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The Nature of Human Concepts

The three chapters in Part I address foundational issues related to the representation of human concepts. Chapter 2 by Goldstone and Son reviews work on the core concept of similarity - how people assess the degree to which objects or events are alike. Chapter 3 by Medin and Rips considers research on categories and how concepts are organized in semantic memory. Thinking depends not only on representations of individual concepts, such as dogs and cats, but also on representations of the relationships among concepts, such as the fact that dogs often chase cats. In Chapter 4, Doumas and Hummel evaluate different computational approaches to the representation of relations.

Alignment Based Models

Another empirically validated set of predictions stemming from an alignment-based approach to similarity concerns alignable and nonalignable differences (Markman & Gentner, 1993b). Nonalignable differences between two entities are attributes of one entity that have no corresponding attribute in the other entity. Alignable differences are differences that require the elements of the entities first be placed in correspondence. When comparing a police car with an ambulance, a nonalignable difference is that police cars have weapons in them, but ambulances do not. There is no clear equivalent of weapons in the ambulance. Alignable differences include the following police cars carry criminals to jails rather than carrying sick people to hospitals, a police car is a car whereas ambulances are vans, and police car drivers are policemen rather than emergency medical technicians. Consistent with the role of structural alignment in similarity comparisons, alignable differences influence...

Insectperpetuated Rickettsiae

Rickettsiae had long been noted within diverse fleas, including the common cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (66). During the late 1980s, colonies of cat fleas maintained on specific pathogen-free blood were noted to have rickettsia-like bodies within their hemocoel (67). The significance of the ELB agent (named for EL Laboratory, which maintained one of the original sources of infected fleas) was demonstrated in 1994 when its DNA was detected in the blood of murine typhus-like cases in Texas (68). A new rickettsial species, R. felis, was subsequently isolated and described (69). R. felis appears to be stably maintained by TOT, with as many as 12 generations of persistence documented (70). In that study, horizontal transmission to and from cats was not detected, nor did uninfected fleas become infected by being placed with infected fleas. Thus, mammalian reservoirs may not be required for perpetuation. On the other hand, the failure to transmit by bite may reflect a stercorarian mode of...

General Characteristics

A mysterious specificity exists between certain feeding arthropods and certain viruses furthermore, a preferential feeding of certain arthropods (mosquitoes, for example) on certain food sources is shown. Some vertebrates react to a specific virus with severe disease. Yellow fever, for example, produces severe illness in humans, laboratory white mice, rhesus monkeys, and Alouatta monkeys. On the other hand, yellow fever may infect dogs, cats, Cebus monkeys, cows, and horses without producing overt disease. Among the encephalitides, eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus (endemic strains) can produce severe disease and death in humans, laboratory mice, certain other vertebrates, and very specifically equines. But cattle do not develop illness with this agent, nor do sheep, goats, dogs, or cats. By contrast, the South American EEE strain that kills horses produces no illness in humans but does produce detectable antibodies.

Epidemiologylife Cycle

The rat flea X. cheopis mainly transmits R. typhi (22,23). Occasionally, other flea species or arthropod vectors have been reported to transmit R. typhi, including the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis, the mouse flea Leptopsyllia segnis, and lice, mites, and ticks (22,24,25). The flea remains infected for life, but neither its lifespan nor its reproductive activities are affected (22,24-26). The primary reservoirs are the rats belonging to the subgenus Rattus, mainly Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus (22), but various rodents and other wild and domestic animals, such as house mice, cats, opossums, shrews, and skunks, have also been seen to act occasionally as hosts (22). Rats serve not only as simple hosts, but also as amplifying hosts by making rickettsiae in their blood available for the bloodsucking vectors (22), although they remain rickettsemic for a limited period, approximately 7 to 12 days after inoculation (25).

Other Medieval Plagues

Did bubonic plague appear in the West between the Pandemics Most modern scholars agree that what struck the West in 1347 had not been seen for centuries. On the other hand, Michael Dols, a historian of the Plague in the Islamic world, has noted five limited outbreaks that might qualify around Rome in 1167 and again in 1230, Florence in 1244, and southern France and Spain in 1320 and 1330.18 Russian chronicles mention nine plague episodes between 1158 and 1344, though nothing indicates this was bubonic. Nevertheless, the report for 1230 is quite dramatic in Smolensk four mass graves were dug in which 32,000 bodies were interred in Novgorod a mass grave held 6,000 corpses and an accompanying famine caused people to sell their children for food, and eat grass, cats and dogs, and each other.19 Recurring famine also killed off an enormous number of northwestern Europeans between 1317 and 1321, setting the stage for the demographic horrors of the mid-century.20

What questions does this book try to answer

Of course, not all our mental associations are between objects and their names or physical properties. We also know that various things are related, such as mothers and fathers, or salt and pepper, or even properties of things, such as high and low, or sweet and sour. But how do we know in what way these things are related How do we know that a wolfhound is a kind of dog rather than a kind of wolf Why do we say dog and not tiger when we are asked for a word associated with cat, even though cats and tigers are more closely related than cats and dogs These questions are discussed in Chapter 7.

Unusual Species of Infecting Bacteria

Pasteurella multoceda bacterial peritonitis is a disorder that appears to occur in alcoholic cirrhotic patients who have close contact with animals, particularly cats (25). It may, however, occur in patients who have had no close contact with cats or other domestic animals (25a). Gram-negative bacteria and other species that may cause SBP are usually susceptible to cefotaxime and to other third-generation cephalosporins, which are usually so effective in patients with SBP that they can be given without awaiting cultural confirmation of the infection (25b).

Rationales for gait retraining

The hips, during the practice of stepping. Following a low thoracic spinal cord transection, cats and rats have been trained to step with their hindlimbs on a moving treadmill belt with support for the sagging trunk. Pulling down on their tails or a noxious input enhances hindlimb loading in extension. The animals are not as successful walking over ground. Training-induced adaptations within the cord in these animal models point to the potential of plasticity induced by rehabilitation to lead to behavioral gains. It seems likely that a network of locomotor spinal motoneu-rons and interneurons has been conserved in humans (Dimitrijevic et al., 1998), along with other forms of spinal organization (Lemay and Grill, 2004) that increase the flexibility of supraspinal regions to control hindlimb and lower extremity movements. Studies in patients with clinically complete SCI reveal similar responses to limb loading and hip inputs as were found in spinal transected cats (Chapter 30 Volume...

First Articulation of the Concept of a Reticular Activating System

Resulted in physiological and behavioral activation in cats. This led to the hypothesis of the RAS as a group of structures and pathways necessary for waking up, including the mental activity of dreaming during sleep. Moruzzi and Magoun noted Berger's observation that the transition from sleep to wakefulness correlated with a change in the EEG from high-voltage slow waves to lower voltage fast activity (alpha blockade). These EEG changes occurred with any afferent stimulation that produced increasing alertness. Several earlier investigators had stimulated various sites in the ventral dien-cephalon, midbrain (including periaqueductal gray (PAG)) and pons, leading to cortical activation, but until the articulation of the RAS concept, there was no integrated theory for how this transformation occurred, either physiologically or anatomically. Moruzzi and Magoun extended and integrated multiple findings around parameters of cortical activation and alertness and in so doing repudiated...

Representing concepts by whole networks

However, this answer raises even more questions How can many different concepts be represented on the same network. How can the network know which concept it is using now if they are all there at the same time. If, as seems most plausible on the basis of the existing evidence, concepts of the same type - animals, such as cat and dog, or colors, such as red and green - are represented on the same network, then how can we react differently to cats and dogs, or to red and green How can we give them different names if they are all grounded in the same links between the same nodes How can we love cats and hate dogs, or vice versa How can we stop at red and go at green

Different kinds of networks

Well, then, you might ask, doesn't the animal-image network, at least, contain little pictures of dogs and cats, say What else could be in it How can it help us see dogs and cats if it doesn't have little pictures of dogs and cats in it The homunculus argument I presented in the previous chapter shows why this is impossible. There we saw that there would not be any point in having labels on the links in the networks, as there would have to be some little person inside our brains, looking at these labels. In the same way, there would be no point in having pictures in the networks, as once again there would have to be another little person inside this one's brain to look at them, and so on ad infinitum. As in the case of the labeled links, this is clearly impossible, so there has to be some other way that we form our images of cats and dogs.

Returning to Guangdong

In hundreds of cramped stalls that stink of blood and guts, wholesale food vendors tend to veritable zoos that will grace Guangdong Province's tables snakes, chickens, cats, turtles, badgers, frogs. And, in summertime, sometimes rats, too. They are all stacked in cages one on top of another which in turn serve as seats, card tables for the poor migrants who work there.35 Scientists found it easy to imagine how a virus could move from such animals to people in the crowded and filthy conditions of the market stalls, where sick and dying animals were cramped together in filthy cages in close proximity to stall workers. To test that theory, researchers collected specimens from eight different wild animals sold at the market and found varied strains of the coronavirus in all eight animals, including civet cats and rats being butchered in the stalls.

Connections between the networks

Word dog can lead us to think about what dogs do just as easily as the sight of a dog, as there are direct connections between the animal-name network and the animal-concept network as well. Moreover, hearing the word dog can also activate common phrases containing the word dog, such as raining cats and dogs, which are unlikely to be activated by the sight of a dog. Such phrases may well form part of a different sort of network, an animal-phrase network, which is likely to be directly connected to the animal-name network but not to the animal-image network. The animal-phrase network is discussed in Chapter 7, where the relations between concepts are explored.

Cooperation among the networks

When you see the picture, various names of big cats are activated in your animal-name network. The activations of such names as tiger and leopard are fairly high, but some details ofthe picture convince you that the animal is neither a tiger nor a leopard. This provides some inhibition as well for these two names, which lowers their activation to the point where you do not respond with tiger or leopard. These names nevertheless remain too highly activated to allow the network to switch to the pattern for ocelot, which is more weakly connected because it is less frequently used. Now the pattern for the letter o as a first letter is connected to only a few words in the animal-name network, but, still, on its own it might not activate ocelot in this network, since ox and owl are more common. But recall that you are also looking at a picture of an ocelot, and this picture has specifically provided some activation for all the names of the big cats in your...

Overlapping representations

But here we are faced with a fundamental dilemma. We have seen that the images of different animals, say dogs and cats, are represented by different patterns of activity in the animal-image network, while the words dog and cat are represented by different patterns of activity in the animal-name network. However, we also know that the neurons in the animal-image network are connected with the neurons in the animal-name network by a single set of connections. Then how can the image of a dog activate the word dog rather than the word cat, and how can the image of a cat activate the word cat rather than the word dog Why doesn't the sight of a dog activate all the neurons in the animal-name network rather than just those that represent the word dog Let's say, then, that our dog image is the pattern 011001 on this six-unit network. This means that neurons 2, 3 and 6 in AIN are firing while neurons 1, 4 and 5 are silent. Our cat image, say, is 110010, which means that neurons 1, 2 and 5 are...

Classifying things in different categories

But let's say Sarah's father takes her for a walk one day in a new neighborhood where there are cats as well as dogs. Sarah sees a cat running down the street, and she says Dog Why does she do this Indeed, the only difference between the two cases is in our expectations. We expect children to say Dog at the sight of a new dog after having heard the word in connection with other dogs, so we consider this an acceptable generalization - in fact, it seems so natural to us that we hardly notice it at all. On the other hand, when Sarah says Dog at the sight of a cat it goes against our usual way of talking about cats, so we say she has made a mistake and we correct her.

How differentiation works

Now that we understand why Sarah says Dog when she first sees a cat, how can we explain the fact that she does eventually learn to say Cat on later occasions. Well, there are two opposing forces at work here. On the one hand, the cat image evokes the dog-name pattern on the animal-name network, which tends to strengthen this pattern even further. On the other hand, hearing her father say, There's a cat when she sees a cat evokes a new pattern on the same network, a pattern representing the word cat. At first the older pattern is more strongly evoked than the new one, so Sarah continues to say Dog for a while when she sees cats. But as her father persists in saying, No, that's a cat on each occasion, the links leading to the new cat-name pattern are gradually strengthened, and eventually they become strong enough to cause Sarah to say Cat when she sees a cat.

Plasticity in Spinal Locomotor Circuits

The cat's deafferented spinal cord below a low thoracic transection can generate alternating flexor and extensor muscle activity a few hours after surgery when DOPA or clonidine are administered intravenously or when the dorsal columns or dorsal roots are continuously stimulated. This is called fictive locomotion. Several weeks after a complete lower thoracic spinal cord transection without deafferenta-tion, adult cats and other mammals have been trained on a treadmill so that their paralyzed hindlimbs fully support their weight, rhythmically step, and adjust their walking speed to that of the treadmill belt in a manner that is similar to normal locomotion.375,376 Postural support alone is detrimental to subsequent locomotion, whereas rhythmic alternating movements of the limbs with joint loading seems critical to the recovery of locomotor output.377 Serotonergic and noradrenergic drugs enhance the stepping pattern378 and strychnine, through a glycinergic path, quickly induces it in...

Connecting the networks how different things are related

Word-association tests notoriously reveal that people have a tendency to say dog when the tester says cat , low when the tester says high , potatoes when the tester says meat, and mother or son when the tester says father. Yet the types of relation between these pairs of words are very different. Cats and dogs are both animals - members of the same category - just as meat and potatoes are both foods, and lions and tigers are both wild cats. Each pair is mutually exclusive, in the sense that no animal can be both a dog and a cat at the same time if an animal is a cat, it is not a dog, and vice versa. High and low, in contrast, are opposites. They are generally thought of as being at the ends of a continuum, but they are not mutually exclusive in the same way that dogs and cats are. That is, the same thing can be considered either high or low, depending on the context. For example, we may call a certain mountain high when we are speaking about it in the context of the other mountains in...

A phagocytophilum Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis

The vector ticks characteristically feed on several hosts, with each life stage having a range of preferred hosts. A. phagocytophilum is also well known to be a zoonotic agent that can infect and cause disease in several domestic animals, including dogs, horses, and ruminants. Other animals, including cats, macaques, and baboons, are also infected with the agents experimentally however, the symptoms are generally mild (37). Thus, a variety of animals are potential reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum. Small mammals such as the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) in the eastern and midwestern United States, the dusky foot woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) in the western United States, and the wood mouse (A. sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (A. flavicollis), bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), and common shrew (Sorex araneus) in Europe are candidate animals for the reservoirs (18,25). Various cervids other than white-tailed deer are also thought to be reservoirs of A. phagocytophilum the...

Distinguishing dogs from wolves

In the previous chapter we saw that the process of learning to distinguish dogs from cats, or one Chinese person from another, is based on learning to attend to the differences in their appearance which we may not have noticed at first. Dogs look different from cats, and even different types of dogs look more like other types of dogs than they look like cats. Thus, as the cat-image pattern becomes more differentiated from the dogimage pattern, its connections with the pattern for the word cat in the animal-name network are strengthened, while its connections with the pattern for the word dog are weakened. It is therefore able to evoke the pattern for cat rather than dog whenever it occurs. wolfhound image is connected to a very different set of animal-fact patterns than the pattern for the wolf image, while the patterns for the wolfhound and the poodle images are connected to much more similar sets of fact patterns. We saw in the previous chapter how learning different names for dogs...

Linguistic and emotional associations

The existence of the animal-fact network can also help explain our immediate response of dog when we hear cat on a word-association test. This association cannot be explained by semantic network theory at all. There are many different animals that are all linked to the animal node in a semantic network, so these links cannot explain why we say dog rather than horse or bear or lion when we are asked to say the first word we think of when we hear cat. Indeed, since cats are more closely related to lions than to dogs, a link-based semantic network theory should predict that people would say lion or tiger rather than dog when they hear cat. But we don't, so there must be some other way of explaining this response. Here too we can use the animal-fact network to explain our response of dog rather than lion when we hear cat. Although we know the fact that cats are more closely related biologically to lions than to dogs, we also know many facts about cats and dogs that point up the...

Toxicity Of Hyperoxia To The Retina Evidence From The Mouse

This paper explores the toxic impact of hyperoxia on photoreceptors in a mature mammalian retina. The question is important because partial depletion of the photoreceptor layer (the situation in most human retinal degenerations at diagnosis) leads to a chronic rise in tissue oxygen levels in outer retina. This rise has been demonstrated in three models of photoreceptor degeneration, the RCS rat (Linsenmeier et al., 2000, Yu et al., 2000, Yu et al., 2004), the Abyssinian cat (Linsenmeier et al., 2000), and the rhodopsin-mutant transgenic P23H rat (Yu et al., 2004). Further, there is an established basis for the understanding of this rise in analyses of oxygen gradients and consumption in the retina of rats (Yu and Cringle, 2001), cats (Haugh et al., 1990) and monkeys (Ahmed et al., 1993) the depletion-induced hyperoxia in outer retina is not likely to be specific either to species or to particular causes of depletion. For this reason, we have proposed ('the oxygen toxicity hypothesis')...

Two different types of memory

Until now we have been discussing how we learn and organize our general knowledge - the names and properties of things, such as dogs and cats, or mothers and fathers, and the relations between them. All these may be called permanent memories, as we generally retain this sort of knowledge throughout life, and it changes only occasionally, such as when we hear about a new type of mother known as a surrogate mother. But when we think of all this knowledge as a type of memory, we immediately begin to think of the other kinds of things we need to remember -namely, the specific things that happen to us or that we do in our daily life, and the things we are intending to do. These may be called temporary memories, as they involve specific occasions and do not need to be remembered for a long time. In this chapter I discuss some of the essential differences between the two types of memory and describe what is known about the way they are embodied in different types of neural networks in the...

Personto Person Transmission

Despite the fact that pneumonia (and hence the potential for spread via aerosols) is a common manifestation of Q fever in some areas of the world, there have been only a few cases of person-to-person transmission (62-64). The intracellular location of the organism is the likely explanation for the rarity of such transmission. There are two reports of transmission of Q fever to attendants during autopsies (62,63), and one report of transmission of infection from a patient to hospital staff (64). One wonders why more cases of Q fever do not develop in obstetrical staff who assist at the delivery of infected pregnant women since infected parturient cats, sheep, and cattle readily spread infection to people. Raoult and Stein (58) have documented Q fever in an obstetrician who attended the delivery of a woman with Q fever during pregnancy. No serosurveys of obstetricians have been carried out to determine if they have a higher rate of antibodies to C. burnetii than do other physicians.

Analogy as distinct from homology

Tures in unrelated species mainly by the coincidence of similar habitats that are situated far apart (or otherwise cut off). Thus, among Australian mammals, there are marsupial versions of cats, wolves, squirrels, mice, and moles one can hardly distinguish from their true placental counterparts in the Old World. Such striking examples of resemblance between species across different orders in the taxa of higher animals provide some of the most graphic proofs of natural selection in action. Similar examples of analogy - or convergent evolution - are found in plants. The New World cacti and the cactus-like African spurges, for instance, belong to separate families in the taxa but are similar in appearance (and function) due to common desert adaptations.

The representationalists criticism

One of the important differences between the two theories is the one that gives them their names. Representationalists claim that every object we see, every sound we hear, every word we learn, is stored in our mind as a separate, point-like representation of that thing. Just as the word cat represents cats, they say, there is a concept CAT inside our mind that represents, somehow, the essence of cathood. In the connectionist view, we recall, our notion of a cat is distributed over several networks, and is related to other associated notions such as dog or fur by sharing part

The Darwinian Approach to Evolution

The following is the merest sketch of the early Darwinian approach to evolution so that its ideas can be seen in the context of this book (see Further Reading for more extensive descriptions). It is based on observations of form and function of species of organisms, not on chemistry, and in it there is recognition of the huge diversity of living organisms in species. There is no doubt either in this approach that life has evolved in part in organisation while simpler cellular organisms developed and still exist. It is also true that some individual species have themselves increased in numbers and sophistication and that many have been lost. The study by Darwin of the form and behaviour of the organisms in species classified earlier (see Table 4.1) led to a proposal for their geographical and physical diversity, that is that the evolution of organisms took advantage of the variety of the environment (see Burrow in Further Reading). Hence a special environmental feature gave rise to a...

Salmon Poisoning Disease

This is a highly fatal disease of dogs in the Pacific Northwestern region of the United States caused by N. helminthoeca, which is transmitted by N. salmincola, a small intestinal trematode of dogs (51). Its life cycle involves the dog, a freshwater snail, and a salmonid fish. Coyotes also show clinical signs but cats do not.

Other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsial Infections

There is little information on the effects of the numerous other SFG rickettsiae on domestic animals. In limited studies, SFG rickettsiae that are nonpathogenic in people have also been found to not cause signs in animals. Similarly, dogs experimentally infected with R. conorii, the agent of Mediterranean spotted fever in people, show no clinical or laboratory abnormalities although they seroconvert and become rickettsemic for up to 10 days (59). Also, dogs infected with R. australis show no signs and do not become rickettsemic although seroconversion occurs (60). Cattle and goats infected with R. africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever, show no systemic signs but are rickettsemic for up to 30 days and might be important reservoirs of infection (61,62). R. felis is the recently described agent of flea-borne spotted fever in people. The organism is maintained in nature by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. Cats show no clinical signs when infected but they become rickettsemic...

Clostridium Difficile

Clostridium difficile and toxin B have been demonstrated in gut contents of dogs (pups more commonly than adults) with chronic diarrhea. Infection of the same litter with different toxigenic phenotypes suggests transient infection with different strains.160 Clostridium difficile has also been isolated from camels, horses, donkeys,161 swine,162 dogs and cats (up to 39 prevalence rate),163-165 and other domestic species.166 The importance of domestic animals as sources of infection for humans has not been established.163164

Drugs for Treating Protozoan Infections

Prevention of protozoan diseases consists of controlling the spread of the disease, improving sanitarial-hygenic conditions of life, receiving vaccinations, and treatment. It should be kept in mind that malaria is spread by mosquitoes, in particular by the bite of (female) Anopheles mosquito leishmaniasis is spread through infected gerbils trypanosome is spread by the tsetse fly amibiasis and giardia are spread through food and water and toxoplasmosis is spread through meat products and infected cats. Many different chemotherapeutic drugs are used to combat protozoan parasites.

Brainstem Processing Of Auditory Space

The superior colliculus (SC) is often considered the seat of auditory spatial perception, because it contains a map of auditory space. This has been shown in various species (owls (Knudsen and Konishi, 1978) guinea pigs (King and Hutchings, 1987) cats (Middlebrooks and Knudsen, 1984)). The SC receives its input from the inferior colliculus (IC), in particular the external nuclei of the IC, which in turn receive their input from the dorsal part of the cochlear nuclei (DCN). The medial superior olive (MSO) and the lateral superior olive (LSO) are responsible for encoding interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD), respectively. (For a more complete review of brainstem mechanisms of auditory space processing see Irvine, 1992).

And Nonprimary Auditory Cortex

Early studies have suggested a role for auditory cortex in sound localization (Diamond et al., 1956 Heffner and Masterton, 1975 Ravizza and Masterton, 1972). The first study, however, to unequivocally demonstrate that a lesion of primary auditory cortex (A1) in cats causes a deficit in sound localization was performed by Jenkins and Merzenich (1984). Particularly convincing was the fact that the sound localization deficits after small A1 lesions were frequency-specific. These findings were confirmed in later studies using different tasks (Beitel and Kaas, 1993 Heffner and Heffner, 1990). In these studies, A1 appeared to be the only region of auditory cortex whose ablation caused a localization deficit. However, cats have an auditory cortical region that is hidden deep in the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) which was later implicated in sound localization the anterior ectosylvian auditory area (AEA (Korte and Rauschecker, 1993 Middlebrooks et al., 1994 Rauschecker and Korte,

Behavioral evidence in animals and humans

Behavioral data from auditory spatial testing after visual deprivation exist in two mammalian species, cats (Rauschecker and Kniepert, 1994) and ferrets (King and Parsons, 1999). Both sets of data demonstrate that auditory spatial acuity increases (and sound localization error decreases) in early blind mammals. The most pronounced effects were found in lateral and rear positions of azimuth, where the differences to sighted controls were highly significant. All tests in visually deprived cats were performed with very brief tones (40 ms), so that the animals could not orient towards the sound source. However, if given the opportunity, visually deprived animals (just like blind humans) will use other strategies for the localization of sounds. Very frequently, binocularly lid-sutured cats can be observed to orient towards the azimuth position of a novel sound and then perform vertical scanning movements (in elevation) within that same azimuthal plane (Rauschecker and Henning, 2001). The...

Oscillatory Behavior In The Visual System

Despite reliable reports of gamma band activation in cats and monkeys, it has been more difficult to see this activity in humans using MEG, as compared to EEG. Eulitz et al. (1996) notes that one possible reason why it is difficult to see gamma band activity using MEG relates to the number of neurons in one region that must be active simultaneously (e.g., tens to hundreds of thousands) in order to produce a measurable MEG signal at the surface of the head. If gamma band activity originates from cell assemblies, and at most tens of thousands of neurons make up a particular cell assembly with only a fraction of those cells

Spirulina And The Innate Immune System

In vitro, addition of Spirulina to macrophages obtained from the lung of cats significantly raised the percentage of phagocytic macrophages without affecting the number of particles that each of these macrophages engulfed.5 Similarly, in chicks that had received Spirulina as part of their diet (10-10,000 ppm) for 3 or 7 weeks, the proportion of phagocytic macrophages was significantly increased compared to unsupplemented controls.6 The number of ingested particles per phagocytic macrophage was not significantly affected. In another study, however, dietary supplementation of chicks with 0.5 , 1.0 , or 2.0 Spirulina for 14, 35, or 42 days significantly enhanced not only the percentage of macrophages involved in phagocytosis but also the number of phagocytosed particles per macrophage.7 These macrophages also exhibited significantly greater lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitrite than those obtained from unsupplemented animals.7 Spontaneous nitrite production (in the...

Distribution and Physiological Function of the Serotonergic Neuron

The involvement of the serotonergic system in motor function in vertebrates was indicated initially by its dense axon terminal innervation of motoneurons in both the brain stem and spinal cord. Secondary motor structures, such as the basal ganglia, substantia nigra, and habenula, also receive significant serotonergic input as noted. Administration of serotonergic agonists produces a motor syndrome in rats head shakes, hyperreactivity, tremor, hindlimb abduction, lateral head weaving, and reciprocal forepaw treading. Extracellular recordings in conjunction with mi-croiontophoresis of serotonin onto motoneurons in the rat facial motor nucleus or in the spinal cord ventral horn showed that when serotonin interacts with excitatory influences on motoneurons, it produces a strong facilitation of neuronal activity (via 5-HT2 receptors). Administration of serotonergic agonists directly into the trigeminal nerve in cats produced an increase in the amplitude of the elec-tromyography (EMG) of...

Antipredator behavior

Omaha Beach Day German Photos

In itself, coordinated group defense is most effective against carnivores that hunt by stalking prey (e.g., wild dogs and hyenas) and less effective against those who hunt by stealth and ambush (e.g., big cats). A leopard or lion in hiding can make a quick snatch of a youngster and retreat with impunity long before collective lines of defense are drawn by the troop. To cope with the threat of such stealthy attacks, baboons have developed additional adaptations designed to lower the risk of being caught off guard, especially on open grounds. DeVore and Washburn (1963 343) point out that the behavior of baboons in a wooded area contrasts strikingly with their behavior in the open A baboon troop that is in or under trees seems to have no particular organization, but when the troop moves out onto the open plains a clear order of progression appears. Crossing open ground, baboons will usually travel in highly regimented large formations. Females and young surrounded by the strongest...

Regulatory Activities On Immune System Of Spirulina

Spirulina And Immune System

It was reported145 that Spirulina up-regulates key cells and organs of the immune system improving their ability to function in spite of stress from environmental toxins and infectious agents. Studies on animal models documented that phycocyanin of Spirulina stimulates hematopoiesis, especially erythropoiesis by inducing erythropoietin hormone (EPO). There is also evidence that c-phcocyanin and polysaccharides of Spirulina enhance white blood cell production 146,147 The percentage of phagocytic macrophages increased when cats were administered water-soluble extract of S. platensis (Qureshi and Ali, 1996). Increased phagocytic activity was also observed in other animals such as mice and chicken 146-148

Induction as Scientific Methodology

House cats often carry the parasite Floxum. House cats often carry the parasite Floxum. Even though the premise categories of the first argument are more diverse (house cats are less similar to field mice than to tigers), the second argument might seem stronger because house cats could conceivably become infected with the parasite Floxum while hunting field mice. Even if you do not find the second argument stronger, merely accepting the relevance of this infection scenario undermines the diversity principle, which prescribes that the similarity principle should be determinative for all pairs of arguments. At minimum, it shows that the diversity principle does not dominate all other principles of sound inference.

The Heart Lung Machine

His work steadily progressed, however, and by 1939, Gibbon reported at the annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery that three cats whose circulation had been totally supported by the heart-lung machine had survived more than nine months after the surgery. Dr. Clarence Crafoord, chief of thoracic surgery at the prestigious Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, said Gibbon's report was a pinnacle of success in the progress of surgery. Dr. Leo Eloesser, a prominent chest surgeon from San Francisco, said the work reminded him of Jules Verne's dreamlike visions, regarded as impossible at the time but later actually accomplished.

Ringworm Tinea Dermatophytosis

In similar fashion, Trichophyton ferrugineum established itself in western parts of Russia after introduction by troops from the Far East. Classical favus in Western Europe is caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii, but in North Africa and the Mediterranean by Trichophyton vio-laceum. Microsporum canis (tinea canis cat and dog ringworm , tinea capitis, and tinea corporis), coextensive with dogs and cats as pets, has become endemic in New Zealand in feral cats. Human infections are also contracted from cattle (Trichophyton verrucosum), horses, and other farm animals. Microsporum gypseum has a worldwide distribution, but outbreaks in humans are usually short-lived.

The Role of Deprenyl in the Recognition of the Enhancer Regulation in the Mesencephalic Neurons

Deprenyl (we used the racemic compound under the code name E-250 in the first series of experiments) proved to be a compound with a peculiar pharmacological spectrum. We described it in our first paper as a new spectrum psychic energizer (Knoll et al. 1965). I selected this compound for further development because I was fascinated by the finding that in contrast to MAO inhibitors, which potentiated the blood pressure increasing effect of amphetamine, a releaser of norepinephrine from their stores in the noradrenergic nerve terminals, E-250 inhibited it (see Fig. 1 in Knoll et al. 1965). Based on this observation we analyzed this peculiar behavior in more detail. As I expected, the studies revealed that deprenyl, in contrast to the known MAO inhibitors, did not potentiate the effect oftyramine but inhibited it. This effect of deprenyl was first demonstrated in a study performed on cats and on the isolated vas deferens of rats. The hope was expressed in this paper that this

History And Overview

The occurrence of spongiform encephalopathy extends well beyond the confines of human medicine. Ever since the early eighteenth century, a spongiform illness called scrapie has been known to affect sheep and goats, and in past decades similar diseases have been identified in mink, cats, and ungulates, most recently as the cause of a dramatic epidemic of spongiform encephalopathy in British cattle. The disease in each of these species appears to have resulted from the contamination of animal feed with meat and bone meal processed from scrapie-infected sheep carcasses, and there is mounting evidence that a small but increasing number of British cases with new variant CJD are due to a further species-jumping transmission to humans, presumably from BSE-contaminated beef products. Apart from these cases, CJD in humans may be broadly categorized as sporadic (for which no evident cause can be determined), familial (associated with mutations in the PRNP gene), and iatrogenic (caused by...

Epidemiology Fleas And Rickettsia Felis Relationships

Rickettsioses are zoonoses vectorized by arthropods. R. felis is the only species of SFG that is transmitted by fleas. Humans can be infected after flea bites (1). Since its discovery, R. felis has been associated with fleas throughout the world, and published data has demonstrated its wide geographic distribution. It has been detected in fleas in Brazil (25), in Africa including Ethiopia (9), Gabon, and Algeria (26), in Europe including Spain (25), France (27), the United Kingdom (28,29), and Cyprus (30), in Asia including Thailand (31) and Afghanistan (32), and in New Zealand (33). The involvement of cat fleas and domesticated mammals including rodents, hedgehogs, cats, dogs, and recently monkeys (34) in the transmission cycle must be further investigated, as they may act as reservoir of R. felis.

Wolbachia and the Adaptive Immune Response Serology

Although antibody responses to a number of Wolbachia antigens, such as an aspartate amino-transferase and HtrA-type serine protease (62,63) have been reported, the antibody responses to the major surface protein, WSP, are the most well characterized. Anti-WSP antibody responses have been demonstrated in filarial infections of cats (64,65), dogs (66), rhesus monkeys (67), mice (68), and humans (55,68-70).

Helminthic Dermatosis Roundworm

Gnathostomiasis Parasite

This is a disease caused by hookworms, usually parasites of dogs and cats. The ova are excreted through the feces, GNATHOSTOMIASIS. This condition was first diagnosed in South America in Ecuador in 1979 and extensively studied by Oyague. It is caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum. Clinically, it produces a nodular migratory eosinophilic panniculitis. This parasite normally inhabits the stomach of domestic animals such as dogs and cats. The eggs are excreted in the stools of these animals. They then reach the rivers and hatch in the water and are ingested by organisms of a Cyclops species, developing into the second larval stage. This is later ingested by fish, forming a third larval stage in their muscular tissue which in turn is eaten by a definitive host. Humans, who are not the definitive hosts, could develop the characteristic panniculitis of this disease from eating raw fish such as in cebiche or sushi. The parasite migrates through the tissues,...

Generating Emotional Feelings Through Upper Brainstemlimbic And Cortical Interactions

The combined body of evidence reported above supports a complex hierarchical view of how emotions are elaborated in the brain. For instance, the reciprocal relations in limbic and cortical regions during the imaging of emotions and cognitions in the human brain has prompted the formulation of a model of emotional regulation in which activity in neocortical regions plays an important role in the regulation of emotional states, including emotion generation, maintenance, and suppression (see Figs. 2.6 to 2.8). Elaborating on the observations on decerebration and sham rage in cats and dogs, Reiman (1997) hypothesized that the cerebral cortex serves to inhibit unbridled expressions of emotion.

Anatomy Of Mood Emotion And Thought

The neuroanatomic structures related to human mood, emotion, and thought function are complex, and research in this area is still under development. The association of various brain regions with particular functions is based primarily on studies of lesions and, more recently, on functional neuroimaging. Although generalizations based on these isolated cases are somewhat precarious, extended observations based on series of cases are somewhat more reliable. Additionally, although the findings of animal studies are highly reproducible, they do not necessarily apply to human behavior. 4 Early experiments on dogs and other animals demonstrated that decortication produced rage behavior when the animal was presented with previously nonthreatening stimuli. Later work in cats showed the importance of an intact diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)

Introduction And History

Flea-borne spotted fever (also called cat flea typhus) is an emerging rickettsiosis due to Rickettsia felis, which belongs to the spotted fever group (SFG) of Rickettsia. R. felis is hosted by fleas, as are R. typhi, Bartonella henselae, Wolbachia pipientis, and Yersinia pestis (1). This Rickettsia was probably first detected in cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis in 1918 (2). It was rediscovered in 1990, when cat fleas (C. felis) were examined as possible vectors of R. typhi. In Orange County California, where infected rats are difficult to document, cases of murine typhus were reported. Epidemiologic studies were performed and demonstrated that cases were associated with seropositive domestic cats and opossums. The latter were heavily infested with C. felis. When fleas were investigated for R. typhi, a newly identified Rickettsia-like organism was observed by electron microscopy in midgut epithelial cells of C. felis (3). The agent was characterized by molecular biology techniques and...

The Genus Anaplasma 1910 Taxonomy and Phylogeny

The genus Anaplasma includes three species that infect circulating erythrocytes, one species that infects platelets, and two species that infect circulating white blood cells. A. marginale is responsible for bovine anaplasmosis, a severe febrile hemolytic anemia of cattle that occurs after bites of several different tick species such as Dermacentor andersoni in Northern America and Boophilus microplus in Africa the infection occurs worldwide. A. centrale causes a similar but usually mild disease in cattle, and A. ovis does so in sheep and goats. A. platys is the causative agent of infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia in dogs and cats, a disease that manifests as progressively diminishing episodes of fever and thrombocytopenia. The bacterium is transmitted to animal by the bite of Rhipicephalus sanguineus or Amblyomma sp. ticks. A. bovis is the causative agent of bovine ehrlichiosis of Africa, the Middle East, India, and Sri Lanka, a disease that is clinically characterized by...

Similarity Based Induction

Mandler and McDonough (1998) argued that the basic-level bias comes relatively late, and demonstrated that 14-month-old infants show a bias to project properties within a broad domain (animals or vehicles) rather than at the level usually considered to be basic. This finding is not inconsistent with Coley et al.'s (1997) conclusion because the distributional and linguistic properties that they claim mediate induction presumably have to be learned, and so finding a basic-level preference only amongst adults is sufficient for their argument. Mandler and McDonough (1998) argued that infants' predilection to project to broad domains demonstrates an initial propensity to rely on conceptual as opposed to perceptual knowledge as a basis for induction, meaning that infants rely on the very abstract commonalities among animals as opposed to the perhaps more obvious physical differences among basic-level categories (pans vs. cups and cats vs. dogs). Of course, pans and cups do have physical...

Cell Lineages In The Small Intestine

PANETH CELL LINEAGE The presence, morphology, and number of Paneth cells vary in different species. They are absent in cats and predominate in the crypts of ant-eating Brazilian bears (Creamer, 1967). In mice, they are located in the lower third of the crypts and represent 3.3 of the duodenal crypt cells and, respectively, 7.5 and 6.6 in the jejunum and ileum (Cheng and Leblond, 1974a).

Animal Models

Animal modeling is more difficult and controversial when it addresses dysfunctional behavior and psycho-pathology. Animal models promise an understanding of human psychopathology, not as bizarre distortions of behavior but, rather, as the consequence of lawful psychological processes whose principles and mechanisms can be elucidated scientifically. Ivan Pavlov was perhaps the first to argue that experimentally induced abnormal behavior in animals might teach us about human dysfunction. Behavioral scientists continued with principled analysis and research with animals in an attempt to define the potential for the emotional hazards in animals and humans that might arise accidentally in the course of normal learning experiences and result in the development of psychopathology. One illustrative example showed that punishment of cats' con-summatory behavior resulted in persistent fears analogous to phobic neuroses but that these fears were treatable by a forced extinction procedure and...

Anthrax

The species of domestic animals most commonly affected are cattle, sheep, and goats pigs, dogs, and cats are less susceptible. An enlarged spleen is a classic observation in animals with anthrax, thus the disease has also been known as splenic fever or splenic apoplexy. In humans, the cutaneous form is known as malignant pustule, and the pulmonary or intestinal (industrial) type as woolsorters' disease or industrial anthrax. In French, the equivalent of splenic fever is sang de rate, in German Milzbrand other French synonyms include charbon and pustule maligne.

Tokentoken identity

The particular belief that I hold about the relation between the mind and the brain is a sort of monism, since I believe that the mind is inseparable from the brain. The sort of monism I accept is based on the difference between types and tokens. For example, a cat is a type of animal, while an individual cat - say, your pet Lucky - is a token of this type. Some facts are true about cats in general, while others are true only about Lucky. The facts about cats in general can be considered scientific laws about cats -for example, All cats have fur. Facts about a particular cat - say, that Lucky wears a purple ribbon with her name printed on it in yellow letters - do not have the status of laws.

Clonorchiasis

The Chinese liver fluke, discovered in 1875, is a small worm that parasitizes the bile ducts and livers of humans, dogs, cats, pigs, and several wild animals in China, Japan, Korea, and Indochina. Estimates indicate that 20 million individuals in China alone are infected. Eggs are laid in the bile ducts, pass in the feces, and, if they reach the proper freshwater snail, undergo a series of stages in this intermediate host. Eventually, free-swimming larvae are formed, which

Basal Ganglia

The cortex is completely unnecessary for routine walking in the cat, as evidenced by the performance of decorticate cats (animals in which the cortex has been removed but the basal ganglia and thalamus are left intact). However, the cat with frontal cortex or medullary pyramid lesions cannot perform stepping that requires precise placement of the feet, for example, walking on the rungs of a horizontal ladder. This indicates that skilled walking requires input from the motor cortex. The motor cortex has neurons that fire in phase with stepping and, therefore, like the reticulospinal, vestibulospinal, and rubrospinal systems, it probably facilitates stepping. Stimulation of the medullary pyramid can reset the step cycle. This indicates that the corticospinal tract can affect the central pattern generators and may have a role in initiating and modifying the locomotor pattern produced by the central pattern generators. y The sensorimotor cortex also has connections to the midbrain...

Rockettsia Parkeri

In 1939, Parker reported the isolation of the so-called maculatum agent from Gulf Coast ticks (A. maculatum) collected from cows in south Texas (131). Studies on guinea pigs showed that this bacteria causes mild febrile disease resembling spotted fever rickettsiosis. Subsequent studies characterized this bacterium as a distinct SFG rickettsia and it was named R. parkeri (132). It was characterized as a nonpathogenic species and received relatively little attention for the remainder of the twentieth century, although multiple speculations regarding pathogenicity of R. park-eri for humans followed its discovery. In 2004, Paddock et al. (133) reported the first recognized case of the infection with R. parkeri in a human 65 years after its initial isolation from ticks. A 40-year-old man living in suburban area in southeast Virginia presented with fever, headache, diffuse myalgias and arthralgias, and multiple eschars on his lower extremities. He recalled no arthropod bite, although he had...

Erection

Evidence from animal studies and patients with spinal cord injuries suggests that both parasympathetic and sympathetic components may contribute to penile erection. Root25 demonstrated that if the sacral spinal cord is removed from male cats, they can still develop erections when with a female in estrous, but animals that have had a cord transection above the level of the sympathetic efferent nerves do not show an erectile response. Erection to arousing visual and auditory stimuli is preserved in some of male patients with sacral cord lesions.26 Patients with damage to the cervical cord can only develop erections following tactile stimulation of the penis, when afferent information is conveyed to the spinal cord via the pudendal nerve. These findings are compatible with a psychogenic pathway via the long thoracic efferent sympathetic fibers of the hypogastric nerve and a reflexogenic pathway via

Learning to say dog

Let's see how learning can be described in these terms. We start out with two networks in one-year-old Sarah's brain that are connected in both directions - that is, there are connections through which the neurons in the first network activate those in the second network, and other connections through which the neurons in the second network activate those in the first one. Now let's say Sarah is taken out for a walk every day in an area where there are lots of dogs but no cats. Sarah's attention is caught by a brown dog, and her father, seeing her pointing excitedly at the dog, says, Yes, Sarah, there's a dog. Then a black-and-white dog runs by, and the

Linked Traits

Early in embryonic development of a female mammal, one or the other X chromosomes is inactivated in each somatic cell that has been formed at that point in development. In some of the cells one X chromosome is the one inactivated in the rest of the cells, the other X chromosome is affected. However, when any of those cells divides, the daughter cells have the same pattern of inactivation. Thus a female mammal is a mosaic of cells having one or the other X chromosome expressing itself. One striking example of X inactivation is tor-toiseshell cats, which are nearly always female. The alleles for black or yellow coat color are carried on the X chromosome, and so the cat's coat is a patchwork of the two colors.

Spinal Primitives

The spinal organization of force field modules may provide a basis for computational flexibility even when a stroke or SCI interrupts descending influences on the cord. In this circumstance, segmental afferent activity may become a more dominant input for resculpting locomotor or reaching activity. For walking, the details of experiential practice in cats and rats198 and in humans174,179,195,199 are critical for improving reciprocal stepping. As noted earlier, important sensory inputs relate to the rate and degree of hip extension, the level of limb weight bearing, the timing of interlimb movements and of shifts in bearing weight at the transition between stance and swing, and the speed of walking. Such inputs, provided repetitively, may activate any conserved organization of primitives and CPG circuitry of the cord and provide a clinical benefit (see Chapters 6 and 9). This sensory information also activates and reorganizes spared cortical and subcortical assemblies of motoneurons...

Fact networks

Let us recall that concepts of the same kind are represented by patterns of activity of the neurons in a particular module, with each different kind of concept represented in a different module. Thus cat and dog are both in the animal module, while meat and potatoes are in the food module, and mother and son are in the family-members module. Now let's make a leap Geoffrey Hinton, a leading figure in connectionist theory, has suggested that not only are concepts represented by patterns of activity in neuronal networks, but so are the facts that connect these concepts. What this means is that there is, for example, an animal-fact network where the patterns of activity represent facts such as Cats are animals and Dogs are animals, just as the animal-name network has cat and dog patterns. This module takes over the function of the labeled links in the semantic network connecting cat with animal and dog with animal. But how does this work Let's say you are participating in an experiment...

Culture And Cloning

New technologies will necessitate new stories. Octuplets and septuplets will be the first in our species to hear a story of the dogs and the cats, about being part of a litter. We need a story for a child whose entire first-grade class, and soccer team, consists of siblings. Children of postmenopausal pregnancy will need a new story more fitting than that of the accidental late-born child of yesterday. Children of sperm and egg donors will need a story. While today most parents do not tell their children of the presence of donor DNA, eventually it will not be optional. Perhaps these children

Paradoxical Sleep

The term paradoxical sleep was introduced in a 1967 Scientific American article on the states of sleep by French researcher Michel Jouvet. Jouvet used the term to describe a period of apparent sleep in cats in which they exhibited high levels of neural activity with completely relaxed neck muscles. In humans, such periods are also characterized by rapid eye movements sleep researchers use the term REM sleep with human subjects but paradoxical sleep with animals because many species do not exhibit eye movements.

Bacterial infections

At the beginning of the 1980s some patients with AIDS presented with a clinical picture very similar to the eruptive phase of verruga peruana. This new disease was named bacillary angiomatosis. The histological descriptions of the eruptive lesions of bacillary angiomatosis (histiocytes and newly formed vessels) were identical to those described in verruga peruana, the only bartonellosis known at that time. The initial thought was to associate this new entity with cat-scratch disease, and with what was supposed to be its etiology, a new bacteria called Afipia felis. At a later time, isolation of a gram-negative rod from the lesions led to classifying it under a new family of bacteria called Rochalimaea. When genetic studies were made comparing the genes of Bartonella bacilliformi and the new Rochalimaea family, it became evident that they were closely related, and they were renamed under the Bartonella family. The new Bartonella species include B, henselae, B, quintana (both cause...

Sham Rage

Both data and theory have supported the notion that the hypothalamus is integral to rage production. The septum and amygdala are both extensively interconnected with the hypothalamus, thus providing neuroanatomical support for a hypothalamic role in rage. Indeed, lesion studies with cats and case studies with humans support the role of the hypothalamus in rage production. It is thus proposed that the hypothalamus acts to balance the septum and amygdaloid regions to promote normal levels of hostility and that pre-frontal and temporal regions also interact (via the inhibitory uncinate tract) to yield stable aggression levels. Given these theories, it would then be expected that lesion of the septum or hypothalamus or stimulation of the amygdaloid bodies may produce sham rage.

Dust Samples

Dust samples can be collected and analyzed for content of specific allergens such as those from mites, cats, dogs, and cockroaches.18,44,45 Table 3.7 provides an example where dusts from a complaint office (allergic symptoms), a control office, and soot in a HVAC system outdoor air inlet were analyzed for various allergens. In this example, cat allergen (Fel d1) concentrations were highest in the complaint office. The results in Table 3.7 suggested that pet owners were transporting Fel d1 on clothing into the workplace. The particles containing Fel d1 accumulated in settled dust, especially in the complaint office. A thorough dust removal program (HEPA filter vacuum cleaning), especially for fleecy office materials (upholstered furniture, modular partitions, and carpet), was carried out to lower the Fel d1 in the office environment.

Human Locomotion

Analysis of human gait first became possible toward the end of the nineteenth century with the development of photographic recordings of running movements. Later, the technique for recording electrophysiological responses during locomotion was developed and was first demonstrated in cats.

Sleep and obesity

Young children often wake their parents or carers during the night and the insomnia that this causes can become a long-term problem. Similarly, pets in the home, such as cats and dogs, often prefer to sleep in the bedroom or in or on the bed and can disturb the individual's sleep. This may be due to movements, purring or barking, but their presence may also lead to nocturnal asthma through an allergic mechanism, or by disturbing the dust in the bed and increasing its inhalation.

Classification

Rosch et al., 1976) and can recognize that a set of objects with similar features, such as animals (dogs, cats), form categories (Quinn, 2002). They are also sensitive to the correlation between attributes (Younger & Fearing, 1999). However, prototypes are arguably subsymbolic because they are well simulated by three-layered nets (Quinn & Johnson, 1 997) and do not have properties such as compositionality that are basic to symbolic processes (Fodor, 1995 Halford, Phillips, & Wilson, unpublished manuscript). Mandler (2000) argues that infants make the transition from perceptual categories, which enable objects to be recognized by their appearance, to conceptual categories, defined by the role objects play in events and that serve as a basis for inductive inference. Neural nets are a very suitable basis for constructing models of prototype formation, and McClelland and Rumelhart (1985) produced an early prototype model that fundamentally changed the way we view categorization. Quinn and...

The Vector

To date, five species of fleas have been associated with R. felis C. felis (1), C. canis (37), P. irritans (1), Anomiopsyllus nudata, and recently Archaeopsylla erinacei (26). From all these species, the cat flea, C. felis, is one of the most frequent external parasites of companion animals worldwide (38). C. felis is generally regarded as the predominant species to find on dogs, cats, and opossums (38). In the United States opossums were found to be the most heavily infested with the cat flea, Ctencephalides felis (1). C. felis was found to be infected with R. felis by PCR, with infection rates at 3.8 in the United States (1) and up to 12 in the United Kingdom (28). In the United States, R. felis was also detected in opossum tissue (36,39). Recently, R. felis has been detected in C. felis fleas parasitizing rats in Cyprus (30). As C. felis has a worldwide distribution and infestation with these fleas is very common, flea-borne spotted fever may occur worldwide (Fig. 1).

Methods Animals

Tal Damas Wootz

Female common cats were fed a completely defined taurine-free synthetic diet (BioServe, Frenchtown, NJ) for at least 6 months prior to mating. The cats were severely taurine-depleted, with plasma taurine concentrations of less than 1 mole 100 ml (0.1 M) Other females (controls), fed the same diet supplemented with 0.05 taurine, maintained plasma taurine levels of approximately 25-50 M. Male cats were fed the taurine-supplemented diet except during mating with females receiving the taurine-free diet. Surviving F1 kittens were sacrificed at the time of weaning (8 weeks after birth) and used in this study. A recent observation in the F1 generation of inbred, taurine-deficient cats provides further evidence of the role of taurine deficiency in renal damage. Taurine-deficient female cats were bred with taurine-deficient males. Surviving F1 generation kits showed blindness, ataxia, cerebellar abnormalities and kyphosis, as well as evidence of renal scarring with small contracted kidneys....

Spirulina Patent

The Spirulina polysaccharide can be used as an ingredient of antiviral pharmaceutical compositions (liquid, powders, capsules), in foods or drinks like chocolate, tea, biscuits, hamburgers, and others alike. It is recommended to administrate orally the polysaccharide for humans, and animals such as domestic animals cattles, pigs, sheeps, goats, and pets like dogs, cats, at a dose of about 5-200 mg kg weight per day, depending on general conditions, severity of the diseases among other factors.

Concurrent Therapy

If extensive repair is necessary, intravenous antibiotics should be started during wound closure. Animal and human bite wounds are often treated by post-closure antibiotics. The efficacy of this practice remains controversial, but antibiotics are often given because of the extensive contamination that occurs with bite wounds, especially those from cats. Amoxicillin-clavulanate covers the typical bacteria of bite wounds. Doxycycline and ceftriaxone are alternative medications.29

Q Fever In Animals

Cattle, sheep, and goats are the primary reservoirs of Q fever for humans. C. burnetii localizes to the uterus and mammary glands of infected animals (77). However, C. burnetii is able to infect many species including mammals, birds, and arthropods (77,78). The importance of the various animal reservoirs can be emphasized by reviewing the outbreaks that have been reported (78). From 1999 to 2004, there were 18 reported outbreaks of Q fever from 12 different countries involving two to 289 people. Six outbreaks involved sheep three involved goats one resulted from exposure to goat manure one from exposure to ovine manure one involved exposure to wild animals one involved exposure to cats and dogs, and in two outbreaks the source was unknown (78). Sanford et al. (81) described abortions that occurred in five goat herds that were exposed to three goats from another herd that kidded prematurely during a fair. All of the goats were housed in the same barn. Twenty-one days after exposure,...

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