Conclusion

It is clear from these experiments in animal models that early programming of glucose metabolism, insulin action and longevity does occur in the rat. The changes which occur are quite complex and widespread. They may include structural changes in differentiated tissues but probably occur at the stage of differentiation. The changes in metabolism are the consequence of changes in expression of hormone receptors, components ofhormone signalling pathways and the expression of key regulatory enzymes. It seems probable that these in turn reflect changes in gene expression which are established early in life and then continue into adult life. The consequences ofthe progress in understanding in this area is that much more attention to and insight into the optimisation of early growth is required in order to improve long term human health. Areas ofparticular importance are the growth and health of females, good nutrition pre and post conception and the harmonisation ofpost natal nutrition and growth with the growth potential established during fetal life. Our studies in rats would suggest that it is unwise to force post natal catch up growth in situations where fetal growth has been retarded leading to a reduced post natal growth potential.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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