Actions of chemokines and the interaction with specific receptors within the central nervous system (CNS) surpass their original defined role of leukocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues. Chemokine receptor expression by resident CNS cells is crucial for normal brain development and architectural organization, neuronal protection during inflammatory and neurotoxic challenges, and, among many others, protective mechanisms during inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis. The chemo-kine/chemokine receptor systems involved in such significant functions include CXCR4/CXCL12, CXCR2/CXCL1, and CX3CR1/CX3CL1. In this chapter, we discuss how these receptors might contribute to modulate communication within the CNS and with peripheral elements, and we also suggest potential mechanisms of action of fractalkine and the translation of these into the understanding of microglial function during neuro-inflammatory conditions.
Key Words: Chemokine receptors; CNS; multiple sclerosis; microglia; NK cells; EAE; fractalkine; neuroinflammation.
Was this article helpful?