Table 1 Cancers attributable to infections these are conservative estimates adapted from Parkin et al 1999



No. of cases worldwide

Human papillomaviruses

Hepatitis B virus Epstein-Barr virus

Epstein-Barr virus/HIV Human herpesvirus-8/HIV Human T cell leukaemia virus Hepatitis C virus Helicobacter pylori

Schistosomes Liver flukes

Cervical cancer Other female genital cancers Liver cancer Burkitt lymphoma Hodgkin disease Nasopharyngeal cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Kaposi sarcoma Leukaemia Liver cancer Gastric carcinoma Gastric lymphoma Bladder cancer Cholangiocarcinoma

360000 230000


9000 45 ooo 3000 ll0000 350000

l0000 l ooo

A better understanding of the role of infectious agents in the aetiology of cancer is a public health imperative, because such cancers are theoretically preventable by vaccination or early treatment of infection. Furthermore, cancer-causing infections often cause substantial morbidity and mortality from non-malignant conditions. Therefore, an additional benefit of any scheme to reduce the burden of cancers caused by infections would also involve a reduction in the incidence of other diseases.

The majority of infection attributable cancers (perhaps 1 million cases per year) occur in the developing world, reflecting the higher prevalence of the major causative agents, particularly hepatitis B, human papillomaviruses (HPV), H. pylori and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is conservatively estimated that if these infectious diseases were controlled, up to one in four cancers in developing countries and one in 10 cancers in developed countries might be prevented. This chapter briefly reviews the association between certain infections and cancer, outlines the mechanism by which disease might be caused (if known) and presents comments on the potential for prevention of such tumours.

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Body Detox Made Easy

What exactly is a detox routine? Basically a detox routine is an all-natural method of cleansing yourbr body by giving it the time and conditions it needs to rebuild and heal from the damages of daily life and the foods you eat and other substances you intake. There are many different types of known detox routines.

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