YM, Mendelsohn J (1998). Recombinant humanized anti-HER-2 antibody (Herceptin) enhances the anti-tumour activity of paclitaxel and doxorubicin against HER-2/neu overexpressing human breast cancer xenografts. Cancer Research 58: 2825-2831.

Bast RC, Ravdin P, Hayes DF et al. (2001) 2000 update of recommendations for the use of tumor markers in breast and colorectal cancer: clinical practice guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology [Erratum]. Journal of Clinical Oncology 19: 4185-4188; 20(8): 2213.

Baylin SB, Herman JG (2000) DNA hypermethylation in tumourigenesis. Trends in Genetics 16: 168-174.

Baylin SB, Belinsky SA, Herman JG (2000) Aberrant methylation of gene promoters in cancer - concepts, misconcepts, and promise. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92: 1460-1461.

Becknell B, Caligiuri MA (2003) Cancer T cell therapy expands. Nature Medicine 9: 257-258.

Bell R (2002) Duration of therapy in metastatic breast cancer: management using Herceptin. Anticancer Drugs 12: 561-568.

Berd D (1998) Cancer vaccines: reborn or just recycled? Seminars in Oncology 25: 605-610.

Berd D (2001) Autologous, hapten-modified vaccine as treatment for human cancers. Vaccine 19: 2565-2570.

Berger MS, Leopold LH, Dowell JA, Korth-Bradley JM, Sherman ML (2002) Licensure of gemtuzumab ozogamicin for the treatment of selected patients 60 years of age and older with acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse. Investigational New Drugs 20: 395-406.

Bidart JM, Thuillier F, Augereau C et al. (1999) Kinetics of serum tumor marker concentrations and usefulness in clinical monitoring. Clinical Chemistry 45: 1690-1707.

Bird A (1992) The essentials of DNA methylation. Cell 70: 5-8.

Birmingham K (2002) What is translational oncology? Nature Medicine 8: 647.

Black N (1994) Why do we need qualitative research? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 48: 425-426.

Blagosklomy M (2002) From the war on cancer to translational oncology. Cancer Biology and Therapy July.

Bodey B, Bodey B Jr, Siegel S, Kiaser HE (2000) Failure of cancer vaccines: the significant limitations of this approach to immunotherapy. Anticancer Research 20: 2665-2676.

Bonfrer JMG, Duffy MJ, Radtke M et al. (1999) Tumor markers in gynaecological cancers: EGTM recommendations. Anticancer Research 19: 2807-2810.

Boon T, Van den Enbde B (2003) Tumour immunology. Current Opinion in Immunology 15: 129-130.

Bowling A (1997) Research Methods in Health: Investigating health and health services. Milton Keynes, Buckingham: Open University Press.

Bowling A (2001) Measuring Disease, 2nd edn. Milton Keynes, Buckingham: Open University Press.

Breaden K (1997) Cancer and beyond: the question of survivorship. Journal of Advanced Nursing 26: 978-984.

Breivik J, Gaudernack G (1999) Genomic instability, DNA methylation, and natural selection in colorectal carcinogenesis. Seminars in Cancer Biology 9: 245-254.

Bremers ATJ, Kuppen PJK, Parmiani G (2000) Tumour immunotherapy: the adjuvant treatment of the 21st century? European Journal of Surgical Oncology 26: 418-424.

Brennan P, Croft P (1994) Interpreting the results of observational research: chance is not such a fine thing. British Medical Journal 309,727-730.

British Medical Association (1997) Family Health Encyclopaedia. London: BMA Books.

Bromberg JE, Siemers MD, Taphoorn MJ (2002) Is a vanishing tumour' always a lymphoma? Neurology 59: 762-764.

Buckley RH (2003) 27.Transplantation immunology: organ and bone marrow. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112(2 suppl): S733-744.

Burnet FM (1967) Immunological aspects of malignant disease. Lancet i: 1171-1174.

Burns EA, Leventhal (2000) Aging, immunity and cancer. Cancer Control 7: 513-522.

Cahill DP, Lengauer C, Yu J et al. (1998) Mutations of mitotic checkpoint genes in human cancers. Nature 392: 300-303.

Cancer Progress Report 2001 (2001) National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHMS, Bethesda, MD.

Cancer Research (2002a) Breast cancer. Retrieved from Cancer Research UK website (; accessed March 3 2003).

Cancer Research (2002b) Colorectal (bowel) cancer. Retrieved from Cancer Research UK website (; accessed March 3 2003).

Cancer Research (2002c) Lung cancer. Retrieved from Cancer Research UK website (; accessed March 3 2003).

CancerVOICES (2002) News, Views and action. CancerVOICES issue 7.

Cao Y, Lam L (2003) Bispecific antibody conjugate in therapeutics. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 55: 171-179.

Carter P, Presta L, Gorman CM et al. (1992) Humanization of an anti-p185HER-2 antibody for human cancer therapy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 89: 4285-4289.

Cartmel B, Reid M (2000) Cancer control and epidemiology. In: Greonwald S, Frogge M, Goodman M, Yarbro C (eds), Cancer Nursing: Principles and practice 5th edn. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Cella D, Tulsky D, Gray G et al. (1993) The functional assessment of cancer therapy scale: development and validation of the general measure. Journal of Clinical Oncology 11: 570-579.

Chen J, Flurkey K, Harrison DE (2002) A reduced peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocyte proportion is a consistent ageing phenotype. Mechanisms Ageing and Development 13: 1445-153.

Cheson BD (2001) Some like it hot. Journal of Clinical Oncology 19: 3908-3911.

Cheung KL, Rosamund C, Graves L, Robertson JFR (2002) Autoantibodies as circulating cancer markers. In: Diamandis EP, Fritsche H, Schwartz MK, Chan DW (eds), Tumor Markers: Physiology, pathobiology, technology and clinical applications. Chicago: AACC Press, pp. 123-132.

Coghlan A (1991) The second chance for antibodies. New Scientist 19: 34-39.

Cohen M (1987) A historical overview of the phenomenological movement. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship 19: 31-34.

Colaizzi PF (1978) Psychological research as the phenomenologist views it. In: Valle R, King M (eds), Existential Phenomenological Alternatives for Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 48-71.

Collins FS, Patrinos A, Jordan E, Chakravarti A, Gesteland R, Walters L (1998) New goals for the US Human Genome Project: 1998-2003. Science 282: 682-689.

Colvin DM (2000) Alkylating agents and platinum antitumor compounds. In: Bast Jr RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE et al. Cancer Medicine, 5th edn. Hamilton, Ont: BC Decker.

Cook T, Reeves J, Lanigan A, Stanton P (2001) Her-2 as prognostic and predictive marker for breast cancer. Annals of Oncology 12(suppl 1): S23-S28.

Cope D (1995) Functions of a breast cancer support group as perceived by the participants: An ethnographic study. Cancer Nursing 18: 472-478.

Corner J (2001) What is cancer? In: Corner J, Bailey C (eds), Cancer Nursing: Care in context. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Corner J (2002) Nurses' experiences of cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care 11: 193-199.

Cornwell J (1997) Cancer: the war against it. Sunday Times 1 June, pp14-19.

Costello RT, Fauriat C, Gastaut J-A, Olive D (2003) New approaches in the immunotherapy of haematological malignancies. European Journal of Haematology 70: 333-345.

Cox K (1998) Investigating psychosocial aspects of participation in early anti-cancer drug trials: towards a choice of methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing 27: 488-496.

Cox K (1999) Researching research: patients' experiences of participation in phase 1 and II anti-cancer drug trials. European Journal of Oncology Nursing 3: 143-152.

Crawford J (2002) Pegfilgrastim administered once per cycle reduces incidence of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (Review). Drug 62(suppl 1): 89-98.

Cutliffe J (2000). Methodological issues in grounded theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing 31: 1470-1484.

Davidson EJ, Kitchener HC, Stern PL (2002) The use of vaccines in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. Clinical Oncology 14: 193-200.

Davies CG, Gallo ML, Corvalan RF (1999). Transgenic mice as a source of fully human antibodies for the treatment of cancer. Cancer and Metastasis Review 18: 421-425.

Dearden C (2002) Monoclonal antibody therapy of haematological malignancies (Therapy review). Biodrugs 16: 283-301.

Department of Health (DoH) (1995) A Framework for Commissioning Cancer Services. London: DoH.

DoH (1999) The Royal Liverpool Children's Inquiry Report. London: The Stationery Office.

DoH (2000a) The NHS Cancer Plan. London: DoH.

DoH (2000b) Manual of Cancer Standards. London: DoH.

DoH (2000c) Towards a Strategy for Nursing Research and Development: Proposals for action. London: DoH.

DoH (2000d) The Nursing Contribution to Cancer Care. London: DoH.

DoH (2000e) Report of a Census of Organs and Tissues Retained by Pathology Services in England. London: The Stationery Office.

DoH (2000f) CEM/CM0/2000/15.

DoH (2001a) The NHS Cancer Plan: Making progress. London: DoH.

DoH (2001b) Governance Arrangements for Research Ethics Committees. London: The Stationery Office.

DoH (2002) National Patient Survey. London: DoH.

DoH (2003a) The Use of Human Organs and Tissue - An Interim Statement London: DoH.

DoH (2003b) The Isaacs Report. London: The Stationery Office.

DoH (2003c) The Medicines for Human Use (Clinical Trials) Regulations. London: DoH.

Dillman RO (1989) Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine 111: 592-603.

Dillman RO (2002) Radiolabeled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 20: 3545-3557.

Draper G, Little M, Sorahan T et al. (1997) Cancer in the offspring of radiation workers: a record linkage study. British Medical Journal 315: 1181-1188.

Effros RB (2003) Genetic alterations in the ageing immune system: impact on infection and cancer. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 124: 71-77.

Ehrke MJ (2003) Immunomodulation in cancer therapeutics. International Immunopharmacology 451: 1-15.

Entwistle V, Tritter J, Calnan M (2002) Researching experiences of cancer: the importance of methodology. European Journal of Cancer Care 11: 232-237.

ESMO (2001) Minimum clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of ovarian cancer. Annals of Oncology 12(9): 1205-1207.

EU Directive 2001/20/EC The Medicines for Human Use (Clinical Trials) Regulations 2003.

European Group for Tumor Markers (EGTM) (1999) Consensus recommendations. Anticancer Res. 19: 2785-820. http://egtm. index2.html; accessed Oct 2002).

Evans D, Evans M (1996) A Decent Proposal: Ethical review of clinical research. Chichester: Wiley.

Fallowfield L (1990) Quality of Life: The missing measurement in health care. London: Souvenir Press.

Fertig DL, Hayes DF (2001) Considerations in using tumour markers: what the psycho-oncologist needs to know. Psycho-Oncology 10: 370-379.

Fielding J, Phenow K (1988) Health effects of involuntary smoking. New England Journal of Medicine 319: 1452-1460.

Fleisher M, Dnistrian AM, Sturgeon CM, Lamerz R, WittliffJL (2002) Practice guidelines and recommendations for use of tumor markers in the clinic. In: Diamandis EP, Fritsche H, Schwartz MK, Chan DW (eds), Tumor Markers: Physiology, pathobiology, technology and clinical applications. Chicago: AACC Press, pp. 33-63.

Folkman J, Browder T, Palmblad J (2001) Angiogenesis research: guidelines for translation to clinical application. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 8: 23-33.

Foran JM (2002) Antibody-based therapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Haematology 15: 449-465.

Fracasso G, Bellisola G, Cingarlini S et al. (2002) Anti-tumour effects of toxins targeted to the prostate specific membrane antigen. The Prostate 53: 9-23.

Franceschi C, Bonafe M, Valensin S (2000) Human immunosenescence: the prevailing of innate immunity, the failing of colotypic immunity, and the filling of immunological space. Vaccine 18: 1717-1720.

Frauwirth KA, Thompson CB (2002) Activation and inhibition of lymphocytes by co-stimulation. Journal of Clinical Investigation 109: 295-299.

Freebairn AJE, Last ATJ, Illidge TM (2001) Trastuzumab: designer drug or fashionable fad? Clinical Oncology 13: 427-433.

Gabriel J (2001) Cancer: health promotion, early detection and staging. In: Gabriel J (ed.), Oncology Nursing in Practice. London: Whurr Publishers.

Gillis C (1978) The epidemiology of human cancers. In: Pritchard P (ed.), Oncology for Nurses and Health Care Professionals. Vol 1, Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. London: Harper & Row.

Ginaldi L, Loreta MF, Corsi MP, Modesti M, De Martinis M (2001) Immunosenescence and infectious diseases. Microbes and Infection 3: 851-857.

Glaser B, Strauss A (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York: Aldine.

Glover D (1999) Fully human monoclonal antibodies come to fruition. Scrip Magazine May: 16-19.

Goldberg D, Williams P (1988) A User's Guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.

Goodin RE (1995) Utility and the good. In: Singer P (ed.), A Companion to Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Graham J, Ramirez A, Love S, Richards M, Burgess C (2002) Stressful life experiences and risk of relapse of breast cancer: Observational cohort study. British Medical Journal 324: 1420.

Green MC, Murray JL, Hortobagi GN (2000) Monoclonal antibody therapy of solid tumours. Cancer Treatment Reviews 26: 269-286.

Greenhalgh T (2001) How to Read a Paper: The basics of evidence based medicine. London: BMJ Books.

Gulbahce HE, Brown CA, Wick M, Segall M, Jessurun J (2003) Graft-vs-host disease after organ transplant. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 119: 568-573.

Gura T (2002) Magic bullets hit the target. Nature 417: 584-586.

Gusella JF, MacDonald ME (1993) Hunting for Huntington's disease. Molecular Genetics Medicine 3: 139-58.

Hainsworth JD (2000) Monoclonal antibody therapy in lymphoid malignancies. The Oncologist 5: 376-384.

Hait WN (2001) The prognostic and predictive values of ECD-HER-2. Clinical Cancer Research 7: 2601-2604.

Halloran CM, Ghaneh P, Neoptolemos JP, Costello E (2000) Gene therapy for pancreatic cancer - current and prospective strategies. Surgical Oncology 9: 181-191.

Hammersley M, Atkinson P (1983) Ethnography: Principles and practice. London: Tavistock.

Hammond ME, Taube SE (2002) Issues and barriers to development of clinically useful tumor markers: a development pathway proposal. Seminars in Oncology 29: 213-221.

Hammond ME, Fitzgibbons PL, Compton CC et al. (2000) College of American Pathologists Conference XXXV: solid tumor prognostic factors - which, how and so what? Summary document and recommendations for implementation. Cancer Committee and Conference Participants. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 124: 958-965 (Review).

Hanahan D, Folkman J (1996) Patterns and emerging mechanisms of the angiogenic switch during tumorigenesis. Cell 86: 353-364.

Hanahan D, Weinberg RA (2000) The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100: 57-70.

Harries M, Smith I (2002) The development and clinical use of trastuzumab (Herceptin). Endocrine-Related Cancer 9: 75-85.

Harrocopus C, Myers C (eds) (1996) Stoma Care Nursing. London: Edward Arnold.

Hausen L (1991) Viruses in human cancers. Science 254: 1167-1173.

Hayes DF, Trock B, Harris AL (1998) Assessing the clinical impact of prognostic factors: When is statistically significant' clinical useful? Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 52: 305-319.

Henson DE, Fielding LP, Grignon DJ et al. (1995) College of American Pathologists Conference XXVI on clinical relevance of prognostic markers in solid tumors. Summary. Archives of Pathology Laboratory Medicine.

Hermansson M, Nist RM, Betsholtz C, Heldin CH, Westermark B, Funa K (1988) Endothelial cell hyperplasia in human glioblastoma: coexpression of mRNA for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B chain and PDGF receptor suggests autocrine growth stimulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 85: 7748-7752.

Holt LJ, Enever C, de Wildt RMT, Tomlinson IM (2000) The use of recombinant antibodies in proteomics. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 11: 445-449.

Hood LE (2003) Chemotherapy in the elderly: supportive measures for chemotherapy-induced myelotoxicity. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing 7: 185-190.

Horton-Taylor D (2001) Cancer and epidemiology. In: Corner J, Bailey C (eds), Cancer Nursing: Care in context. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Hudson PJ, Souriau C (1993) Engineered antibodies. Nature Medicine 9: 129-134.

Jenkins V, Fallowfield L (2000) Reasons for accepting or declining to participate in randomised clinical trials for cancer therapy. BritishJournal of Cancer 82: 1783-1788.

Jorde LB, Carey JC, Bamshad MJ, White RL (2000) Cancer genetics. In: Schmitt W (ed.), Medical Genetics, 2nd edn. St Louis: Mosby, pp. 221-238.

Juweid ME (2002) Radioimmunotherapy of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: from clinical trials to clinical practice. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 43: 1507-1529.

Kallioniemi A, Kallioniemi OP, Sudar D et al. (1992) Comparative genomic hybridisation for molecular cytogenetic analysis of solid tumours. Science 258: 818-821.

Kennedy I, Grubb A (2000) Medical Law, 3rd edn. London: Butterworths.

Kerbel R, Folkman J (2002) Clinical translation of angiogenesis inhibitors. Nature Review of Cancer 2: 727-739.

Ketcham M, Loescher L (2000) Skin cancers. In: Greonwald S, Frogge M, Goodman M, Yarbro C (eds), Cancer Nursing: Principles and practice. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B (1996) Lessons from hereditary colorectal cancer. Cell 87: 159-170.

Kirkbride KC, Blobe GC (2003) Inhibition of the TGFß signalling pathway as means of cancer immunotherapy. Expert Opinion Biological Therapy 3: 251-261.

Klapdor R, Aronsson AC, Duffy MJ et al. (1999) Tumor markers in gastrointestinal cancers: EGTM recommendations. Anticancer Research 19: 2811-2815.

Knudson AG Jr (1971) Mutation and cancer: statistical study of retinoblastoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 68: 820-823.

Koch T (1995) Interpretive approaches in nursing research: the influence of Husserl and Heidegger. Journal of Advanced Nursing 24: 827-836.

Koch T (1996) Implementation of a hermeneutic inquiry in nursing: philosophy, rigour and representation. Journal of Advanced Nursing 24: 174-184.

Köhler G, Milstein C (1975) Continuous culture of fused cells secreting specific antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256: 495-497.

Kricka LJ (2000) Interferences in immunoassay - still a threat [Editorial]. Clinical Chemistry 46: 1037-1038.

Kubota Y, Ohji H, Itoh K, Sasagawa I, Nakada T (2001). Changes in cellular immunity during chemotherapy for testicular cancer. International Journal of Urology 8: 604-608.

Kuroki M, Ueno A, Mastumoto H et al. (2002). Significance of tumour-associated antigens in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer: an overview. Anticancer Research 22: 4255-4264.

Kyle RA (1975) Multiple myeloma: review of 869 cases. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 50: 29-40.

Lal A, Lash AE, Altschul SF et al. (1999) A public database for gene expression in human cancers. Cancer Research 59: 5403-5407.

Lamerz R, Albrecht W, Bialk P, et al. (1999) Tumour markers in germ cell cancers: EGTM recommendations. Anticancer Research 19: 2795-2798.

Leitner WW, Ying H, Restifo NP (2000) DNA and RNA-based vaccines: principles, progress and prospects (Review). Vaccines 18: 765-777.

LeMarbre P, Greonwald S (2000) Biology of cancer. In: Greonwald S, Frogge M, Goodman M, Yarbro C (eds), Cancer Nursing: Principles and practice. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Leonard JP, Link BK (2002) Immunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with hLL2 (Epratuzumab, an anti-CD-22 monoclonal antibody) and HUD10 (Apolizumab). Seminars in Oncology 29(suppl 2): 81-86.

Levings MK, Bacchetta R, Schultz U, Roncarolo MG (2002) The role of IL-10 and TGF-beta in the differentiation and effector function of T regulatory cells. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 129: 263-276.

Lewin B (1994) Genes V. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lewin B (2000) Genes VII. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ligibel JA, Winer EP (2002) Trastuzumab/chemotherapy combinations in metastatic breast cancer. Seminars in Oncology 29(suppl 11): 38-43.

Lind J, Hagan L (1997) Bladder and kidney cancer. In: Greonwald S, Frogge M, Goodman M, Yarbro C (eds), Cancer Nursing: Principles and practice. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

LoBiondo-Wood G, Haber J (1998) Nursing Research: Methods, critical appraisal, and utilization, 4th edn. London: Mosby.

Loeb LA (1994) Microsatellite instability: marker of a mutator phenotype in cancer. Cancer Research 54: 5059-5063.

Lollini PL, Forni G (2003) Cancer immunoprevention: tracking down persistent tumour antigens. Trends in Immunology 24(2): 62-66.

Lords JM, Butcher S, Killampali V, Lascelles D, Salmon M (2001) Neutrophil ageing and immunesence. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 122: 1521-1535.

Lundqvist A, Pisa P (2002) Gene-modified dendritic cells and immunotherapy against cancer. Medical Oncology 19: 197-211

Lutz J, Heemann U (2003) Tumours after kidney transplantation. Current Opinion in Urology 13: 105-109.

Lynch H, Alban W (1984) Genetic biomarkers and the Heieck control of breast cancer. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 13: 43-92.

McHugh RS, Shevach EM (2002) The role of suppressor T cells in regulation of immune responses. Allergy and Clinical Immunology 110: 693-702.

Macleod K (2000) Tumor suppressor genes. Current Opinion in Genetic Development 10: 81-93.

Madsen S et al. (2002) Attitudes towards clinical trials. Journal of Internal Medicine 251: 156-168.

Magdelenat H (1992) Tumour markers in oncology: past, present and future. Journal of Immunological Methods 150: 133-143.

Malaguaranera L, Ferlito L, Di Mauro S, Imbesi RM, Scalia G, Malaguarnero M (2001) Immunosenescence and cancer: a review. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 32(2): 77-93.

Marks C, Marks JD (1996). Phage libraries: A new route to clinically useful antibodies. New England Journal of Medicine 335: 730-733.

Marks V (2002) False-positive immunoassay results: A multicenter survey of erroneous immunoassay results from assays of 74 analytes in 10 donors from 66 laboratories in seven countries. Clinical Chemistry.

Mays N, Pope C (1995) Qualitative research: rigour and qualitative research. British Medical Journal 311: 109-112

Mendelsohn J (2001) The epidermal growth factor receptor as a target for cancer therapy. Endocrine-related Cancer 8: 3-9.

Miles LE, Hales CN (1968a) Immunoradiometric assay of human growth hormone. Lancet ii: 492-493.

Miles LEH, Hales CN (1968b) Labelled antibodies and immunological assay systems. Nature 219: 186-189.

Miller RA (1996) The ageing immune system: primer and prospectus. Science 273: 70-74.

Modjtahedi H, Dean C (1994) The receptor for EGF and its ligands: expression, prognostic value and target for therapy in cancer (Review). International Journal of Oncology 4: 277-296.

Modjtahedi H, Hickish T, Nicolson M et al. (1996). A phase I trial and tumour localisation of the anti-EGFR antibody ICR62 in head and neck or lung cancer. British Journal of Cancer 73: 228-235.

Moingeon P (2001) Cancer vaccines (review). Vaccine 19: 1305-1326.

Molina R, Duffy MJ, Aronsson AC et al. (1999) Tumor markers in breast cancer: EGTM recommendations. Anticancer Research 19: 2803-2805.

Morimoto Y, Tanaka Y, Itoh T, Yamamoto S, Mizuno H, Fushimi H (2002) Spontaneous necrosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report. Digestive Surgery 19: 413-418.

Munhall P (1982) Nursing philosophy and nursing research: in apposition or opposition. Nursing Research 31: 176-177.

Naito Y, Saito K, Shiiba K et al. (1998) CD8+ T cells infiltrated within cancer cell nests as a prognostic factor in human colorectal cancer. Cancer Research 58: 3491-3494.

Nakano O, Sato M, Naito Y et al. (2001) Proliferation activity of intratumoural CD8+ T-lymphocytes as a prognostic factor in human renal cell carcinoma: clin-icopathogenic demonstration of antitumour immunity. Cancer Research 61: 5132-5136.

Nakayama Y, Nagashima N, Minagawa N et al. (2002). Relationship between tumor associated macrophages and clinicopathological factors in patients with col-orectal cancer. Anticancer Research 22: 4291-4296.

Natali PG, Nicotra MR, Bigotti A et al. (1989) Selective changes in expression of HLA class I polymorphic determinants in human tumours. Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the USA 86: 6719-6723.

National Cancer Research Network (2001) Newsletter, November.

National Translational Cancer Research Network (2002) Mission Statement (; accessed 17 Feb 2003)

Needle MN (2002) Safety experience with IMC-225, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. Seminars in Oncology 29(suppl 14): 55-60.

Nicholson RI, Gee JMW, Harper ME (2001) EGFR and cancer prognosis. European Journal of Cancer 37: S9-S15.

Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2000) Research and Audit. London: NMC.

NMC (2002) Code of Professional Conduct. London: NMC.

Nustad K, Bast RC Jr, Brien TJ et al. (1996) Specificity and affinity of 26 monoclonal antibodies against the CA 125 antigen: first report from the ISOBM TD-1 workshop. International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. Tumour Biology 17: 196-219.

O'Mahony M (2001) Women's lived experience of breast biopsy: a phenomenolog-ical study. Journal of Clinical Nursing 10: 512-520.

O'Mary S (2000) Diagnostic evaluation, classification and staging. In: Greonwald S, Frogge M, Goodman M, Yarbro C (eds), Cancer Nursing: Principles and practice. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

O'Neill O (1995) Kantian ethics. In: Singer P (ed.), A Companion to Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ohno S, Inagawa H, Soma GI, Nagasue N (2002) Role of tumour-associated macrophages in malignant tumours: should the location of the infiltrated macrophages be taken into account during evaluation? Anticancer Research 22: 4269-4276.

Pagliargo LC, Liu B, Munker R et al. (1998) Humanized M195 monoclonal antibody conjugate to recombinant Gelonin: an anti-CD33 immunotoxin with antileukemic activity. Clinical Cancer Research 4: 1971-1976.

Paley J (1997) Husserl, phenomenology and nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 26: 187-193.

Palmer A (2001) Understanding radiotherapy and its applications. In: Gabriel J (ed.), Oncology Nursing in Practice. London: Whurr.

Pangalis GA, Dimopoulou MN, Angelopoulou MK et al. (2001) Campath-1H (Anti-CD520 monoclonal antibody therapy in lymphoproliferative disorders. Medical Oncology 18: 99-107.

Papac RJ (1998) Spontaneous regression of cancer: possible mechanisms. In Vivo 12: 571-578.

Parahoo K (1997) Nursing Research: Principles, process and issues. London: Macmillan.

Pardoll DM (1998) Cancer vaccines. Nature Medicine 4 (Suppl 5): 525-531.

Paschin A, Mendez RM, Jimenez P et al. (2003) Complete loss of HLA Class I antigen expression on melanoma cells: a result of successive mutational events. International Journal of Cancer 103: 759-769.

Pinedo H, Salmon D (2000) Translational Research. The role of VEGF in tumour angiogenesis. The Oncologist (supp1): 1-2.

Ponder BA (2001) Cancer genetics. Nature 411: 336-341.

Popay J, Williams G (1998) Qualitative research and evidence-based healthcare Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 91(35): 32-37.

Price B (1990) Body Image: Nursing concepts and care. London: Prentice Hall.

Rai KR, Freter CE, Mercier RJ et al. (2002) Alemtuzumab in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients who also received fludarabine. Journal of Clinical Oncology 20: 3891-3897.

Ramirez A, Craig T, Watson J, Fentiman I, North W, Rubens R (1989) Stress and relapse of breast cancer. British Medical Journal 298: 291-293.

Ray-Coquard I, Borg C, Bachelot T et al. for the ELYPSE study group (2003) Baseline and early lymphopenia predict for the risk of febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy. British Journal of Cancer 88: 181-186.

Reeves G, Todd I (2000) Lecture notes on Immunology. London: Blackwell Science.

Reik W, Walter J (2001) Genomic imprinting: parental influence on the genome. Nature Review of Genetics 2: 21-32.

Rhee I, Jair KW, Yen RW et al. (2000) CpG methylation is maintained in human cancer cells lacking DNMT1. Nature 404: 1003-1007.

Richards TI, Richards L (1990) Manual for Mainframe NUD.IST Software Version 2.1. Melbourne: Replee.

Richardson A, Miller M, Potter H (2002) Developing, Delivering and Evaluating Cancer Nursing Services: Building the evidence base. London: King's College.

Romero P, Pittet M, Dutoit V et al. (2002) Therapeutic cancer vaccines based on molecularly defined human tumour antigens. Vaccine 20: A2-A7.

Ropponen KM, Eskelinen MJ, Lipponen PK, Alhava E, Kosma VM (1997) Prognostic value of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in colorectal cancer. Journal of Pathology 182: 318-324.

Royal College of Radiologists' Clinical Oncology Information Network and British Association of Urological Surgeons (1999) Guidelines on the management of prostate cancer. A document for local expert groups in the United Kingdom preparing prostate management policy documents. BJU International 84: 987-1014.

Rubin I, Yarden Y (2001) The basic biology of HER-2. Annals on Oncology 12(suppl 1): S3-S8.

Sabel MS, Sondak VK (2002). Melanoma vaccines: breakthrough or bust? Cancer Investigation 20: 1114-1116.

Salgaller ML, Tjoa BA, Lodge PA et al. (1998) Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Critical Review. Immunology 18: 109-119.

Salkind N (2000) Statistics for People Who Hate Statistics. London: Sage.

Scadden DT (2003) AIDS-related malignancies. Annual Review of Medicine 54: 285-303.

Schilsky RL, Taube SE (2002) Tumor markers as clinical cancer tests - are we there yet? Seminars in Oncology 29: 211-212.

Scott SD (1998) Rituximab: A new therapeutic monoclonal antibody for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Practice 6: 195-197.

Sell S (1991) Cancer markers. In: Mossa AR, Scimpff SC, Roboson (eds), Comprehensive Textbook of Oncology. Baltimore, MA: Williams & Wilkins, pp. 225-238.

Semjonow A, Albrecht W, Bialk P et al. (1999) Tumour markers in prostate cancer: EGTM recommendations. Anticancer Research 19: 2799-2801.

Sheppard C (2001) Breast cancer. In: Gabriel J (ed.), Oncology Nursing in Practice. London: Whurr.

Shimada H, Ochiai T, Nomura F (2003) Titration of serum p53 antibodies in 1085 patients with various types of malignant tumours. Cancer 97: 682-689.

Sliwkowski MX, Lofgren JA, Lewis GD, Hotaling TE, Fendly BM, Fox J (1999) Nonclinical studies addressing the mechanism of action of trastuzumab (Herceptin). Seminars in Oncology 26(suppl 12): 60-70.

Solana R, Mariani E (2000) NK and NK/T cells in human senescence. Vaccine 18: 1613-1620.

Southern EM (1975) Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. Journal of Molecular Biology 98: 503-517.

Sporn MB (1996) The war on cancer. Lancet 347: 1377-81.

Sprangers M, Cull A, Bjordal K, Groenvold M, Aaronson N (1993) The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer approach to quality of life assessment: guidelines for developing questionnaire modules. Quality of Life Research 2: 287-295.

Sprent J (2003) Turnover of memory-phenotype CD8+ T cells. Microbes and Infection 5: 227-231.

Sprent J, Surh CD (2003) Cytokines and T-cell homeostasis. Immunology Letters 85: 145-149.

Stacy S, Krolick KA, Infante AJ, Kraig E (2002) Immunological memory and late onset autoimmunity. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 123: 975-985.

Stenman UH, Paus E, Allard WJ et al. (1999) Summary report of the TD-3 workshop: characterization of 83 antibodies against prostate-specific antigen. Tumour Biology 2(suppl 1): 1-12

Stieber P, Aronsson AC, Bialk P et al. (1999) Tumor markers in lung cancer: EGTM recommendations. Anticancer Research 19: 2817-2819.

Strachan T, Read AP (1999) DNA structure and gene expression. In: Human Molecular Genetics 2. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers.

Strausberg RL (2001) The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project: new resources for reading the molecular signatures of cancer. Journal of Pathology 195: 31-40 (review).

Strausberg RL, Dahl CA, Klausner RD (1997) New opportunities for uncovering the molecular basis of cancer. Nature Genetics 15: 415-416.

Strausberg RL, Buetow KH, Emmert-Buck MR, Klausner RD (2000)The cancer genome anatomy project: building an annotated gene index. Trends in Genetics 16: 103-106.

Strausberg RL, Camargo AA, Riggins GJ et al. (2002) An international database and integrated analysis tools for the study of cancer gene expression. Pharmacogenomics Journal 2: 156-164.

Strausberg RL, Simpson AJ, Wooster R (2003) Sequence-based cancer genomics: progress, lessons and opportunities. National Review of Genetics 4(6): 409-418.

Strauss and Corbin (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded theory, procedures and techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Sturgeon CM (2001) Tumor markers in the laboratory: closing the guideline-practice gap. Clinical Biochemistry 34: 353-359.

Sturgeon C (2002) Practice guidelines for tumor maker use in the clinic. Clinical Chemistry 48: 1151-1159.

Sturgeon CM, Seth J (1996) Why do immunoassays for tumour markers give differing results? - A view from the UK National External Quality Assessment Schemes. European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry 34: 755-759.

Sturgeon C, Aronsson AC, Duffy MJ, Hansson LO, Klapdor R, Van Dalen A (1999a) European Group of Tumour Markers: Consensus recommendations. Anticancer Research 19: 2785-2820.

Sturgeon C, Dati F, Duffy MJ et al. (1999b) Quality requirements and control: EGTM recommendations. Anticancer Research 19: 2791-2794.

Suresh MR (2001) Cancer marker. In: Wild D (ed) The Immunoassay Handbook, 2nd edn. Nature Publishing Group, pp. 635-663.

Sweep CG, Geurts-Moespot J (2000) EORT external quality assurance program for ER and PgR measurements: trial 1998/1999. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Internal Journal of Biological Markers 15(1): 62-69.

Tagawa M (2000) Cytokine therapy for cancer. Cancer Pharmaceutical Design 6: 681-699.

Thibodeau J, MacRae J (1997) Breast cancer survival: A phenomenological inquiry. Advanced Nursing Science 19(4): 65-74.

Thomas CMG, Sweep CGJ (2001) Serum tumour markers: past, state of art and future. International Journal of Biological Markers 16(2): 73-85.

Thomas J, Retsas A (1999) Transacting self preservation: a grounded theory of the spiritual dimensions of people with terminal cancer. International Journal of Nursing Studies 36: 191-201.

Tjoa BA, Erickson SJ, Bowes VA et al. (1997) Follow-up evaluation of prostate cancer patients infused with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with PSMA pep-tides. The Prostate 32: 272-278.

Tortora GJ, Grabowski SR (2003) Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th edn. New York: Harper Collins/Addison Wesley, pp. 764-804.

Trask BJ (1991) Fluorescence in situ hybridization: applications in cytogenetics and gene mapping. Trends in Genetics 7: 149-154.

Tumor Marker Expert Panel (ASCO) (1996) Clinical practice guidelines for the use of tumor markers in breast and colorectal cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 14: 2843-2877.

UICC (International Union Against Cancer) (1997) TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (5th edition) New York: Wiley-Liss.

Valley AW (2002) New treatment options for managing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. AmericanJournal Health-System Pharmacy 59(15)(suppl 4): S11-S16.

Van der Zalm J, Bergum V (2000) Hermeneutic-phenomenology: providing living knowledge for nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing 31(1): 211-218.

Van Manen M (1990) Researching Lived Experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. New York: State University of New York Press.

Venitt S (1978) The aetiology of human cancers. In: Pritchard P (ed.), Oncology for Nurses and Health Care Professionals. Vol 1, Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. London: Harper & Row.

Vial T, Descotes J (2003) Immunosuppressive drugs and cancer. Toxicology 185: 229-240.

Voet D, Voet JG (1995) The expression and transmission of genetic information. In: Biochemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Waldman H (2002) A personal history of Campath-1H antibody. Medical Oncology 19: S3-S9.

Waldman TA (2003) Immunotherapy: past, present and future. Nature Medicine 9: 269-277.

Waldman TA (2003) Immunotherapy: past, present and future. Nature Medicine 9: 269-277.

Walker RA (2000) The significance of histological determination of HER-2 status in breast cancer. The Breast 9: 130-133.

Walter J (1977) Radiation hazards and protection: Cytotoxic chemotherapy. In: Walter J (ed.), Cancer and Radiotherapy: A short guide for nurses and medical students. London: Churchill Livingstone.

Ward RL, Hawkins NJ, Smith GM (1997) Unconjugated antibodies for cancer therapy: lessons from the clinic. Cancer Treatment Reviews 23: 305-319.

Watson JD, Crick FHC (1953) Molecular study of nucleic acids. Nature 171: 737-738.

Webb N, Bottomley M, Watson C, Brenchley P (1998) Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is released from platelets during blood clotting: implications for measurement of circulating VEGF levels in clinical disease. Clinical Science 94: 395-404.

Westgard JO, Barry PL (1986) Improving quality control by use of multirule control procedures. In: Cost-Effective Quality Control: Managing the quality and productivity of analytical processes. Washington, DC: AACC Press, pp. 92-117.

Westgard JO, Barry PL, Hunt MR, Groth T (1981) A multi-rule Shewhart chart for quality control in clinical chemistry. Clinical Chemistry 27: 493-501.

Whittaker J, Sheppard C (2001) Body image and sexuality. In: Gabriel J (ed.), Oncology Nursing in Practice. London: Whurr Publishers.

Willett W (1989) The search for the cause of breast and colon cancer. Nature 338: 389-394.

Williams JG, Ceccarelli A, Spurr N (1995) Gene organisation and expression. In: Williams J, Ceccarelli A, Wallace A (eds) Genetic Engineering. Oxford: BIOS Scientific.

Wimpenny P, Gass J (2000) Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing 31: 1485-1492.

Winter G, Milstein C (1991) Man-made antibodies. Nature 349: 293-299.

Wolfe N (1986) Neoplasia: Disorders of cell proliferation and differentiation. In: Cell, Tissue and Disease: The basis of pathology. London: Bailliere Tindall.

Wood P (2001) Understanding Immunology. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Workman P, Kaye S (2002) Translating basic cancer research into new cancer therapies. Trends in Molecular Medicine 8: S1-S9.

Xiao W, Oefner PJ (2001) Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography: A review. Human Mutations 17: 439-474.

Yalow RS, Berson SA (1960) Immunoassay of endogenous plasma insulin in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 39: 1157-1175.

Yang XD, Jia XC, Corvalan JRF, Wang P, Deavis G (2001) Development of ABX-EGF, a fully human anti-EGF receptor monoclonal antibody, for cancer therapy. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 38: 17-23.

Yao D, Trabulsi EJ, Kostakoglu L et al. (2002) Seminars in Urologic Oncology 20: 211-218.

Yarbro J (2000a) Milestones in our understanding of cancer. In: Greonwald,S, Frogge M, Goodman M, Yarbro C (eds), Cancer Nursing: Principles and practice. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Yarbro J (2000b) Carcinogensis. In: Greonwald S, Frogge M, Goodman M, Yarbro C (eds), Cancer Nursing: Principles and practice. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Young CD, Feld R (2000) Approaches to the management of infections in cancer patients with neutropenia. In: Cavalli F, Hansen HH, Kaye SB (eds), Textbook of Medical Oncology. London: Martin Dunitz, pp. 565-581.

Young W (2001) Breaking bad news. In: Gabriel J (ed.), Oncology Nursing in Practice. London: Whurr Publishers.

Zigmond A, Snaith R (1983) The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 67: 361-370.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
5 Easy Ways To Stop Smoking

5 Easy Ways To Stop Smoking

Your first day without cigarettes can be difficult, but having a plan will make it easier! Learn what steps to take on the day you quit smoking.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment