Chlamydial Infection - a comprehensive view

Essential Guide to Cure Chlamydia

Is Chlamydia easily curable? The Answer is a big Yes! Chlamydia is one of the sexually transmitted diseases with proven treatment methods. In fact, there are two main treatment options available both of which have guaranteed results: Conventional medicine and natural medicine. These treatment options And lots of other previously unknown facts about Chlamydia have been explained at great length in this eBook. The Essential guide to Cure Chlamydia unveils the mystery of Chlamydia and methodically presents all the important bits of information that you should know about Chlamydia. The Banish Chlamydia Book tackles the sensitive subject of Chlamydia from the perspective of a professional and presents you with a goldmine of information and facts in a way that has never been done before.

Essential Guide to Cure Chlamydia Summary


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Table 17 A casecontrol study of Chlamydia infection and coronary atherosclerosis13

Chlamydia present Chlamydia absent (exposure yes) (exposure no) example, the authors only included subjects who were documented as being seronegative at the time of traumatic exposure to HIV-contaminated material.8 Similarly, in the cohort study of DCC protein status, the outcome was death, an event which was clearly separated in time from the time of assessment of DCC protein status.9 In other studies, the situation may be somewhat ambiguous or in the extreme, such as in the case of the Chlamydia infection study, totally unclear. An adequate assessment of an epidemiologic study must always therefore include as an essential element a consideration of whether the temporal sequence was adequately characterized.

Chlamydia Trachomatis

The epidemiology of genital chlamydial infection is less well documented than that for syphilis and gonorrhea. There are several reasons for this, including the lack of cheap reliable tests, the observation that most females (80 ) and males (50 ) are asymptomatic, and finally, that many men who present with urethral discharge are diagnosed as having NGU without confirmatory tests being performed. Most studies suggest that chlamydia is more common than gonorrhea, with an estimated 88 million adult cases worldwide in 1995 (Gerbase et al., 1998). In countries where reasonable surveillance data are available (Europe, North America and Australia), chlamydia has emerged as the leading bacterial STD (Quinn et al., 1996). Unlike gonorrhea and syphilis, chlamydia continued to increase throughout the 1980s. However, recent national control programs in some countries, in particular Sweden, and local control programs in some cities in Canada, the USA and Australia, have been very successful, and...

Discharge Diseases Including Gonorrhea Chlamydia and Trichomoniasis

Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis are termed discharge diseases because they are sexually transmitted by genital secretions, such as semen or vaginal fluids. HIV is also transmitted by genital secretions. Theoretical basis for protection. The physical properties of latex condoms protect against discharge diseases such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis, by providing a barrier to the genital secretions that transmit STD-causing organisms. Epidemiologic studies that compare infection rates among condom users and nonusers provide evidence that latex condoms can protect against the transmission of chlamydia, gonorrhea and trichomoniasis. However, some other epidemiologic studies show little or no protection against these infections. Many of the available epidemiologic studies were not designed or conducted in ways that allow for accurate...

What is Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Because approximately 70 of women and 50 of men have no symptoms, most people infected with chlamydia are not aware of their infections and therefore may not seek health care. When diagnosed, chlamydia can be easily treated and cured. Untreated, chlamydia can cause severe reproductive and other health problems which include both short- and long-term consequences, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is the critical link to infertility, and potentially fatal tubal pregnancy. Up to 40 of women with untreated chlamydia will develop PID. Undiagnosed PID caused by chlamydia is common. 20 of women with PID will become infertile 18 will experience debilitating, chronic pelvic pain and 9 will have a life-threatening tubal pregnancy. Tubal pregnancy is the leading cause of first-trimester, pregnancy-related deaths in American women. Chlamydia may also result in adverse...

How can a pregnant womans baby become infected

STDs can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to the fetus, newborn, or infant before, during, or after birth. Some STDs (like syphilis) cross the placenta and infect the fetus during its development. Other STDs (like gonorrhea, chlamydia, hepatitis B, and genital herpes) are transmitted from the mother to the infant as the infant passes through the birth canal. HIV infection can cross the placenta during pregnancy, infect the newborn during the birth process, and, infect an infant as a result of breast-feeding.

Can STDs be treated during pregnancy

Bacterial STDs (like chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis) can be treated and cured with antibiotics during pregnancy. There is no cure for viral STDs such as genital herpes and HIV, but antiviral medication for herpes and HIV may reduce symptoms in the pregnant woman. In addition, the risk of passing HIV infection from mother to baby is dramatically reduced by treatment. For women who have active genital herpes lesions at the time of delivery, a cesarean section may be performed to protect the newborn against infection.

Viinfluence Of The Local Environment On Target Antigens And Its Possible Significance For Pathology In

Hsps first attracted the attention of immunologists when these proteins were shown to be prominent targets of the immune response to several intracellular pathogens, particularly the facultatively intracellular mycobacteria. There have been several explanations as to why the immune system should recognize this category of antigen. One attractive idea is that the intracellular location imposes a physiological stress on the invader which responds by an upregulation of hsp. This has been clearly shown for salmonellae (62), and it appears that a somewhat similar process occurs for Chlamydia trachomatis (63). However, the concept that microbial response to stress can involve novel or upregulation of hsp synthesis now has a much wider significance with the evidence that mechanisms for global responses to a local environment can lead to significant alteration in bacterial polypeptide profiles. Such findings raise questions on how conditions in vitro can be manipulated to represent the in...

What is the magnitude of the problem

Chlamydia is the most frequently reported infectious disease in the United States. An estimated 2.8 million Americans are infected with chlamydia each year. Women are frequently re-infected if their sex partners are not treated. Between 1 and 16 of young, sexually active Americans is infected - and most infected people are not aware of their infection. Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Men might also have burning and itching around the opening of the penis. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner. See your doctor promptly if you think you may have a Chlamydia infection - or if you think you may have any sexually transmitted disease.

Where can I get more information

This information was adapted by the Sexual Health and Responsibility Program (SHARP), Navy Environmental Health Center in Portsmouth Virginia, from material developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD & TB Prevention, Division of STD Prevention Chlamydia Fact Sheet, STD Surveillance. 2002 and Supplement Chlamydia Prevalence Monitoring Project 2002

Nanobacteria and the Other Small Bacterial Forms

Cell-wall-deficient bacteria, L-forms, show small and large forms. Conventional culture methods do not support the growth of L-form microbes. L-forms can pass through sterile filters but can be easily lysed and their nucleic acids and proteins extracted (Darwish et al., 1987). Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Rickettsia are the smallest classically known bacteria, and they can be cultured in cell culture conditions with mammalian cells. Only mycoplasma can grow autonomously. All can pass through sterile filters filtering through 0.2 m pore-size results in over 100-fold reduction in their numbers, whereas with nanobacteria the reduction is typically less than 10-fold (Kajander et al., 1997), and bacterial L-forms are reduced by 106-fold (Darwish et al., 1987). producing mushroom-like fruiting bodies. Nanobacteria do show several growth forms, sizes, and social formations depending on culture conditions. Fastly growing mycoplasma forget cell division, forming very long multicellular forms....

Is There a Continuum of Size and Complexity That Links Conventional Bacteria to Viruses

Nanobacteria, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Rickettsia are structurally only a little more complex than large viruses. They all use environmental supplies appropriately to minimize the need for their own synthetic pathways. Nanobacterial cultures do indicate virus-sized elementary particles and large nanobacteria acting like mother cells in a life cycle involving nonreplicative and replicative forms. This is analogous to modern gene technology viruses, helper viruses, and competent bacteria are used to replicate new viral particles.

Experimental Treatment and Therapy of the Future

Borrowing an idea from oncology to suppress immune responses maximally, combination therapy with DMARDs is being actively investigated. Other experimental therapies include high-dose intravenous prednisolone, total lymphoid irradiation, interferon-y, inter-leukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors, cyclosporine, monoclonal antibody antagonists against T-cell receptors, and phenytoin. Tetracyclines have been investigated for years based on the theory that infectious agents such as Mycoplasma or Chlamydia may cause RA.17 The antibody-absorbing column Prosorba is used with plasmapheresis, and is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for moderate to severe RA in patients refractory to methotrexate. It is expensive, and long-term efficacy is unknown.

Cell Mediated Immune Responses

Tract infection, still exhibited a significant lymphoproliferative response (12). In a subsequent study, PBL responses to the recombinant chlamydial 57-kDa hsp were identified in 4 of 10 (40 ) women with recurrent salpingitis, in 1 of 9 (11.1 ) women with an initial episode of salpingitis, and in 1 of 32 (3.1 ) women with no history of salpingitis (13). The ability of purified recombinant chlamydial 57-kDa hsp to elicit a cell-mediated immune response in the fallopian tubes of monkeys who had previously been infected with C. trachomatis has recently been demonstrated (14). Furthermore, sites within the fallopian tube that had not previously been infected with C. trachomatis also responded immunologically, indicating that a systemic delayed hypersensitivity response to hsp could be elicited following infection at a distant site.

Immune Responses to Synthetic Peptides Corresponding to Conserved Hsp Epitopes

The conservation of protein epitopes between an infectious microorganism and its host provides an opportunity for the induction of infection-induced autoimmune responses. To test whether chlamydial salpingitis induced sensitization to conserved epitopes, patients' PBLs were tested for their ability to respond to five synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of identity or near identity between the C. trachomatis and human hsp (13). Since hsp functions as a molecular chaperone and readily binds other proteins, the use of synthetic peptides in these investigations assured that no false-positive responses occurred as a result of stimulation by a contaminating native or recombinant peptide. PBLs from none of the patients or controls responded to three of the peptides, whereas one women each with a first or recurrent episode of salpingitis responded to a fourth peptide (amino acid sequence DIAILTGG) corresponding to amino acids 291-298 in the chlamydial hsp. PBLs from 4 of 10 (40 )...

The Tropical Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars LI, 2 and 3. The genital ulcers associated with lymphogranuloma venereum are generally transient, and these organisms are not considered to be a major cause of genital ulcers worldwide. However, the long-term consequences of LGV, in particular lymphatic obstruction and elephantiasis, are a major cause of morbidity in some tropical countries. Donovanosis, also known as granuloma inguinalae, is caused by an organism called Calymomatobacterium granulomatis. This infection has a well circumscribed geographic location, occurring in Papua New Guinea, Southeast India, the Carribean and northern Australia, and it has recently re-emerged in Southern Africa (Figure 1.9). The disease causes progressive destruction of the genitals and adjacent structures, but is amenable to treatment with many antibiotics. It is considered to be an important factor in the spread of HIV in those geographic areas where it occurs (Hart,...

Developmental Life Cycle

The SCV-specific gene hcbA encodes for Hq1, a protein similar to the histone-like protein Hc1 of Chlamydia (84). Hq1 is likely to play a role in formation of a condensed nucleoid during the LCV to SCV differentiation, similar to the chlamydial Hc1, which is involved in chromatin condensation during elementary body (EB) formation (85). Function of ScvA, small cell variant protein A (scvA), is not well understood. Because of its DNA binding activity in vitro, a structural function in chromosome stabilization or induction of topological DNA changes that alter the gene expression during the LCV to SCV differentiation was proposed (14). Morphological differentiation of C. burnetii demonstrates superficial similarities to the developmental life cycles of Chlamydia spp. and Legionella spp. Both SCV and the chlamydial EB contain condensed chromatin, are less metabolically active, and are adapted for extracellular survival (86). Compared to C. burnetii, L. pneumophilia undergoes morphological...

Viiiinfections Hsp And Atherosclerosis

With regard to bacterial infections, it has been demonstrated that serum antibody titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae posivitely correlate with coronary atherosclerosis. The antibody titers increase rapidly from the age of 5 to 20 years, and then increase more slowly into old age. Men have a higher prevalence of these antibodies than women, reflecting the higher rate of atherosclerosis in males (41,70). Interestingly, C. pneumoniae was detected within atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries (71), and prior infection with this microorganism positively correlated with the incidence of atherosclerosis (72). These studies suggest that C. pneumoniae infection may be a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis.

Functional genomics of bacterial pathogens 21 Comparative genomics

Because of the potential health implications, about two thirds of the se-quenced genomes are from bacterial pathogens and many others are from bacteria closely related to at least one pathogen whose genome has been sequenced as well. Comparisons among these genomes have allowed the deduction of the metabolic capacities, pathogenicity-specific attributes, immune evasion mechanisms and evolution of many different pathogens 6-9 . Inter-genomic comparisons have also demonstrated that there is considerable variation in the magnitude of genetic diversity among individual isolates of different species. For example, strains of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, and Escherichia coli can differ in gene content by greater than 25 10 . In contrast, the genomes of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are relatively conserved.

Genital Tract Infections

In heterosexual men gonococcal and chlamydial infections, are usually limited to the anterior regions of the urethra. The progression of such infections into the posterior urethra and genital adnexae has not been well studied. Urethral discharge is a classic symptom of these diseases and is easily recognized by both patient and physician. However, the absence of urethral discharge does not exclude these diagnoses. In women, several STD pathogens, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus (HSV), have a predilection for the epithelial cells of the urethra, cervix and rectum simultaneously. This produces a wide range of symptoms and a variety of differential diagnoses. Localized infection can produce symptoms which are poorly localized and are easy to ascribe to the involvement of a contiguous site. For example, infections of either the vagina or the cervix can produce abnormal vaginal discharge. Finally, a lack of appreciation of the differing...

Multiplicity of Infecting Species

Every individual species can be considered as giving rise to an individual clinical syndrome. These syndromes may be influenced by individual growth rates of bacteria, by metabolic differences, or by intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic requirements and by clinical consequences. Some Neisseria such as gonococci prefer to reside in the genitourinary tract, others such as meningococci favor infection of the cerebrospinal fluid. Salmonella species tend to reside in the gastrointestinal or biliary tracts. Pathogens such as M. tuberculosis prefer to hibernate in lymphatic tissues, but have individual preferences in invading specific tissues. Anaerobic species do not often infect AF, apparently because of the relatively high oxygen tension there. Chlamydial species are rickettsia-like organisms that survive a variety of conditions, but the factors that determine their infectivity are unknown. 5. Miscellaneous organisms Candida albicans Candida tropicalis CDC Group EO-3 Chlamydia trachomatis...

The Impact of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Unplanned Pregnancy

In a ten year report on reportable communicable diseases (not all STDs are reportable) for active duty Navy and Marine Corps personnel (Navy Environmental Health Center, 1999a) syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhea are in the top ten categories for the most commonly reported communicable diseases by both frequency and incidence. These diseases rank second, sixth, and tenth, respectively, for the Navy and second, third and tenth, respectively, for the Marine Corps. It is interesting to note that chlamydia, the most common STD in the U.S., was only reportable from 1997, the last year accounted for in the ten year summary. In just one year of data, its frequency and incidence propelled it to sixth and third overall for the decade. Further complicating STD control is the asymptomatic nature of STDs. The majority of STDs either do not produce any symptoms or signs, or they produce symptoms so mild that they often are disregarded, resulting in a low index of suspicion by infected persons who...

SHARP Fact Fact Sheets

- Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Bacterial Vaginosis, Trichomoniasis, Genital Herpes, Human Papillomavirus, and Hepatitis B Bacterial Vaginosis pdf or html Chlamydia pdf or html Gonorrhea pdf or html Genital Herpes pdf or html Hepatitis B pdf or html Human Papillomavirus pdf or html Syphilis pdf or him Trichomoniasis pdf or htm

In Vitro Fertilization Outcome And Immune Responses To

The chlamydia 57-kDa hsp was, therefore, investigated in a prospective study The means by which sensitization to hsp leads to very early stage pregnancy failure remains to be elucidated. Initial studies in my laboratory have implicated an autoimmune mechanism in this process. Cervical IgA antibodies in women whose embryos failed to implant after IVF, but not cervical IgA from women with successful pregnancies after embryo transfer, reacted with synthetic peptides corresponding to hsp epitopes expressed in both the chlamydial and human hsp. The epitopes tested were those shown previously by other investigators to elicit a B-lymphocyte response in women infected with C. trachomatis (17). Since there is evidence that the human trophoblast (18), as well as the endometrium during the early stages of pregnancy (19), expresses the 60-kDa hsp, immune rejection of the embryo might result from the following scenario In those women undergoing a cycle of IVF who were previously sensitized to...

Outbreak Of Syphilis In Russia

TABLE 2.2 Possible reasons for the apparent low number of chlamydial genital infections in Russia Microbiological tests to diagnose C.trachomatis are, as a rule, not free of charge. This undoubtedly leads to underutilization of these tests, and hence underdiagnosis of chlamydial infection

Perspectives and Directions

A number of different R factors (23). It is a reasonable expectation that some of these ssRNA phages may have evolved amurins against targets other than MurA. Recently, MH2K, a lytic Microvirus of Bdellovibrio, was isolated and sequenced. MH2K lacks a scaffolding protein gene equivalent to D (25) and, consequently, lacks the E lysis cistron embedded in D in fX174 and its coliphage relatives. Instead, the candidate lysis genes are short open reading frames embedded in other essential MH2K genes. It will be interesting to test whether this independently evolving lysis gene also targets MraY. Interestingly, a Microvirus sequence for the wall-less intracellular bacterium Chlamydia has no obvious reading frame available for a lysis gene (103). It is unknown how a phage can cause lysis of a host cell that grows, without a cell wall, in the iso-osmotic environment of a mammalian cell cytoplasm.

The NADP biosynthesis subsystem

The NAD(P) subsystem can be divided into six modules two distinct de novo pathways - one from aspartate as in many bacterial pathogens and the other from tryptophan as in humans three alternative salvage pathways - two involving either the deamidating or the non-deamidating salvage of niacin (vitamin B3) and the third involving the utilization of nicotinamide ribose. The final module is the 'universal' pathway for the conversion of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) to NAD and NADP (see Fig. 2 and Tab. 3). Different combinations of these modules, along with some nonorthologous gene displacements, results in the substantial diversity reflected here involving > 20 distinct functional variants clustered in five major groups (see Tab. 3). None of the organisms contain all six modules. E. coli and H. sapiens are among the richest functional variants, while some obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia and Rick-ettsia spp., manifest extreme pathway truncation. These organisms...

How can we reduce our risk of getting one of these diseases What are the options Abstain from sex or delay sex

Condoms can be expected to provide different levels of risk reduction for different STDs. There is no one definitive study about condom effectiveness for all STDs. Several studies have demonstrated that condoms can reduce the risk of acquiring chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, chancroid and herpes. However, because not all studies have demonstrated protective effects, the body of evidence is considered inconclusive. In addition, definitive data are lacking regarding the degree of risk reduction that latex condoms provide in preventing transmission of genital Humanpapilloma Virus. It is important to note that the lack of data about the level of condom effectiveness indicates that more research is needed - not that latex condoms don't work.

Dangerous and Deadly Consequences

Chlamydia An estimated 3,000,000 new cases each year. An estimated 1 in 10 of all American adolescent females are infected. Most infected females don't know it, and about 75 have no symptoms. Gonorrhea An estimated 650,000 new cases each year If not adequately treated, 20 to 40 percent of women infected with chlamydia and 10-40 percent of women infected with gonorrhea develop upper genital tract infection, also called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Among women with PID, scarring will result in involuntary infertility in 20 percent, potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy in 9 percent, and chronic pelvic pain in 18 percent. Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of first trimester pregnancy-related deaths among American women. The ectopic pregnancy rate could be reduced by as much as 50 by early detection and treatment of STDs.

Humoral Immune Responses

Humoral immune responses to the C. trachomatis 57-kDa hsp have been associated with female infertility and upper genital tract infections. High-titer antibody to the chlamydial 57-kDa hsp was most prevalent in women who were infertile owing to fallopian tube occlusion (8,9) and in women with pelvic inflammatory disease who had an ectopic pregnancy (10). The relation between a humoral immune response to the chlamydial 57-kDa hsp and tubal infertility due to a C. trachomatis infection has been demonstrated (9).

Immune Pathogenesis Of C Trachomatis Infections

Fallopian tubes of nonhuman primates resulted in only a transient infection with no long-lasting damage (3). Repeated inoculations, however, led to permanent fallopian tube scarring (3). Analogous to the established mechanism of damage in trachoma, a chlamydial eye infection (4), it appeared that an immune response to a C. trachomatis infection played a prominent role in eliciting fallopian tube pathology. In experimental trachoma in guinea pigs, a single chlamydial antigen, a 57-kDa protein loosely associated with the cell surface, was shown to be responsible for eliciting a delayed hypersensitivity response in animals whose eyes had previously been infected (i.e., were sensitized) with Chlamydia (5). Further studies established that the chlamydial 57-kDa protein was a member of the GroEL 60-kDa hsp family (6) and had extensive amino acid sequence homology to the hsps of other bacteria and humans (7).

Why should my sexual partner be told that I have a sexually transmitted disease

If you have a sexually transmitted disease, any or all of the people you had sex with (vaginal, oral, or anal sex) may also be infected with the disease. But they may not even know they are infected. By notifying them, you can help ensure they receive the medical treatment they need. Telling your partner shows you respect and care about them. Your honesty may build trust and may encourage your partner to share sexual health information with you. Telling your partner may also prevent future misunderstandings or legal action. Many people who are infected with an STD do not notice any symptoms, until they become very ill. For example, while most (though not all) men who are infected with Chlamydia or gonorrhea get symptoms within 30 days of becoming infected, most women do not. Instead, many women may not notice their infection at all, until it causes very serious problems, like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or infertility. It is very important that everyone who may have been exposed...

Category C Severely Symptomatic

Initial laboratory studies should include CD4+ CD8+ counts (absolute cell counts and percentages) and, if possible, HIV-1 RNA levels. CBC with differential count, electrolyte and liver function panel, hepatitis screen, reactive protein reagin (RPR) or VDRL, anti-toxoplasma IgG antibodies purified protein derivative (PPD) with anergy panel, and chest x-ray should also be obtained. Ophthalmologics, dental, and gynecological examinations (including a PAP smear, chlamydia and gonorrhea studies) should be pursued. The stage of HIV-1 infection will then determine follow-up, prophylaxis, and therapeutic strategies.

How can pregnant women protect themselves against infection

Although a woman may be monogamous during her pregnancy, she can remain at risk of STDs if her partner is not monogamous. For this reason, she may want to consider consistent and correct use of latex condoms for every act of intercourse. Condoms can be expected to provide different levels of risk reduction for different STDs. There is no one definitive study about condom effectiveness for all STDs. Several studies have demonstrated that condoms can reduce the risk of acquiring chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, chancroid and herpes. However, because not all studies have demonstrated protective effects, the body of evidence is considered inconclusive. In addition, definitive data are lacking regarding the degree of risk reduction that latex condoms provide in preventing transmission of genital Humanpapilloma Virus. It is important to note that the lack of data about the level of condom effectiveness indicates that more research is needed - not that latex condoms don't...

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Including HIV

There are two primary ways that STDs can be transmitted. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis - the discharge diseases - are transmitted when infected semen or vaginal fluids contact mucosal surfaces (e.g., the male urethra, the vagina or cervix). In contrast, genital ulcer diseases - genital herpes, syphilis, and chancroid - and human papillomavirus are primarily transmitted through contact with infected skin or mucosal surfaces.

How can I protect myself from STDs

Outer-course is non-penetrative contact, such as massaging, hugging, and kissing. Non-penetrative contact vs. intercourse can eliminate transmission risk for chlamydia, gonorrhea and HIV. However, herpes virus and Human Papillomavirus may be transmitted by non-penetrative contact, even if no lesions are visible. Monogamy For those who have sexual intercourse outside a monogamous relationship, latex condoms may be effective when used consistently and correctly. Several studies have demonstrated that condoms can reduce the risk of acquiring chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, chancroid and herpes. In addition, definitive data are lacking regarding the degree of risk reduction that latex condoms provide in preventing transmission of genital Humanpapilloma Virus. It is important to note that the lack of data about the level of condom effectiveness indicates that more research is needed - not that latex condoms don't work. The correct and consistent use of latex condoms during...

Monogamy and Health

Mechanisms to reduce the risk of transmission of diseases such as HIV AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. One must logically ask, What are the consequences of a failure to utilize safer sex precautions, such as monogamy or condoms It has been estimated that a woman engaging in 50 unprotected acts of vaginal intercourse with 50 different sexual partners has a 55 chance of pregnancy, a 5 chance of contracting Chlamydia, and a .001 chance of contracting HIV in a U.S. low-risk population (Cohen and Bruce, 1997). The HIV risk increases to .002 in the college population.

Is there a cure

Many of the currently used antibiotics can successfully cure uncomplicated gonorrhea. Because many people with gonorrhea also have chlamydia, antibiotics for both infections are usually given together. Persons with gonorrhea should also be screened for other STDs. It is important to take all of the medication prescribed to cure gonorrhea, even if the symptoms or signs stop before all the medication is gone. This is especially important since gonorrhea is becoming resistant to traditional antibiotic therapy. In 1999, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) detected decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in 1.1 of isolates (14.3 in Hawaii). Persons who have had gonorrhea and have been treated can also get the disease again if they have sexual contact with an infected person.


Parasites rely on host organisms for materials and in some cases even energy generation. Thus, parasites do not need genes that code for materials and functions provided by the host. Examples of such host-dependent, degenerate bacteria include the obligately intracellular parasites Rickettsia and Chlamydia. Chlamydia species produce special elementary reproductive bodies in cells that can be as small as 0.2 m in diameter, somewhat smaller than cells of Rickettsia spp.


Involvement of IL-8 GRO-a in atherosclerosis was initially overlooked because neutrophils are rare in atherosclerotic lesions. It was also believed that IL-8 did not cause monocyte chemotaxis (51,99). However, more recent data points to a probable role for IL-8 in AS (Fig. 5). New studies demonstrate that IL-8 is able to chemoattract monocytes and, in addition, is able to mediate adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells (113). IL-8 is also induced by many factors that may play a role in CAD including physical arterial injury, intrale-sional cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1P), complement, LDL, hypoxia, and bacterial components (LPS and possibly Chlamydia pneumoniae) (100). IL-8 localizes to intimal lesions in macrophage regions (3,114), more specifically to macro-phage-derived foam cells (102-104,115). Functional studies further developed the possible role for IL-8 in atherogenic inflammation. Not only does IL-8 recruit monocytes, but it also mediates firm adhesion of monocytes to endothe-lium...

Anonymous Probes

The use of randomly cloned DNA fragments as probes was described by Tompkins et al. (10). These probes are referred to as anonymous probes since their function, nucleotide sequence, and or restriction map are unknown. The sensitivity of this method is either the same as or higher than that of rRNA patterns. Recently, this method has been used for the determination of the DNA fingerprinting of Chlamydia trachomatis strains (11).

Future Prospects

Considering the history of Microviridae research, it is difficult to predict its future. For example, by the late 1980s, Microviridae research, so popular in the 1960s and 1970s, was being studied by only a few research groups. Then came the atomic structure of the virion and procapsid, the discovery of the fMH2K subfamily, nanotechnology and the ability to make transgenic animals. Animals transgenic for the f X174 genome are being developed for eukaryotic mutagenesis experiments (133). With the elucidation of X-ray models, genetic maps of biochemical phenotypes transubstantiate from straight lines to functional domains, and the domains have structures. The consequences for morphogenetic and evolutionary research are apparent. The fMH2K-Chp2-like viruses could lead to the first DNA transfer system for Chlamydia, opening areas of molecular research which have been hindered by the lack of a laboratory-based genetic system. The atomic structure of the f 29 connector represents a powerful...

Sex Work

Fiscates these supplies and demands that the women repurchase everything from the brothel at inflated prices, much like miners being forced to purchase their goods from the company store. In Nevada, HIV testing is required as a condition of legal employment as a sex worker once employed, the workers are required to have tests on a monthly basis for HIV and syphilis and on a weekly basis for gonorrhea and Chlamydia (Albert, 2001). Such stringent health requirements clearly do not prevail across all existing brothels, regardless of their location (Zimmerman, Yun, Schvab et al., 2003).

Serum Reactivity

Using a sensitive immunoblotting protocol, the serum antibody reactivities to mycobacterial SP 70 and SP 65 in patients with sarcoidosis, other ILDs and infections were analyzed (33,103). Although the majority of patients with sarcoidosis showed antibody reactivity to SP 65, they appeared not to differ significantly from other disease groups (Fig. 5) (33,103). As suggested by Kiessling et al. (20), the SP 65 serum reactivity might represent a response to protracted or repeated exposure to nonmycobacterial stimuli such as commensal organisms or clinically silent, superficial mucosal infections with Candida albicans (104) or Chlamydia spp. (105,106), or it might follow vaccination with nonmycobacterial vaccines (107).


C. burnetii, naturally transmitted by aerosol, is primarily internalized by alveolar macrophages and monocytes through parasite-directed endocytosis. These endocytic vesicles mature normally to secondary phagolysosomes, where microorganisms are killed and degraded. Many invasive bacteria display the ability to escape from the endocytic pathway, either by lysis of the phagocytic vesicle (Rickettsia, Shigella), maturation arrest of the phagosome (Mycobacterium) or inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion (Legionella, Chlamydia) (55). After internalization, Coxiella containing vacuoles show a high fusogenity to form a large spacious PV, which can occupy nearly the whole cytoplasm of the host cell without affecting the viability (56-58). This PV shows specific markers of a secondary phagolysosome, such as acid phosphatase, cathepsin D, Rab7, and the lysosomal glycoproteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 (6,59-61). Maturation of the phagosome can selectively be modified by invasive bacteria to allow...


Tetracyclines, like macrolides, inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria. The vital element of this process is the energy-requiring transfer of the drug through the cytoplasmic membrane, which leads to its accumulation in the cell. Inside the cell, it reversibly binds with 30 S ribosomal subunits of the bacteria. This process prevents aminoacyl tRNA from binding with mRNA (30 S ribosome), which leads to an inhibition of protein synthesis. The selective toxicity of tetracyclines lies in its diverse ability to penetrate bacterial cells and mammalian cells that lack a proper system of transport. The antimicrobial spectrum of all tetracyclines is practically the same. The difference is only observed in the degree of activity with respect to these or other microorganisms. Tetracyclines are active with respect to a huge variety of microorganisms, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative, aerobic, and anaerobic. They are active with respect to spirochaeta, mycoplasma, Bacteria Rickettsia,...


Trachoma (also called granular conjunctivitis and Egyptian ophthalmia) is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. It is characterized by inflammatory granulations on the inner eyelid that severely scar the eye, eventually causing blindness (but not in all cases). It was a leading cause of blindness in the past and still blinds millions in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Two estimates place the number of victims worldwide at between 400 and 500 million, with perhaps 2 million totally blinded.

Plasmaviridae Shape

Chlamydia, Spiroplasma Alteromonas Phages have been found in over 140 bacterial genera from all parts of the bacterial world in archaebacteria and eubacteria, in aerobic, anaerobic, appendaged, budding, gliding, ramified, sporulating, or sheathed bacteria, in cyanobacteria, spirochetes, mycoplasmas, and chlamydias (table 2-5). Podovirus particles have even been observed in bacterial endosymbionts of paramecia. Indeed, bacterioph-age hosts are represented in nearly all sections of Bergey's Manual (3). Tailed phages described in cultures of green algae and filamentous fungi are probably contaminants.

Acute Q Fever

Long-term cardiovascular complications have been studied in Switzerland, 12 years after a major outbreak (12). The authors report an excessively high death rate due to cardiac ischemia, and they hypothesize that C. burnetii could be a new infectious cause of atherosclerosis, much like Chlamydia pneumoniae. However, usual cardiovascular risk factors, mainly cigarette smoking, should not be neglected as potential biases (13).

Sexual health

STIs are on the increase, with many showing steep rises in recent years. Sexual intercourse without using a condom (outside of a life-long faithful partnership) brings the risk of an STI. Some STIs can be extremely serious, with complications leading to chronic disease, infertility and, in some cases, death. The global rise of HIV AIDS is now widely recognized and the number of young people in the UK becoming infected with HIV through sexual intercourse is rising dramatically, amongst girls in particular (PHLS Aids Centre and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health 2002). Other infections are, however, less commonly discussed. The prevalence of chlamydia, which can have severe effects on both male and female fertility, is now above one in ten in some parts of the world the highest rates in the UK are amongst 16 to 19-year-old females and 20 to 24-year-old males (Health Protection Agency 2004a). Another very prevalent infection, human papillomavirus (HPV), can result...