Notes

1. Charles Creighton, A History of Epidemics in Britain, 2nd ed. (London: Cass, 1965), 1: pp. 171-75.

2. L. F. Hirst, The Conquest of Plague (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1953), pp. 108, 173, 185.

3. Henri H. Mollaret, "Introduzione," in Venezia e la peste, 1348/1797 (Venice: Marsilio Editori, 1979), p. 12.

4. Jean-Noel Biraben, Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays europeens et mediteraneens, Vol. 1 (Paris: Mouton, 1975), p. 16.

5. Susan Scott and Christopher Duncan, Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 50.

6. David Davis, "Characteristics of Rat Populations," Quarterly Review of Biology 28 (1953): pp.380, 391.

7. Ole Benedictow, Plague in the Late Medieval Nordic Countries: Epidemiological Studies (Oslo: Middelalderforlaget, 1992), p. 181.

8. Graham Twigg, The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal (New York: Schocken Books, 1985), p. 21; Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues, p. 113; Rosemary Horrox, The Black Death (Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1994), p. 7; Hirst, Conquest, pp. 307-16.

9. Thomas C. Butler, Plague and Other Yersinia Infections (New York: Plenum Medical Book Co., 1983), p. 51.

10. Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues, pp. 57-58; Chester David Rail, Plague Eco-toxicology (London: Charles C. Thomas Publishing, Ltd., 1985), pp. 105-6.

12. Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues, pp. 51-53; Butler, Plague, pp. 48, 112; quote from Christopher Wills, Plagues: Their Origin, History, and Future (London: HarperCollins, 1996), pp. 85-86.

13. Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues, p. 66; Jean-Noel Biraben, "Current Medical and Epidemiological Views on Plague," in Plague Reconsidered (Matlock, Derbyshire, England: Local Population Studies, 1977), p. 28.

14. Rail, Plague Eco-toxicology, p. xv.

15. Samuel Cohn, Jr., The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 23; Be-nedictow, Nordic Countries, p. 26.

16. Ann G. Carmichael, Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 91; M. K. Matossian, "Did myco-toxins play a role in bubonic plague epidemics?" Perspectives on Biological Medicine 29 (1986): pp. 244-56.

17. Horrox, Black Death, pp. 24-25, 42-43, 55, 84; quoted in John T. Alexander, Bubonic Plague in Early Modern Russia (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980), p. 15; Benedictow, Nordic Countries, p. 71; Pierre Villard, "Constantinople et la peste (1467) (Critoboulos, V, 17)," in Histoire et société: Mélanges offerts a Georges Duby (Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l'Universite de Provence, 1992), 4: p. 144.

18. Horrox, Black Death, p. 74; quoted in Stephen R. Ell, "The Interhuman Transmission of Medieval Plague," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 54 (1980): p. 504.

19. Mirko Grmek, "Les debuts de la quarantine maritime," in L'Homme, la sante et la mer, ed. Christian Buchet (Paris: Honore Champion, 1997), p. 47.

20. Benedictow, Nordic Countries, p. 125.

21. Koenraad Bleukx, "Was the Black Death (1348-49) a Real Plague Epidemic? England as a Case-study," in Serta devota in memoriam Guillelmi Lour-daux, II: Cultura mediaevalis, ed. Werner Verbeke et al. (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1995), p. 66; Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues, pp. 101, 356-62; Cohn, Black Death, p. 1.

22. Bleukx, "Real Plague," p. 66; Cohn, Black Death, p. 58; Stephen R. Ell, "Immunity as a Factor in the Epidemiology of Medieval Plague," Review of Infectious Diseases 6 (1984): p. 870; Butler, Plague, p. 91.

23. Ann Carmichael, "Bubonic Plague: The Black Death," in Plague, Pox and Pestilence: Disease in History, ed. Kenneth Kiple et al. (New York: Marboro Books, 1997), p. 61; and "Plague Legislation in the Italian Renaissance," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 57 (1983): p. 517.

24. Graham Twigg, "The Black Death and DNA," Lancet: I.D. 3 (2003): p. 11.

25. Wood quoted in online BBC Health News, April 12, 2002, and in "Yer-sinia seeks pardon for Black Death," Lancet: I.D. 2 (2002): p. 323; J. F. Shrewsbury, History of Bubonic Plague in the British Isles (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970), e.g., p. 24.

26. David Davis, "The Scarcity of Rats and the Black Death: An Ecological History," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 16 (1986): pp. 455-56, 467.

27. Davis, "Scarcity," p. 461; Shrewsbury, History, p. 2; Graham Twigg, "The Black Death in England: An Epidemiological Dilemma," in Maladies et socieéteé, (XIIe-XVIIIe siecles). Actes du Colloque de Bielefeld, novembre 1986, ed. Neithard

Bulst and Robert Delort (Paris: Editions du C.N.R.S., 1989), p. 97; Benedictow, Nordic Countries, pp. 26-27.

28. Ell, "Immunity," p. 875; Carmichael, Plague and the Poor, p. 94; Benedictow, Nordic Countries, pp. 130-31; quote from Biraben, "Current Medical," p. 29; Cohn, Black Death, p. 238.

29. Ell, "Immunity," pp. 875-76; "Interhuman Transmission," p. 500.

30. Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues, pp. 63-65; R. E. Lenski, "Evolution of Plague Virulence," Nature 334 (11 August 1988): pp. 473-74; Didier Raoult et al., "Molecular Identification of 'Suicide PCR' of yersinia pestis as the Agent of the Black Death," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 97:23 (Nov. 7, 2000): 12, p. 800; James Wood, "Was the Black Death yersinial plague?" Lancet: I.D. 3 (2003): p. 327.

31. W. Rees, "The Black Death in England and Wales," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine (History of Medicine Section) 16 (1922-23): p. 33; Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues, p. 101.

32. Leslie Bradley, "Some Medical Aspects of Plague," in Plague Reconsidered (Matlock, Derbyshire, England: Local Population Studies, 1977), pp. 18-19; Shrewsbury, History, p. 50; Twigg, "Dilemma," p. 95; Carmichael, "Plague Legislation," pp. 515-16.

33. Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues, pp. 107-8, 355, 384-86, 389.

34. Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues, pp. 352-54; Norman Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made (New York: Harper, 2000), pp. 20-21.

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