Annotated Bibliography

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General Studies of Disease in History

Cartwright, Frederick F. Disease and History. New York: Dorset Press, 1972. This medical historian presents a broad overview with attention to social, cultural, and economic results of major events and is highly critical of the role of the Church in its hindering advancement of medical knowledge in the medieval world.

Giblin, James Cross. When Plague Strikes: The Black Death, Smallpox, AIDS. New York: Harper, 1996. Written for young readers, it presents the Black Death in a wide context of human diseases past and present. Suffers from oversimplification that sometimes distorts factual accuracy.

Karlen, Arno. Man and Microbes: Disease and Plagues in History and Modern Times. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. Provides broad context for study of human disease of many kinds.

Kiple, Kenneth, et al., eds. Plague, Pox and Pestilence: Disease in History. New York: Marboro Books, 1997. Series of well-illustrated essays on epidemics of different diseases from ancient to modern times. Contains brief but useful overview of the Black Death by Ann Carmichael.

McNeill, William H. Plagues and Peoples. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1975. Classic study of man and disease from a world historical perspective. McNeill employs much conjecture for early periods, but he is on good ground for the Second Pandemic.

Wills, Christopher. Plagues: Their Origin, History, and Future. London: HarperCollins, 1996. Examines many types of disease; contains a chapter on recent biological and ecological research and its implications.

Zinsser, Hans. Rats, Lice and History. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1934-Though dated and often irreverent, this overview of disease and science in history is worth reading for a look at its generation's view of the Black Death, its causes, and its consequences.

General Treatments of the Medieval Plague in England and


Aberth, John. From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Crisis and Recovery in Late Medieval England. New York: Routledge, 2000. Aberth presents an overview of war, famine, and the Plague in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the effects they had on English society.

Benedictow, Ole J. Plague in the Late Medieval Nordic Countries: Epidemiological Studies. Oslo: Middelalderforlaget, 1992. Detailed study of evidence for the Plague and its effects in Scandinavian countries that concludes that despite the climate, rat-borne bubonic plague was the primary culprit.

Biow, Douglas. "The Politics of Cleanliness in Northern Renaissance Italy." Symposium 50 (1996): 75-86. Links Florentine humanists' interest in the city's cleanliness with conceptions of the role of filth in the Plague.

Britnell, R. H. "The Black Death in English Towns." Urban History 21 (1994): 195-210. English urban responses to the Plague were usually carried out by individuals and churchmen rather than civic governments.

Cantor, Norman. In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made. New York: Harper, 2000. Sometimes quirky series of case studies of how the Black Death affected people, relating them to larger social, political, and economic trends and issues of the period.

Carmichael, Ann G. Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Tightly focused study of Plague deaths in Florence, legislation and institutional changes prompted by them, and the ways these created effective social control of the Florentine poor.

Corzine, Phyllis. The Black Death. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1997. Aimed at a young adult audience; contains discussion of life at the time as it related to the Plague and its effects. With black and white illustrations.

Creighton, Charles. A History of Epidemics in Britain. 2nd ed. 2 vols. London: Cass, 1965. Updated edition of 1891 overview of epidemic history. See volume 1 on the Black Death. Certainly dated on medical aspects of the disease, but contains much of value on the effects.

Dols, Michael W. The Black Death in the Middle East. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977. Remains the only book in English specifically on the late medieval Plague in the Islamic world. Dols deals with the spread, impacts, and influences of the epidemic both broadly and with a significant level of detail.

Dunn, John M. Life During the Black Death. San Diego: Lucent Books, 2000. Aimed at a young adult audience; contains discussion of life at the time as it related to the Plague and its effects. Illustrated.

Getz, Faye Marie. "Black Death and the Silver Lining: Meaning, Continuity, and Revolutionary Change in Histories of Medieval Plague." Journal of the History of Biology 24 (1991): 265-89. Focuses on modern interpretations of the effects of Black Death and how these are influenced by modern culture.

Gottfried, Robert S. The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe. New York: The Free Press, 1983. Takes an "ecological approach" to the Black Death and its recurrences, considering the 300-year Plague era as an "environmental crisis" with wide-ranging effects for Europe's population.

Herlihy, David. The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997. Consists of three lectures given at the University of Maine in 1985, published posthumously with notes and an introduction. A broad, critical overview of the Plague is followed by brief studies of economic effects and changes in culture.

Kelly, Maria. A History of the Black Death in Ireland. Stroud, Gloucestershire, England: Tempus, 2001. Study of the impact of the Black Death on Gaelic-Irish and Anglo-Irish society, economy, government, and Church that is well informed by recent scholarship.

Naphy, William G., and Andrew Spicer. The Black Death and the History of Plagues, 1345-1730. Stroud, Gloucestershire, England: Tempus, 2001. Well-illustrated overview of medieval plagues and modern diseases— including HIV-AIDS, BSE, and smallpox—with emphasis on the commonality of human responses to epidemic disease and the importance of the precedents of the fourteenth century.

Nardo, Don, ed. The Black Death. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Collection of extended excerpts from eleven major modern scholars as well as short translations otherwise found in Horrox, The Black Death, which is listed in this bibliography.

Nohl, Johannes. The Black Death: A Chronicle of the Plague. Translated by C. H. Clarke. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1926; reprinted in abridged form New York: Ballantine Books, 1960. Descriptive overview of major aspects of the Plague and its effects and lesser aspects such as "erotic elements," dance mania, and children's pilgrimages. Heavily reliant on primary sources, but poorly documented.

Norris, John. "East or West? The Geographic Origin of the Black Death." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 51 (1977): 1-24. Moves the point of origin of the Black Death from generally accepted China or central Asia to southern Russia, claiming that Asia received the Plague through India and Burma, independently of the western outbreak. This spawned an interesting response from Michael Dols and a counter from Norris, both of which appeared in the same journal 52 (1978): 112-20.

Ormrod, W. M., and P. G. Lindley, eds. The Black Death in England. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Paul Watkins, 1996. Collection of articles on social, political, religious, and architectural history of the Plague in England, especially in the fourteenth century.

Platt, Colin. King Death: The Black Death and Its Aftermath in Late-medieval England. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996. Well-illustrated book that combines social and architectural history of late fourteenth and fifteenth century England as affected by the continuing waves of the Plague.

Schamiloglu, Uli. "Preliminary Remarks on the Role of Disease in the History of the Golden Horde." Central Asian Survey 12 (1993): 447-57. Reasons that despite specific documentary evidence, the Black Death played major role in transformations of the western Mongol peoples.

Shrewsbury, J. F. History of Bubonic Plague in the British Isles. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970. Important treatment of Black Death in England in context of other epidemics that challenges the high death rates claimed by contemporary writers on the basis of the epidemiology of bubonic plague.

Steffensen, Jon. "Plague in Iceland." Nordisk medicinhistorisk arsbok (1974): 4055. Reviews chronicle evidence of pneumonic plague in Iceland in the fifteenth century.

Williman, Daniel, ed. The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-century Plague. Papers of the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, Binghamton, NY: Medieval and

Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1982. Contains seven papers on art, literature, economics, Islamic religious law, and eschatology.

Ziegler, Philip. The Black Death. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. The standard history of the European Black Death in English, covering a wide range of related topics.

Rats, Fleas, and Bubonic Plague as a Disease

Davis, David E. "The Scarcity of Rats and the Black Death: An Ecological History." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 16 (1986): 455-70. Takes rats out of the picture of the Black Death, demonstrating that their role in spreading it was neither evident nor necessary.

Ell, Stephen R. "Immunity as a Factor in the Epidemiology of Medieval Plague." Review of Infectious Diseases 6 (1984): 866-79. Explores the role of natural and acquired immunity in animals and humans in the Plague's rise, demographic impacts, and eventual disappearance. Pays special attention to the role of iron in the medieval diet and the patterns of who in society had the highest mortality.

-. "The Interhuman Transmission of Medieval Plague." Bulletin of the

History of Medicine 54 (1980): 497-510. Argues against the roles of the rat flea and rat in spreading the Plague, finding the human flea to be the more likely vector.

Hendrickson, Robert. More Cunning than Man: A Complete History of the Rat and Its Role in Human Civilization. New York: Kensington Books, 1983. Broad and somewhat breezy treatment of the ways in which rats and people have intersected in history. Useful but traditional section on the Black Death; better on the nature and habits of rats.

Karlsson, Gunnar. "Plague without Rats: The Case of Fifteenth-century Iceland." Journal of Medieval History 22 (1996): 263-84. Argues against the rat's necessity in spreading plague, conjecturing that Iceland's epidemics were pneumonic, perhaps caused by a more virulent strain of the bacillus.

Lenski, R. E. "Evolution of Plague Virulence." Nature 334 (11 August 1988): 473-74. Brief article presents the theory that a mild strain of Y. pestis was present in enzootic phases of the Plague, but "point mutations" created supervirulent strains responsible for epidemics.

Marriott, Edward. Plague: A Story of Science, Rivalry, Scientific Breakthrough and the Scourge that Won't Go Away. New York: Holt, 2002. Written with the verve of a novel, Plague recounts in detail the rivalry in the 1890s between Kitasato and Yersin for the right to claim discovery of the cause of bubonic plague.

Rackham, D. James. "Rattus rattus: The Introduction of the Black Rat into Britain." Antiquity: A Quarterly Review of Archaeology 52 (1979): 112-20. Archeological evidence for presence of R. rattus in Roman and AngloSaxon Britain.

Raoult, Didier, et al. "Molecular Identification of 'Suicide PCR' of Yersinia pestis as the Agent of the Black Death." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 97:23 (Nov. 7, 2000): 12, 800-803. Report of experiments with tooth pulp from Plague victims that supports the contention that Y. pestis was the cause of the Black Death.

Revisionist Views of the Nature of the Black Death

Bleukx, Koenraad. "Was the Black Death (1348-49) a Real Plague Epidemic? England as a Case-study." In Serta devota in memoriam Guillelmi Lourdaux, II: Cultura mediaevalis (Mediaevalia Lovaniensia, Studia 21), edited by Werner Verbeke et al., 65-113. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1995. Questions the "classical theory" of rats-fleas-man (bubonic plague) for the 1340s and extent of population loss in England, based on reading of quoted original sources.

Cohn, Samuel K., Jr. "The Black Death: End of a Paradigm." American Historical Review 107 (2002): 703-38. Challenges dominant views of nature and effects of Black Death; briefer treatment of argument presented in the following book.

-. The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance

Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Intriguingly revisionist view of what disease the pestilence really was and of confidence in medical knowledge; based on very wide reading of original sources.

Scott, Susan, and Christopher Duncan. Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Zoologist and demographer carefully outline patterns of Black Death, especially in England, and conclude that it was an outbreak of a hemorrhagic virus like Ebola.

Twigg, Graham. The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal. New York: Schocken Books, 1985. Carefully constructed analysis of the Plague in England as described by contemporaries rejects bubonic plague in favor of anthrax as main cause of death.

-. "The Black Death in England: An Epidemiological Dilemma." In Maladies et societe (Xlle-XVIIIe siecles). Actes du Colloque de Bielefeld, novembre 1986, edited by Neithard Bulst and Robert Delort, 75-98. Paris: Editions du C.N.R.S., 1989. Argues against the Black Death of 1348 being bubonic plague, seeing the contrasting patterns of seasonality, incubation, and transmission of the medieval disease and modern bubonic plague as too great to ignore or explain away. Twigg sees anthrax as a reasonable alternative explanation.

Medieval Medicine and the Plague

Barkai, Ron. "Between East and West: A Jewish Doctor from Spain." Mediterranean Historical Review 10 (1995): 49-63. Short narrative of Jewish physician who was expelled in 1492 and landed in Istanbul.

Carmichael, Ann G. "Contagion Theory and Contagion Practice in Fifteenth-century Milan." Renaissance Quarterly 44 (1991): 213-56. Shows how medical theory that denied the possibility of contagion conflicted with common observation of contagion and the communal action based upon it.

Chase, Melissa P. "Fevers, Poisons and Apostemes: Authority and Experience in Montpellier Plague Treatises." In Science and Technology in Medieval Society, edited by Pamela Long, 153-69. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1985. Study of three generations of Montpellier-trained physician-authors reveals evolution away from reliance on traditional authorities and more reliance on one's own experience and observation.

Cipolla, Carlo M. "A Plague Doctor." In The Medieval City: Essays In Honor of Robert S. Lopez, edited by Harry A. Miskimin, David Herlihy, and A. L. Udovitch, 65-72. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. Brief article follows the career of Dr. Ventura, communal physician of Pavia, comparing matters such as duties and salary to those of other communal Plague physicians.

French, Roger. Canonical Medicine: Gentile da Foligno and Scholasticism. Boston: Brill, 2001. Extended discussion of Gentile's relation to and use of scholastic medicine, especially as found in his commentary on Avicenna's Canon. See his Chapter 6 on the Black Death.

Garcia-Ballester, Luis et al., eds. Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Contains articles on medical astrology, Jewish medical Plague tracts, the Milanese government's Plague policies, and university physicians' Plague tracts.

Henderson, John. "The Black Death in Florence: Medical and Communal Responses." In Death in Towns, edited by Steven Bassett, 136-50. New York: Leicester University Press, 1992. Presenting a counter-case to Carmichael's Milan, Henderson contends that Florentine medical theory accepted contagion as possible and that communal responses reflected both popular and professional views.

Jacquart, Danielle. "Theory, Everyday Practice, and Three Fifteenth-century Physicians." In La Science medicale occidentale entre deux renaissances (Xlle s.—XVe s.) (Variorum Collected Studies Series, 567), edited by Danielle Jacquart, Essay XIII: 140-60. Aldershot: Variorum, 1997. Concludes that little had changed in medical theory or practice for a century after the Black Death.

Lemay, R. "The Teaching of Astronomy at the Medieval University of Paris." Manuscripta 20 (1976): 197-217. Links the medieval study of medicine with that of astronomy and astrology.

Ober, W. B., and Alloush, N. "The Plague at Granada 1348-1349: Ibn Al-Khatib and Ideas of Contagion." In Bottoms Up!: A Pathologist's Essays on Medicine and the Humanities, edited by Ober, 288-93. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987. Ill-titled article outlines life and views on contagion of the Andalusian physician and bureaucrat.

Palmer, R. "The Church, Leprosy and Plague." In The Church and Healing (Studies in Church History 19 [1982]): 79-99. Studies the balance of religious and medical responses, especially in Italian cities.

Singer, Dorothy W. "The Plague Tractates." Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine (History of Medicine) 9:2 (1915-16): 159-212. Despite its age, provides very useful summaries of content of the major medical tracts by fourteenth-century physicians.

Plague Tolls—Demographic and Economic Effects

Blockmans, Wim P. "The Social and Economic Effects of Plague in the Low Countries: 1349-1500." Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire/Belgisch

Tijdschrift voor Filologie en Geschiedenis 58 (1980): 833-63. Argues against common perception that the Low Countries suffered lightly in Black Death, and explores patterns and impacts of the Plague in late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Cazelles, Raymond. "The Jacquerie." In The English Uprising of 1381, edited by R. H. Hilton and T. H. Aston, 74-83. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Concludes that this French uprising of 1358 was conducted not by peasants, but by a slightly higher class of rural folk who were reacting to social trends that were accelerated by the Black Death.

Dyer, Christopher. "The Social and Economic Background to the Rural Revolt of 1381." In The English Uprising of 1381, edited by R. H. Hilton and T. H. Aston, 9-42. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Explores the causes of and participants in the so-called Peasants' Revolt of 1381, noting the role of village elites and their grievances against lords who had become harsher masters since the Black Death.

Emery, Richard W. "The Black Death of 1348 in Perpignan." Speculum 42 (1967): 611-23. Focusing on notarial evidence, Emery concludes that the Plague toll was high and economic effects very negative but that there was little breakdown in the social order.

Gyug, Richard. "The Effects and Extent of the Black Death of 1348: New Evidence for Clerical Mortality in Barcelona." Mediaeval Studies 45 (1983): 385-98. Close study of Episcopal records for deaths among priests.

Harvey, Barbara. Living and Dying in England, 1100-1540. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. A close study of the monastic community of Westminster Abbey, including medical care and the effects of the Black Death on the abbey's population.

Hatcher, John. Plague, Population and the English Economy, 1348-1530. London: Macmillan, 1977. Brief but detailed study of the long-term population decline of England that blames the Plague recurrences for most of the continued depression.

Henneman, John B., Jr. "The Black Death and Royal Taxation in France, 13471351." Speculum 43 (1968): 405-28. Study of fiscal effects of the fall in population and revenue on the French Royal government.

Langer, Lawrence N. "The Black Death in Russia: Its Effects upon Urban Labor." Russian History/Histoire Russe 2 (1975): 53-67. Examines vitalization of Russian cities as rural peasants move in during 1350s.

-. "Plague and the Russian Countryside: Monastic Estates in the Late

Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries." Canadian American Slavic Studies 10 (1976): 351-68. Traces effects on rural labor force of the Plague's depopulation.

Livi Bacci, Massimo. The Population of Europe: A History. Translated by Cynthia and Carl Ipsen. New York: Blackwell, 1999. In his Chapter 4 demographer Livi Bacci discusses the roles of diseases of many kinds in early modern Europe, centering on the Plague and its effects.

Lomas, Richard. "The Black Death in County Durham." Journal of Medieval History 15 (1989): 127-40. Highlights problems of using cathedral records of tenants as demographic source for Plague toll.

Megson, Barbara E. "Mortality among London Citizens in the Black Death." Medieval Prosopography 19 (1998): 125-33. Brief outline of demographic effects of first epidemic.

Poos, Larry. A Rural Society after the Black Death: Essex, 1350-1525. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Focuses on marriage, migration, employment, social unrest, and religious nonconformity as affected by the pestilence and other historical factors.

Smail, Daniel Lord. "Accommodating Plague in Medieval Marseille." Continuity and Change 11 (1996): 11-41. Sketches a range of issues from notarial documents: immigration, marriage, debt, property transfer, legal services.

Smith, Richard M. "Demographic Developments in Rural England, 13001348." In Before the Black Death, edited by Bruce M. S. Campbell, 25-79. New York: Manchester University Press, 1992. A good place to start in untangling demographic effects of the Plague from demographic patterns already at work in pre-Plague England.

Cultural, Social, and Religious Effects

Bernardo, Aldo S. "The Plague as Key to Meaning in Boccaccio's Decameron." In The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-century Plague, edited by Daniel Williman, 39-64. Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1982. Studies the moralistic lessons Boccaccio provides his readers, most important of which is the precariousness of life as proven in the realistic treatment of the Plague in the framing elements of the collection.

Bowsky, William. "The Impact of the Black Death upon Sienese Government and Society." Speculum 39 (1964): 368-81. Carefully researched picture of how the social classes and structure of Siena, Italy, and the communal government that led the city were directly affected by the huge death toll and the rise of new leaders.

Cohn, Samuel K. The Cult of Remembrance and the Black Death. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. From his study of Italian wills Cohn concludes that the second epidemic of the Plague (1362) marked the real break with traditional views of piety and family. Links the Plague to personal and family concerns in art patronage of early Renaissance.

Courtenay, William J. "The Effects of the Black Death on English Higher Education." Speculum 55 (1980): 696-714. Only survey in English of the Plague's impact on universities.

Dohar, William J. The Black Death and Pastoral Leadership: The Diocese of Hereford in the Fourteenth Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Studies the resilience of the English Church and its leadership through initial and subsequent outbreaks of the Plague, and concludes that the negative impact of the Plague on the workings and integrity of the institution in Hereford was manageable.

Mate, Mavis E. Daughters, Wives and Widows after the Black Death: Women in Sussex, 1350-1535. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 1998. Goes against the current in painting a negative picture of women's positions—legal, social, and economic—in the post-1348 world.

Palmer, R. C. English Law in the Age of the Black Death, 1348-1381: A Transformation of Governance and Law. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993. Study of how the Black Death led to an increase in English state power through the Crown's alliance with the Church and upper nobility and the rising gentry class and use of royal statute to stabilize the lower social classes.

Powell, James M. "Crisis and Culture in Renaissance Europe." Medievalia et humanistica 12 (1984): 201-24. Links falling land prices to greater concentration of wealth in the hands of European upper classes and ties this to the emergence of lay cultural flourishing of the Renaissance in Florence and England.

Shirk, Melanie V. "The Black Death in Aragon, 1348-1351." Journal of Medieval History 7 (1981): 357-67. Brief study of the effects of the Plague on Aragonese royal and local administration and economy, based on published documents dating from 1348 to 1384.

-. "Violence and the Plague in Aragon, 1348-1351." Journal of the Rocky

Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association 5 (1984): 31-39. Emphasizes the social problems, especially criminality, unleashed by the destruction of the administrative and judicial structures in Aragon.

Tangherlini, Timothy R. "Ships, Fogs, and Traveling Pairs: Plague Legend Migration in Scandinavia." Journal of American Folklore 101 (1988): 176— 206. Studies the most common ways that Scandinavian folk explained the spread of the Plague in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Wenzel, Siegfried. "Pestilence and Middle English Literature: Friar John Grime-stone's Poems on Death." In The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-century Plague, edited by Daniel Williman, 131—59. Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1982. Study of the role of human moral failure in bringing about the Black Death as expressed by this late-fourteenth-century English poet.

Zguta, Russell. "The One-day Votive Church: A Religious Response to the Black Death in Early Russia." Slavic Review 3 (1981): 423—32. Discusses the Russian practice of communal construction of chapels in a single day during Plague times.

Jewish Massacres and the Flagellant Movement

Cohn, Norman. The Pursuit of the Millenium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Strongly links mid-fourteenth-century flagellants to previous and similar movements, and to anti-ecclesiastical radicalism and anti-Semitism.

Foa, Anna. The Jews of Europe after the Black Death. Translated by Andrea Grover. Berkeley: University of California, 2000. Traces roots of European anti-Semitism from early Christianity and its effects on Jewish life up to about 1900. Views events of 1348—50 in terms of both historical precedents and impacts on future development of Jewish communities.

Guerchberg, Seraphine. "The Controversy over the Alleged Sowers of the Black Death in the Contemporary Treatises on Plague." In Change in Medieval Society: Europe North of the Alps, 1050-1500, edited by Sylvia Thrupp, 208—24. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1965. Heavily abridged version of the French original outlines case made against and for Jews poisoning wells.

Kieckhefer, R. "Radical Tendencies in the Flagellant Movement of the Mid-

Fourteenth Century." Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 4 (1974): 157-76. Explores later stages of flagellant movement for harsh anticler-icalism, anti-Semitism, and other reasons why the authorities repressed them.

Lerner, Robert E. "The Black Death and Western Eschatological Mentalities." American Historical Review 86 (1981): 533-52; also in The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-century Plague, edited by Daniel Williman, 77-106. Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1982. Views European fears of the end times in a broad historical context, and sees their rise during the Black Death as a moralistic response rather than as fear of the imminent end of the world.

Rowan, Steven W. "The Grand peur of 1348-49: The Shock Wave of the Black Death in the German Southwest." Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association 5 (1984): 19-30. Rich article links the massacres of 1348-49 to the broader context of anti-Semitism in southwestern German areas, comparing the pattern of popular violence and its spread to the Grand peur (Great fear) in France in 1789.

Plague and the Arts

Boeckl, Christine. Images of Plague and Pestilence: Iconography and Iconology. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2000. Provides an overview of Plague imagery from the fourteenth through seventeenth centuries in two-dimensional formats, relating it to historical events and trends and to literary sources. Well illustrated.

Cole, Bruce. "Some Thoughts on Orcagna and the Black Death Style." Antichita viva 22 (1983): 27-37. Revises Meiss' interpretation of the impact of the Black Death on mid-fourteenth-century painting in Florence by focusing on the decoration and functions of the Strozzi Chapel in Santa Maria Novella in Florence.

Friedman, John B. " 'He hath a thousand slayn this pestilence:' Iconography of the Plague in the Late Middle Ages." In Social Unrest in the Late Middle Ages, edited by Francis X. Newman, 75-112. Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1986. Brief but broad treatment of the evolution of Plague imagery, especially regarding the contributions of religious and scientific thought.

Lindley, Phillip. "The Black Death and English Art: A Debate and Some Assumptions." In The Black Death in England, edited by W. M. Ormrod and

P. G. Lindley, 125-46. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Paul Watkins, 1996. Rare article on English art post-1350 raises questions of relationship of quality to style shifts in art and architecture.

Marshall, Louise J. "Manipulating the Sacred: Image and Plague in Renaissance Italy." Renaissance Quarterly 47 (1994): 485-532. Relates numerous artistic images of interceding saints to popular need for psychological and spiritual reassurance. For Marshall, these are a sign of confidence in effective spiritual protectors, not resignation to fear.

Meiss, Millard. Painting in Florence and Siena after the Black Death: The Arts, Religion, and Society in the Mid-fourteenth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979. Dated and controversial study of how the Black Death affected Tuscan painting, its subject and forms. Provides starting point for most later discussions of the subject.

Neustatter, Otto. "Mice in Plague Pictures." The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 4 (1941): 105-14. Examines presence of mice in pictures related to the Plague, but finds their presence a matter of forewarning but not causing the epidemic.

Norman, Diana. "Change and Continuity: Art and Religion after the Black Death." In her Siena, Florence and Padua, I: Art, Society and Religion ¡280-¡400. Interpretative Essays. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995; 17796. Essentially creating a synthesis of recent scholarship in the area, Norman balances the effects of the Plague on the quality of art production and the taste and spiritual concerns of the patrons.

Polzer, Joseph. "Aspects of the Fourteenth-Century Iconography of Death and the Plague." In The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-century Plague, edited by Daniel Williman, 107-30. Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1982. Illustrated cataloguing of main artistic themes associated with the Black Death, including Plague saints and images of death.

Schiferl, Ellen. "Iconography of Plague Saints in Fifteenth-century Italian Painting." Fifteenth Century Studies 6 (1983): 205-25. Overview of major saints and themes.

Steinhoff, Judith. "Artistic Working Relationships after the Black Death: Sie-nese Compagnia, c. 1350-1363." Renaissance Studies 14 (2000): 1-45. Attributes apparent "retro" quality of post-Plague Sienese painting to alterations in how artists' workshops were organized and operated after so many artists and patrons died.

Van Os, Henk. "The Black Death and Sienese Painting: A Problem of Interpretation." Art History 4 (1981): 237-49. Agrees with Meiss that Sienese painting style changed after 1348, but attributes this to specific changes in patronage rather than to changes in religious sentiment.

Why the Plagues Ended in Europe

Appleby, A. B. "The Disappearance of the Plague: A Continuing Puzzle." Economic History Review 33 (1980): 161-73. Good overview of main theories.

Konkola, Kari. "More Than a Coincidence? The Arrival of Arsenic and the Disappearance of Plague in Early Modern Europe." History of Medicine 47 (1992): 186-209. Argues that the availability of huge amounts of industrial arsenic in the late seventeenth century and its sudden, widespread use as a rat poison were responsible for the disappearance of the Plague in western and central Europe.

Slack, Paul. "The Disappearance of Plague: An Alternative View." Economic History Review 34 (1981): 469-76. Responding to Appleby, credits quarantining and restrictions on trade with limiting Plague spread.

Primary Sources

Bartsocas, Christos. "Two Fourteenth Century Greek Descriptions of the 'Black Death.' " Journal of the History of Medicine 21 (1966): 394-400. Discusses and publishes English translations of descriptions of the Black Death by Nicephoras Gregoras, chief librarian in Constantinople, and Byzantine emperor John VI Cantacuzenos.

Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. Mark Musa and Peter Bondanella. New York: Norton 1977. Boccaccio's Introduction is a powerful and indispensable source for how people felt and reacted in the earliest outbreak.

Duran-Reynals, M. L., and C.-E. A. Winslow, "Jacme d'Agramont: Regiment de preservado a epidemia o pestilencia e mortaldats." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 23 (1949): 57-89. Translation without notes of this Catalan Plague consilium from 1348.

Froissart, Jean. Chronicles. Trans. Geoffrey Brereton. New York: Penguin Books, 1968. Contains important sections on the Black Death and the flagellants in 1348-49.

Horrox, Rosemary, ed. The Black Death. New York: Manchester University Press, 1994. Excellent collection of 128 translated primary sources or excerpts, most English and most fourteenth century. Arranged topically or by type with a very useful introduction to each section.

Johannes de Ketham. The Fasciculus Medicinae. Translated by Luke DeMaitre. Birmingham: The Classics of Medicine Library, 1988. Beautifully produced English translation of the 1493 edition of the German medical textbook with original illustrations.

Marcus, Jacob R. The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book: 315-1791. New York: Atheneum, 1979. Contains three documents relating to Jewish persecution in 1348-49.

Pickett, Joseph P. "A Translation of the Canutus Plague Treatise." In Popular and Practical Science of Medieval England (Medieval Texts and Studies, 11), edited by Lister M. Matheson, 263-82. East Lansing, MI: Colleagues Press, 1994. Mid-fifteenth-century translation of a Scandinavian medical treatise that itself was based upon the "anonymous practitioner" of Montpellier.

Useful Reference Works

Bynum, W. F., and Roy Porter, eds. Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, 2 vols. New York: Routledge, 1994. Useful reference source with both broad articles on medical cultures ("Chinese Medicine") and narrower ones of use to the student of the Plague.

Kiple, Kenneth, ed. The Cambridge World History of Human Disease. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Excellent reference work containing detailed articles on various cultures' approaches to disease, as well as on specific diseases (e.g., "Bubonic Plague" and "Black Death").

Kohn, George C. Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. New York: Facts on File, 2001. Short entries on a wide range of topics, including specific phases of the Second Pandemic.

Strayer, Joseph. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. New York: Scribner, 1989. Standard reference work for the medieval period.

Videotapes and DVDs

History of Britain, Volume 5: King Death. A&E Home Video. 2000. 60 minutes. VHS. Historian Simon Schama's exploration of the various effects on

English society of the Plague in the much broader context of English history.

History's Turning Points, Volume 3: Black Death/Siege of Constantinople/Conquest of the Incas. Transatlantic Films. 2002. 75 minutes. DVD. Documentary that uses dramatizations to evoke the horror and pathos of the event. Discusses it in terms of its world historical importance.

Medieval London: 1066-1500. Films for the Humanities. 1991. 20 minutes. VHS. Brief coverage of Black Death in context of London's medieval history.

Scourge of the Black Death. History Channel Films. c. 2000. 50 minutes. VHS. Covers history of man's interaction with the bubonic plague to contemporary times.

The Seventh Seal. Home Vision Entertainment. 1958. 90 minutes. VHS/DVD. Feature film by Ingmar Bergman set in post-Plague Germany: Death stalks and plays chess with a knight for the right to take him and all of his companions.

Two Thousand Years: The History of Christianity, Volume 7: Heresy, War, and the Black Death: Christianity in the 13th and 14th Centuries. Films for the Humanities. 1999. 48 minutes. VHS. Sets the Black Death and Jewish pogroms associated with it in context of religion and society of the late medieval West.

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