Caregiver Training Courses

Caregiver Training Ebooks

The caregiver training e-book gives a training course on how to provideassistance to another person who is ill, disabled or needs help with daily activities. It can also serve as a useful guide to the individuals in the need of help. The product deals in physical, mental, social, and psychological needs and well-being of both the caregivers and the elderly person requiring care. Everyone needs a little help from time to time and while many seniors lean on the friends and family members for support, there may be some instances in which it's necessary to seek additional assistance or long-term care which was why this product was created by the author. This caregiver product is a practical guide created by the author who is an expert in the field. This product embeds in it several training sections in which each section gives detailed information on how to provide assistance to people who are ill, disabled, or aged. This product is a trusted and 100% guarantee to provide the necessary details needed in caring for the physically challenged, aged and ill individuals. The product is also an essential overview of issues from Alzheimer's to diabetes to strokes. Read more here...

Caregiver Training Ebooks Summary


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Contents: Ebooks
Author: Kenneth Watts
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My Caregiver Training Ebooks Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This e-book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Case study 1 support from caregivers during childbirth

Descriptive studies of women's childbirth experiences have suggested that women appreciate advice and information from their caregivers, comfort measures and other forms of tangible assistance to cope with labour, and the continuous presence of a sympathetic person. A systematic review included studies that evaluated the effects of intrapartum support from care-givers on a variety of childbirth outcomes, medical as well as psychosocial.31 One outcome included in the review was the use of epidural anaesthesia during delivery. Six trials reported this outcome, four from America and two from Europe. In four of the six trials husbands, partners or other family members were also usually present. The person providing the support intervention was variously described in the trials as a midwife, nurse, monitrice and a doula. The results of the six studies are given in Table 15.3. Table 15.3 Rates of use of epidural anaesthesia in trials of caregiver support. Table 15.3 Rates of use of epidural...

Coping With Caregiving Stress Management for Caregivers of the Elderly

Summary This article describes a study of stress management approaches to benefit caregivers of family members with Alzheimer's or other dementias. The study hypothesized that stress management training would promote more effective coping and more greatly reduce caregiving burdens in caregivers than a support group intervention. Results of the study suggest that specific stress management techniques adapted to meet the needs of caregivers can improve ways in which caregivers cope with frustrations more significantly than participation in support groups. However, the study did not show the ability of either support groups or the stress management program to alter the sense of burden caregivers experience. 35 references.

General Management Goals

The performance of learned motor tasks involves the ability to complete many of the activities of daily living including personal hygiene and meal preparation. As a result, the presence of apraxic deficits can result in the loss of independence for many patients. While physical rehabilitation may improve other associated neurological deficits following head trauma or stroke, the presence of apraxia can make occupational rehabilitation difficult because the patient will have difficulty in performing these skilled tasks. Although there is significant interest in cognitive rehabilitation, little is presently known about the rehabilitation of patients with apraxia. The clinician must thus inform the patient and caregivers that the apractic patient should avoid participating in activities in which he or she may injure himself or others. Occupational therapy and counseling may be useful for the patient and caregiver to teach various compensatory strategies. There is no pharmacological...

Clinical Geropsychology Overview

Clinical geropsychology is a subfield of psychology concerned with the psychosocial issues that affect the mental health and quality of life of people aged 65 and older and their caregivers. Clinical geropsychologists provide assessment and treatment of a complex set of problems among older adults in a wide variety of service settings such as medical clinics, community mental health clinics, assisted living facilities, and nursing homes.

Summary Heuristicsquestions For Future Research

Cognitive-extended forms with the help of symbolic language acquisition. Neu-rodevelopmental research into the fundamental mechanisms of consciousness in infants is understandably modest for obvious epistemological ethical reasons, as much of the current neuroscientific work focuses on neural correlates of higher conscious and cognitive activity in adult brains. This suggests that basic research will have to refocus attention on basic neural processes taking place in the first year of life, as core component processes must be brought on-line to operate in an integrated fashion very early in neurodevelopment. Such research into early development will also likely pay dividends clinically in terms of an increased ability to understand and treat disorders of consciousness, such as coma and persistent vegetative state, but also lesser forms of akinetic mutism, autism, and schizophrenia. We suspect that the substrates for the early orienting affective responses of the infant in its...

Vocalizing and Speech in Educative Concerting

Most of the speech and pre-speech between caregiver and infant takes place in a context of actual or incipient concerted activity. Carpenter et al. report that the vast majority of all conventionalized acts (mainly gestures and words) by both infants and their mothers were produced when they were jointly engaged with an object. 38 And Bruner confirms this . . . the child, in using language initially, is very much oriented towards pursuing . . . action being undertaken jointly by himself and another. 39 Vocalizing is fun, interesting to listen to, easy to do and to imitate, and easy and satisfying to concert, either on its own or as part of other shared doings. Voices in unison blend satisfyingly. Vocalizing has more practical virtues too. It broadcasts well, and there is no shortage of different and easily discriminable vocal sounds. Attending to what the other is doing is a big part of concerting and, because it is such an efficient and reliable attention-director, vocalizing makes...

Speech Replaces Other Types of Tokening

. . . the routinized interactions in which an infant and its caregiver engage are the seed from which language grows. Dyadic interactions between . . . infants and their caregivers are initially effected by the use of sounds and gaze to establish and maintain joint attention, and are then supplemented by natural gestures and then sounds to initiate or coordinate inter-individual routines. The infant starts to look where its caregiver wants and starts to attend to objects and situations. Soon afterwards the infant begins to use gaze and gestures to direct its caregiver's attention, and then to use gestures and conventionalized sounds to initiate exchanges. E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Stuart Shanker, and Talbot Taylor6 Tokening done to solicit others' participation in an activity will often include gestures that the caregiver has used as markers when teaching that activity, or that distinctive phase of that activity. That is, invitatory tokening will often consist of exaggerated movements...

Other Assistive Devices

Besides hearing aids, there are a number of other assistive devices available for patients with hearing impairment. Auditory trainers are particularly helpful in the classroom or daycare setting these devices employ a transmitter (worn by the teacher or care-giver) and a receiver (worn by the patient). The speaker's voice is transmitted over FM radio waves to a receiver that can either be plugged into the hearing aid or worn as a stand-alone device. The system significantly reduces background noise and is ideal for classroom use.

What Is Perceived Without Spatial Awareness

A hallmark of Balint's syndrome is simultanagnosia (seeing only one object or part of one object at any given time) accompanied by the inability to locate that object (either by reaching, pointing, fixating or verbally reporting its position). In pure cases, primary visual functions are left intact, as are memory, language, problem solving and other cognitive abilities. Patients are often confused by what they see and may be hesitant to report it for fear of being thought of as crazy by family members, friends or caregivers. Instead, they may simply say they are blind. Although Balints syndrome has been historically associated with visual perception, recent evidence has demonstrated its cross modality properties (Phan et al., 2000).

Early Solitary Action

While alone, the infant attempts activities he has previously engaged in only in with the caregiver. In the following passage, Stern discusses the fact that an infant accustomed to concerted rattle play with the mother will, when solitary, respond to the sight of a rattle with the kind of excitement characteristic of concerted play. The infant imagines the mother to be present and participating with him. The social episode or interaction generalized Stern refers to below is equivalent to my familiar concerted activity. In this case the activity is shared rattle play. The deficit in the present situation, which the infant compensates for with covert tokenings, is the absence of the mother. In Stern's terms, the mother is the infant's fellow-participant or self-regulating other (the self being regulated is the infant's). The infant's tokening of perceptual and other behavior that would be due were the mother present and participating is what Stern calls the evoking of a companion

Aging Stress and Mental Disorders

Aging is associated with increased risk for a number of important stressful life events and chronic strains, including declines in health, death of spouse or significant others, and caregiving for impaired family members. However, common conceptions of late-life as generally stressful or unpleasant are incorrect. For example, recent studies of retirement show no negative effects on health or psychological functioning once preretirement physical and emotional functioning are considered. Older adults have lower rates of some stressful life events than younger persons because of their retirement status. Older persons are also often found to cope as successfully with problems as younger persons, and in some cases better, in part due to their prior experience with adversity and the fact that certain problems (such as spousal bereavement) are normative in late life.

Forms of Managed Health Care

Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) caregivers must offer cost-effective care to a predetermined subscriber group for either discounted rates or a schedule of maximum payments in return for a certain volume of referrals. Consumers can use non-participating providers, but receive discounts for using PPO providers. An Exclusive PPO pays only for services from participating providers.

Multisystemic Therapy General Description

Nants of these problems within a broad-based, social ecological framework. MST uses evidence-based interventions designed to attenuate known risk factors and to enhance protective factors at multiple levels of the youth's social ecology. These levels include characteristics of individuals, salient features of encapsulating social environments (e.g., families, schools, peer groups, etc.), and the relations between and among individuals and their relevant social settings (e.g., caregiver-teacher relationships, family-school linkages).

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Precursors to ODD may start very early among inflexible infants with irritable temperaments (Loeber, 1990 Sanson & Prior, 1999). Likewise, early behavioral problems, such as impulsivity, overactivity, and mild aggression, may blossom into more serious forms of disruptive behaviors, including ODD (Sanson & Prior, 1999). Children with difficult temperaments and early emerging behavioral problems are at greater risk for failing to develop positive attachments with caregivers and becoming involved in increasingly coercive interchanges with parents and significant adults, such as teachers. Likewise, parents of children with disruptive behavior problems often display high rates of harsh, inconsistent discipline, have unclear rules and expectations, and have low rates of positive involvement, adaptive discipline strategies, and problem solving skills (Lochman & Wells, 1996 Patterson, 1986). Loeber (1990) hypothesized that children begin to generalize their use of coercive behaviors to other...

Cultural Considerations

Baumrind's early research (1967, 1971) began by measuring mostly middle-class, Caucasian children who were being raised by one or both parents. Nonetheless, much of the research holds that authoritative parenting works best across differences of culture, race, gender, socioeconomic factors, and family structure. Therefore, authoritative care-giving can be effective for child rearing regardless of the relationship between caregiver and child. However, Baumrind (1995) cautioned that the blend of demandingness and responsiveness is dependent upon the social and cultural context of the child.

Thyroid Disease in a Person with Alzheimers Disease

Caregiving decisions (for yourself or another) based on the predicted course of the disease. But there is no clear line when one stage ends and another begins, and stages can overlap. The type of symptoms the affected person is exhibiting is the best way to gauge the staging. Early stages of Alzheimer's can also be hidden from other family members, but can be exacerbated by untreated hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, because of taking too much medication or not taking it at all.

Patients with specific complications

One particularly difficult problem in managing PD patients is hallucinosis. Patients who are treated chronically with dopaminergic drugs develop visual hallucinations that can become frightening and severely disabling to the patient and caregiver. In this situation, the drug dosage

Coming together the value of support groups

However, there is another risk to living with intersex conditions. Being 'different' can invite unwanted attention from caregivers, relatives, health professionals and religious groups. Support groups and professionals hear an increasing number ofcomplaints from their members about sexual, mental and physical abuse. Sexual abuse can range from curiosity to full-blown sexual assaults. Mental and physical abuse can occur at the hands of those few caregivers who cannot cope, accept or understand, so see their child as a 'freak' and treat them as such. Knowing how, when and who to trust can be very difficult for us.

Personality Disorders

Personality-disordered patients can be very difficult to treat. Sometimes the complexities encountered in attempting to treat these patients' symptoms can actually signal the presence of a personality disorder. Splitting is a characteristic defense used by borderline patients, who have a tendency to see others, including caregivers, as either all good or all bad. These distortions may cause disruption among members of the treatment team if distrust or negative attitudes about one another arise from the patient's distorted reports. The use of dialectic behavioral treatment (DBT), as described by Linehan, has been quite effective in the treatment of these patients (94). Important aspects of the treatment include consistent limit setting and frequent, direct communication among members of the treatment team to prevent disruptions. Medication management of these patients often leads to polypsychopharmacotherapy in an attempt to ameliorate anxious, depressive, impulsive, and...

Clinical Presentation

Symptoms at the time of the aspiration episode. Paroxysmal coughing is the primary sign, noted by parents or caregivers, in the pediatric population. With time, however, these characteristic features may abate. With delayed presentation, distal airway foreign bodies may present without symptoms or with nonspecific symptoms such as a nonproductive cough, the new onset of inspiratory and or expiratory wheezing (often assumed to be newly diagnosed asthma), and complaints of mild shortness of breath. Unlike aspirated foreign material in the laryngotracheal location, dyspnea is less frequently reported as a symptom of foreign bodies in the distal airway compared with those centrally located in the airway.

Complexity of Adaptation

Trauma early in the life cycle, particularly when it is recurrent and when it occurs in the context of an inadequate caregiving system, has pervasive effects on cognition, socialization, and the capacity for affect regulation (Cicchetti and Beeghly, 1996 Putnam and Trickett, 1993 van der Kolk and Fisler, 1995). Children exposed to abuse and neglect are at increased risk to develop depression and anxiety disorders. They have a high incidence of aggression against self and others, are vulnerable to develop disturbances in food intake, as in anorexia and bulimia, and suffer from a high incidence of drug and alcohol addiction (van der Kolk et al., 1996b Felitti et al., 1998). It is thought that early and persistent sensitization of CNS circuits involved in the regulation of stress and emotion produces an increased vulnerability to subsequent stress by means of persistent hyper(re)activity of neurotransmitter systems, including corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) (Heim and Nemeroff,...

Defining Types of Costs

Direct costs can be further broken down into two subcategories, direct health care costs and direct nonhealth care costs. Direct health care costs include the cost of hospital and community care, including testing, drugs, supplies, caregiver and support personnel and medical facilities, maintenance and purchase of equipment, cost of follow-up, treatments of side-effects, maintenance therapy and costs of rehospitalisation and retreatment (for example open surgery after failure of PCTA).

Thinking about People Theory of Mind

On the other hand, in a culturally important situation involving social responsibility, young children from small, face-to-face societies with subsistence traditions show advanced understanding of the knowledge state and feelings of another person whose knowledge differs from one's own. In a successful apprenticeship situation, the expert must be aware of how much less the novice knows in comparison with self. The expert must also be aware of the novice's need for materials and the novice's motivations. In a video study of naturalistic teaching interactions, Zinacantec Maya children as young as four years old were able to supply necessary materials and model tasks for their younger siblings (Maynard, 2002). They were also able to provide useful verbal guidance in teaching, such as narrating a task they were demonstrating and giving commands to the younger child. By the age of eight, children were very adept at simplifying the task for younger children by giving them parts of tasks,...

Barriers to Transitioning Survivors to Young Adult Followup

Many of the barriers identified by Schidlow and Fiel 19 that adolescents with chronic diseases face in making the transition into adult healthcare systems are also applicable to survivors. The patient may exhibit dependent behavior and immaturity. The family may demonstrate an excessive need for control, emotional dependency or a lack of trust in the new healthcare providers. As Schidlow and Fiel emphasize, the pediatric and adult healthcare providers also have obstacles to overcome for a healthy transition. The pediatric provider often has strong emotional bonds with the patient and the family and may feel distress in letting go. Some pediatric caregivers may believe that they have the necessary skills for providing care to the survivor as an adult, or they may distrust the adult caregiver. The adult caregiver may also have concerns, specifically about the lack of institutional commitment or perceived heightened care demands.

Adulthood And Aging Social Processes And Development

Although the most emotionally meaningful relationships often include family members, the strain of caregiv-ing can create tension. With the exception of a minority of adults who experience increases in their sense of purpose and life satisfaction, most caregivers experience decreases in well-being. For both men and women, rates of depression are higher among caregivers than the general population, and physical complaints often increase with the added physical and emotional strain of caregiving, especially for those caring for a family member with a dementing illness. These family caregivers are most often women wives, daughters, or daughters-in-law. When men are caregivers, they often receive more instrumental help but less emo

Triple Flexion Is A Spinal Reflex

Bethesda Category

It is important that the specific goals of treatment always be discussed in detail with the patient, family, and caregivers so all understand fully what the targeted outcomes of management are. As an example, spasticity treatment goals for a spinal cord injured patient with paraplegia might include a reduction in painful spasms and more comfortable positioning in a wheelchair, but not be expected to improve strength in the lower extremities or facilitate the ability to walk.

Hormonal Response in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Early stress can alter the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, monoamin-ergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid benzodiazepine systems. Stress has also been shown to promote structural and functional alterations in brain regions similar to those seen in adults with depression. Emerging data suggest, however, that the long-term effects of early stress can be moderated by genetic factors and the quality of the subsequent caregiving environment (Kaufman et al., 2000).

Treatment of Late Life Psychopathology

Many older adults with recognized mental health problems are prescribed medications by their treating physicians in primary care settings. However, a substantial body of geropsychotherapy research over the past two decades has resulted in the development of a variety of psychological treatments for some of the most common mental health problems faced by older adults. Clinical geropsychologists provide psychotherapy or so-called talking treatments for these problems. For example, a number of theoretically and practically distinct treatments (e.g., psychodynamic or insight-oriented, cognitive-behavioral or learning-based, interpersonal therapy) have been found to be effective in the treatment of depression among healthy older adults. Psychological treatments are also available for anxiety disorders and sleep disorders such as Insomnia. There is a nascent but growing body of clinical research for older adults with Schizophrenia and older adults who engage in health-damaging substance...

Separation Distressanxiety

Among which the pattern of rearing has varied considerably. For example, Fox (1977) found this pattern among infants raised on an Israeli kibbutz (where infants slept separately from their mothers and were cared for by a primary caregiver other than the mother). Barr, Konner, Bakeman, and Adamson (1991) reported a similar developmental function for infants raised among the Kung bushmen in the Kalahari Desert, as did Kagan and Klein (1973) for infants raised in rural Guatemala. The common developmental change in separation distress across cultures most probably reflects universal changes in the infant's abilities to understand and represent its mother's disappearance from view. Thus, this behavior should not be considered as maladaptive but rather as a normative part of early development. Although normative changes in distress to separation find it diminishing around 18 to 24 months of age, instances of continued distress response to separation from mothers have been described in the...

Typology of Child and Adult Attachment Styles

Infants whose signals of distress consistently receive nurturing care tend to develop a style of responding well to soothing behavior from others. Such children appear to expect nurturance and demonstrate a balance of exploratory interest in their environment and reliance upon the caregiver as a secure base in times of insecurity or distress. The attachment style of children fitting this description is designated as secure. Adults who are comfortable with depending on others and having relational partners depend on them are considered to exhibit a secure adult attachment pattern. Patterns of attachment behavior at any age that deviate substantially from this model are characterized as anxious or insecure. Some children heartily protest the absence of their caregivers but are difficult to soothe when their signals of distress are responded to. This style of anxious attachment is classified as ambivalent because the child appears to relate to the parent as alternately desirable and...

Theoretical Underpinnings

Four theories perspectives have been especially influential in the formulation of MST (1) social ecological perspectives articulating that human development is multiply determined by complex interdependencies of individuals and the nested social environments (families, schools, peer groups, neighborhoods) in which they are immersed (2) family systems theories emphasizing that maladaptive behaviors of youth stem from faulty family communication problem solving processes and problematic family structures (e.g., cross-generation alliances, inadequate levels of cohesion or adaptability) (3) social learning behavioral theories specifying that externalizing behaviors are learned and maintained because they pay off' in terms of either positive or negative reinforcement (e.g., achievement of specific resources, escape or avoidance of unwanted outcomes) delivered contingently by caregivers and peers and (4) structural-organizational and resilience perspectives emphasizing the importance of...

Prevention Primary and Secondary

Although primary prevention of CNS late effects is often not possible, secondary prevention is an attainable goal. Caregivers should seek early detection of potential adverse outcomes with the goal of improving prognosis. First, health providers should monitor the patient at clinic visits with a history that includes questions,tailored to the age of the patient, about developmental milestones, school performance, peer relations, the need for special education services, and neurological abnormalities (e.g. weakness, seizures). More detailed questions should assess domains of neurocognitive functioning that tend to be impaired specifically in childhood cancer patients. Table 4.1 reviews the domains of function, as well as possible screening questions that could be included in a history.

Psychosocial development in young people with CF

Growing up with a chronic illness such as CF has both a physical and emotional toll on young people's psycho-social development. The growth and pubertal delay common in CF has been shown to have a negative effect on young people's self-esteem and body image and other people's perception of their age and development (Sawyer etal. 1995). This is further complicated by the other obvious physical markers of CF, such as surgical scars, the visibility of permanent intravenous access ports and body habitus such as a barrel-shaped chest. These can all interfere with young people's development of peer and romantic relationships, and perception of physical attractiveness and self-worth (Sawyer 2000 Sawyer etal. 1995). The urinary incontinence experienced by many women with CF has also been shown to affect young women's social life and intimate relationships negatively (Nixon et al. 2003). Emotionally, growing up with a life-limiting condition has been shown to influence some young people into...

Purposes of Neuropsychological Examination

Neuropsychological examinations may also be used to characterize the patient's current levels of cognitive and emotional functioning in association with a known or suspected CNS process. Often these data are used to monitor changes in the patient's neuropsychological status across repeated examinations, y so the effect of various treatment interventions on cognitive abilities can be assessed. Additionally, since neuropsychological assessments provide detailed information on both intact and impaired abilities, these assessments are useful for providing medical staff and family caregivers information on the patient's strengths as well as deficits. This information is particularly helpful in coordinated efforts to help the patient and family adjust to a given condition and make plans.

Many unanswered questions

Both mental health and medical providers are challenged by the lack of open communication among family members and with professional staff. There are situations when the health or social work professional knows that the child or young person is sexually active when the caregiver has no idea and insists that the child not be disclosed to. This brings ethical challenges to the forefront for the provider. What are the rights of the child or young person versus the family who care for them And how do you respect the needs of both without disclosing confidential information about one to the other What is the obligation to society

The Importance of Ethnography

Day life of children and their caregivers. She found clues, for example, in adult interpretations of the child's developing motor capacities. Whereas we, in the United States or France, would get excited about the child's first step as an index of developing skill and even independence, a Wolof mother would likely interpret it as signifying the child's desire in relation to a person in his surrounding for example, she might say something like Look, he's walking toward you (Rabain-Zempleni, 1965).

Clinical Assessment and Intervention

Contrary to common conceptions, research has demonstrated the effectiveness of a variety of psychological interventions for older persons and their family caregivers for problems such as geriatric depression, family caregiver distress, managing incontinence, and reducing disruptive behaviors in patients with dementia. Interventions for older adults should be tailored to their values and perspectives. For example, the current cohort of older persons tends to fear psychiatric stigma and prefer treatment in medical settings. Innovative approaches that integrate psychological services into primary care and other medical settings hold considerable promise for reaching older adults that would resist referral to traditional psychiatric settings.

The structure of the book

If formal and informal caregivers are to be alert to sexuality and fertility issues, then they need to be appropriately informed about current medical and scientific knowledge. Not surprisingly, many will be daunted by trying to understand the terminology, let alone weighing up the scientific merits of claims that hit the headlines on a regular basis.

Government Interest in Adoption

On behalf of adoptable and adopted children, it needs to be noted, de lege ferenda, that it must become illegal for governmental authorities and particularly the legal system to disrupt strong psychological bonds between young children and their caregivers. If a parent has not been concerned enough to be cognizant of the existence of a child he fathered, or if biological parents are reconsidering their deci

Intervention Strategies Service Delivery and Treatment Fidelity

Specific MST interventions include strategies from pragmatic family therapies, behavioral parent training, social learning contingency management approaches, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Interventions are theory-based, have empirical support, and are delivered strategically and flexibly throughout the treatment process. MST interventions often have the following goals (1) to reduce unproductive caregiver-youth conflict (2) to improve caregiver monitoring, limit setting, and family management practices (3) to enhance family communication and problemsolving mechanisms (4) to develop adaptive levels of family cohesion and adaptability (5) to extricate youth from ties with deviant peers and to increase their association with prosocial peers (6) to increase academic and social competencies and (7) to increase involvement with prosocial organizations (e.g., religious groups, community recreational facilities). tative, and administrative procedures provision of weekly feedback to...

Improving Intelligence

Bradley and Caldwell (1984) found support for the importance of home environment with regard to the development of intelligence in young children. These researchers found that several factors in the early (preschool) home environment were correlated with high IQ scores - emotional and verbal responsivity of the primary caregiver and the caregiver's involvement with the child, avoidance of restriction and punishment, organization of the physical environment and activity schedule, provision of appropriate play materials, and opportunities for variety in daily stimulation. Further, Bradley and Caldwell found that these factors more effectively predicted IQ scores than did socioeconomic status or family-structure variables. It should be noted, however, that the Bradley-Caldwell study is correlational and therefore cannot be interpreted as indicating causality. Furthermore, their study pertained to preschool children, and children's IQ scores do not begin to predict adult IQ scores well...

Rehabilitation Psychology

The rehabilitation psychologist provides services to families and primary caregivers as well as other significant people in the individual's social-community circle (e.g., teachers, employers, clergy, friends). The goal of rehabilitation psychology is to assist the individual (and those significant others who are involved in treatment planning and ongoing provision of support) in achieving optimal physical, psychological, and interpersonal functioning by addressing the obstacles preventing the highest level of personal and social functioning. Rehabilitation psychologists view persons served holistically, and they seek to broaden opportunities for maximum individual functioning as well as functioning and participation in social relationships, social activities, education, employment, and the community.

Corticobasal Ganglionic Degeneration

As noted earlier, treatment of the parkinsonian syndrome may exacerbate the neuropsychiatric disorder, and treatment of the neuropsychiatric disorder may exacerbate the parkinsonian syndrome. A decision, therefore, must first be made regarding whether treatment is necessary at all, and if so, what symptoms warrant treatment. Generally, the neuropsychiatric syndrome is the most disabling aspect in mild to moderate stages, and selective neuroleptic therapy with risperadone should be considered as a first choice. Very low dose therapy should be tried initially because risperadone, despite its selectivity, can exacerbate parkinsonism. More selective, but more hazardous because of potential blood dyscrasias, is clozapine. Treatment of the parkinsonian syndrome is similar to that of PD, generally beginning with Sinemet at a very low dose and gradually titrating the dose to symptoms and side effects. Other nonpharmacological aspects of caregiving are similar to those described...

Degenerative Muscular Disorders

Usually, the child is asymptomatic in the neonatal period, with the earliest problems perceived by caregivers being developmental delays, particularly in walking and climbing, and the appearance of enlarged calf muscles. Between the ages of 3 and 6, the gait becomes waddling and lordotic. Gowers' sign appears, in which the

Language Functions

Generic sentences seem to hold despite the existence of numerous exceptions Lions have manes seems to be true even though most lions (e.g., female and immature lions) do not have manes (see Krifka et al., 1995, for an introduction to generic sentences). There is an obvious relation between the truth or acceptability of generic sentences and the typicality structure of categories because the typical properties of a category are those that appear in true generic sentences. Of course, as Krifka et al. noted, this may simply be substituting one puzzle (the truth conditions of generic sentences) for another (the nature of typical properties), but this may be one place where linguistic and cognitive theories might provide mutual insight. Research by Susan Gelman and her colleagues (see Gelman, 2003, for a thorough review) suggests that generic sentences are a frequent way for caregivers to convey category information to children. Four-year-olds differentiate sentences with bare plurals (...

Clinical History

Patients with memory deficits are, by definition, limited in their ability to provide information about their history, and this limitation is especially salient for patients who may be demented. Therefore, obtaining a clinical history from a patient complaining of memory disorders usually requires considerable cooperation from the patient's family or caregivers. In many cases, they are the ones who can most accurately recite the patient's problems. This fact introduces a challenge to the interpersonal skills of the examining physician because the patient must retain a feeling of central importance during the interview even though much information about the patient must come from these collateral sources.


The comprehensive neurobehavioral assessment provides valuable data that can be used for educational accommodations and remediation in areas of impairment. It is essential that test findings be communicated directly to teachers, who can use the information to enhance the child's learning. Examples of educational accommodation include placing the child in the front of the classroom, where there is less distraction reducing the number of items on multiple choice tests breaking assignments into several smaller steps and allowing more time for the completion of examinations 91 . School education services can assist in the remediation of domains of impairment. Commonly needed services include speech language therapy and occupational therapy. Sometimes communication with staff at the child's school is benefited by conferences with medical care-givers who can share how areas of neurobehavioral impairment are related to childhood cancer treatments. This is particularly helpful in children...

Emotional Neglect

From a psychological perspective, emotional neglect is the most serious form of neglect, in that the consequences of ongoing emotional neglect are lifelong An emotionally deprived child becomes an adult who rarely experiences the joy, love, and intimacy that make life worth living. Emotional neglect begins in infancy. If babies cannot establish normal attachments, perhaps because their caregivers are depressed, drug-addicted, emotionally immature, or overwhelmed by their own survival needs, then infants and toddlers become detached from social relationships. The damage occurs within the brain, during formation of synapses and dendrites, and thus is difficult to reverse later on. Typically, neglectful caregivers continue their emotional distancing throughout early childhood, never teaching the child about love, fear, anger, or sadness. By the time they reach school age, emotionally neglected children cannot regulate their emotions They are too fearful, too depressed, or too aggressive....


The exhaustion, briefly discussed in Chapter 4, that can accompany Graves' disease is different from the fatigue of hypothyroidism. It may look to some as though you have burnout. Burnout may be the primary diagnosis, for example, if you are in the role of a caregiver for an elder or person with dementia.

Psychodynamic Model

D, a 45-year-old single woman with health fears and agoraphobia, was referred for treatment. Her history is notable for gastrointestinal distress, numerous negative medical work-ups, fears about serious illness secondary to the gastrointestinal complaints, and secondary panic attacks, which led to agoraphobia. Ms. D's physical complaints emerged shortly after her mother was hospitalized for a chronic debilitating medical disorder. Long the caregiver of her mother and one who had subverted many of her own passions and interests to her mother's needs, Ms. D found that she was no longer able to help her mother, or even to visit her mother, because of her own physical problems, illness preoccupation, and agoraphobia. Puzzled by her own deterioration and a near inability to leave her own home, Ms. D sought treatment. Within the first 10 sessions, it became apparent that Ms. D's relationship with her mother was a difficult one as a result of her mother's lifelong narcissism and...

Future Issues

Census data suggest that 25.4 of the elderly population in 2030 will be members of racial and ethnic minority groups. Increasing life expectancy among racial and ethnic minority groups means an increasingly diverse aging population and thus, interventions for older adults should be developed and provided in culturally sensitive and appropriate ways. Clinicians should consider factors such as cohort-specific discrimination and different values concerning caregiving and mental health issues held among different ethnic minority elderly groups.

Core Principles

MST therapists are guided by nine core principles that direct them (1) to assess the fit between identified problems and their broader systemic context (2) to emphasize the positive and use systemic strengths as levers for change (3) to promote responsible and decrease irresponsible behavior among family members (4) to implement present-focused and action-oriented interventions aimed at specific and well-defined problems (5) to target sequences of behavior within and between multiple systems that maintain the identified problems (6) to design interventions that fit the developmental needs of the youth (7) to require daily or weekly effort by family members (8) to evaluate intervention effectiveness continuously from multiple perspectives with providers assuming responsibility for overcoming barriers to successful outcomes and (9) to promote generalization of therapeutic change by empowering caregivers to address family members' needs across multiple systemic contexts.

AT intervention

Status, functional status, environment, the tasks the person performs or would like to participate in, care-givers, and others living in the person's environment (Mann, 1998). The assessment must also address the role and needs of informal caregivers. For example, a stroke survivor may be able to put on his pants independently with a dressing stick, but the task could take 40 min and result in fatigue. But if he lives with his wife, who assists as a primary caregiver, her assistance with donning his pants could save him time and energy. In this example, the dressing stick would allow the patient to be independent, but be an inappropriate intervention given his living situation. When AT is prescribed inappropriately, it often ends up unused. impaired cognition, he or she may not remember how to use a device, or may forget that they have the device. On the other hand, assistive devices may be used to increase the safety of people with cognitive deficits. Automatic braking systems on...

Living with CAH

Most people with salt-wasting CAH carry emergency steroid injections, which help them buy enough time to get to hospital and start on IV fluids in order to avoid adrenal crisis. Adrenal crisis is frightening and indescribable to those who have never experienced it. Steroid cards, CAH info cards and instructions as to what to do in an emergency should be carried. As well as illness, stress can also bring on adrenal crisis so caregivers, schools, colleges and employers need to be aware of this. Overall, however, there are few restrictions on what a person with CAH can do. 'Getting a life' can be difficult but is far from impossible. It takes determination and a good support network of family, caregivers and friends together with well-informed doctors to keep you physically and emotionally well. As for me, I am now 37 years old. I hold down a very interesting career working as a research assistant to a consultant diabetologist endocri-nologist, study part-time for a psychology degree and...

Developmental issues

The reality of the involvement of many family members differentiates HIV from other conditions. Parents, who are often pivotal in the development of identity for evolving youth, may be less available because of the severity of their own illness. When a parent dies of AIDS and their child is in the custody of another caregiver, the child may be subjected to a preconceived notion about their sexuality, tainted by the awareness that their parent died of HIV. This knowledge, consciously or unconsciously, may influence the caregiver's perceptions of how children, teens and young adults who are HIV-positive should act. The family issues surrounding grief and bereavement also play a role in how children and young people who are HIV-positive see themselves in relationship to their parents, their health status and the world.


Year, about 3 million children in the United States are reported for neglect and or abuse to child protective services, with more than half of these cases later substantiated. The vast majority of the abuse and neglect found in children occurs at the hands of their primary caregivers and people they know Four out of five assaults on children are at the hands of their own parents. For women and children, but not for men, trauma that results from violence within intimate relationships is a much more serious problem than traumatic events inflicted by strangers or accidents. Half of all victims of violence in the United States are under age 25 29 percent of all forcible rapes occur before the age of 11. Among U.S. adolescents aged 12 to 17, 8 percent are estimated to have been victims of serious sexual assault 17 percent are victims of serious physical assault and 40 percent have witnessed serious violence (Kilpatrick et al., 1998). Over a third of the victims of domestic assault...

The Yes Advocates

Fourth, the obstacles to widespread antiretroviral therapy noted in this Chapter (pp. 501-511) have been minimized by the advocates for immediate global access to ARVs. The level of expertise for caregivers may be set too high. Concerns regarding the lack of systems for ARV distribution and the urgent need for more research is downplayed. Issues regarding intellectual property, patents, and profits are deemed inconsequential in light of the need for ARVs.

Thyroid Cancer

ThyCa Thyroid Cancer Survivors' Association ( Here you'll find local chapters, and links to the following support groups Advanced Thyroid Cancer Support Group America Online Thyroid Cancer Support Group Anaplastic Support Group Caregivers Support Group Long-Term Survivors Support Group Medullary Support Group Pediatric Support Group ThyCa Thyroid Cancer Support Group The Thyroid Cancer Online Email Support Group Canadian Thyroid Cancer Support Group Inc (Thry'vors) ( To join

Neural Tube Defects

The management for dysraphic disorders begins with the planning of an atraumatic delivery. The avoidance of labor by prelabor cesarian section significantly improves neurological outcome in children with myelomeningoceles. y Larger encephaloceles are also managed in this fashion. Decisions concerning the surgical management of encephaloceles are dependent on the clinical context in which the encephalocele occurs. This includes the identification of syndromes and other associations important for prognosis and genetic counseling (see reference 22 for a more complete list of associations and syndromes). Most encephaloceles are sporadic, however, so that prognosis and management are based on the extent of the individual defect. Generally, surgical excision is recommended, even if there are significant associated malformations the goal of surgery in these cases may be to simply improve caregiving for the affected infant. More urgent surgery may be indicated in the case of CSF leaks to...

Conduct Disorder

The developmental trajectory leading to childhood-onset Conduct Disorder may start very early among inflexible infants with irritable temperaments (Loeber, 1990). These children are at risk for failing to develop positive attachments with caregivers, displaying high rates of hyperactivity and inattention in the preschool years, and becoming involved in increasingly coercive interchanges with parents and significant adults, such as teachers. Moffitt (1993) has suggested that life-course-persistent delinquents ( early starters ) are at risk because of combined biological and family factors. In some children, family dysfunction may be sufficient to initiate this sequence of escalating aggressive behavior. Parents of aggressive, conduct problem children often display high rates of harsh, inconsistent discipline, have unclear rules and expectations, and have low rates of positive involvement, adaptive discipline strategies, and problemsolving skills (Lochman & Wells, 1996 Patterson, 1986).


Burnout usually occurs in people who are in caregiving roles or professions, such as nursing, therapists of any kind (including occupational therapists or speech therapists), clinicians, and unpaid caregivers. Child-care workers, teachers, and elder-care workers are also vulnerable to burnout. The term burnout is now a common term in all healthcare literature it is characterized by physical and emotional exhaustion, feeling per Burnout is common in caring and caregiving because when people are around nonstop suffering, they can become drained, meaning that all energies are being poured into meeting the needs of others, leaving no room to fulfill one's own needs. Some articles refer to burnout as carer's fatigue. Burnout is a major contributing factor to fatigue, and if you're going through a bout of untreated hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, taking time off from your job, or in cases of unpaid caregiving, arranging to pay someone for temporary home care to enable some time off is a...

AT for memory

An example of a paging system for persons with memory impairment is the NeuroPage (Oliver Zangwell Centre, 2005). The caregiver provides NeuroPage with the appropriate messages and delivery times, which can be updated as needed. After receiving the information from the caregiver,


Memory skills and the extent to which the disease has adversely impacted important day-to-day activities such as self-care, household care, financial management, driving skills, and social activities. Evaluations of the possibility of elder abuse by caregivers and assessment of the medically ill older adult's competence to make legal, financial, and medical decisions are also elements of practice that may fall under the scope of the geropsychologist.

Progressive Aphasia

Example of this group and has been referred to as frontal lobe or frontotemporal dementia (Fig. 33-10 (Figure Not Available) ). Pick's disease is prominently represented in this group. More recently, Bruny and GustafsonWi described a similar clinical syndrome in the absence of Pick bodies. Although the clinical picture is characteristic, many clinicians have difficulty distinguishing these patients from those with Alzheimer-type dementia. Another common misdiagnosis is depression. The errors made by these patients tend to be omissions rather than commissions, and the term that describes this condition is abulia. They fail to change their clothes, to brush their teeth, to pursue their former interests, and to initiate many activities that constitute a normal day. Just as they fail to start something new, they may fail to stop what they are doing and perseveratively fixate, in a seemingly idiosyncratic fashion, on some particular activity, such as going to the bathroom, sorting through...


We hope this book will encourage caregivers - professionals, family and friends - to be alert to this hitherto hidden part of growing up. But awareness is only the start. If we are to reduce any of the barriers that are there for these young people to emerge into adulthood feeling good about their sexual and fertility identities, this book suggests that they may need their caregivers to help them along the way. Not by trying to take the place of their peer group but by helping to enable them to take their place within that peer group with the confidence that comes with feeling that difference is not the same as deficiency.

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