Everything you need to know about coeliac disease

Why Gluten Free

Why Gluten Free

What Is The Gluten Free Diet And What You Need To Know Before You Try It. You may have heard the term gluten free, and you may even have a general idea as to what it means to eat a gluten free diet. Most people believe this type of diet is a curse for those who simply cannot tolerate the protein known as gluten, as they will never be able to eat any food that contains wheat, rye, barley, malts, or triticale.

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Gluten Free Low Glycemic Cookbook

Fun With Gluten-Free, Low-Glycemic Food Cookbook is an ebook cookbook by Debbie Johnson, former owner and executive chef of The Golden Chalice Restaurant & Gallery, a 100% gluten-free, sugar-free, low-glycemic, organic, allergy-friendly establishment. This is the first Cook-Book of its kind! Every Recipe is Completely Gluten-Free, Sugar-Free (except fruit), Digestion-Friendly, Allergy-Friendly and Low Glycemic with Meat, Poultry, Fish meals and Tree-Nut-Free, Dairy-Free, Vegan and Vegetarian Options for most recipes. The recipes in this ebook have been helpful for people with everything from celiac disease and diabetes to Ibs (irritable bowel syndrome). Also, every recipe in this book contains healing food of some type. This is according to the many books written by doctors who are experts in the field of nutrition.

Gluten Free Low Glycemic Cookbook Summary


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Contents: 95 Page Ebook
Author: Debbie Johnson
Price: $5.98

My Gluten Free Low Glycemic Cookbook Review

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It is pricier than all the other ebooks out there, but it is produced by a true expert and is full of proven practical tips.

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Felicity's Gluten Free Diet Handbook

Here's just some of what you're about to learn when reading the gluten free diet handbook: The interesting history of gluten free diet sensitivity in humans. We are not designed to eat wheat! It is something we have learned to digest quite recently in our evolution and not everyone can correctly process gluten. Why gluten actually makes you sick, and why its becoming more common. What is gluten ? When you hear about what gluten does inside our body and how the internal organs cope with wheat you will finally understand where the pains come from and how you can prevent cramps or even treat them as they happen. Celiac disease and its link to gluten intolerance. Celiac disease is now wide spread through society and it is actually increasing with each generation! That means the problem is increasing and your family is at risk more than you or your parents are. Awesome alternatives to bread. Yes, you can still eat fresh bread! When I learned I had to remove bread from my gluten free diet plan, it made me pretty sad because I love sandwiches so much. Eventually I learned a few safe alternatives and now I have toast and sandwiches whenever I want to. Tips for reading food and drink labels to ensure you don't consume gluten. Now this is so important, because food companies will hide gluten in their warnings or actually call ingredients by a name that doesn't even mention gluten. You absolutely must know these so that you can take control of your diet. More here...

Felicitys Gluten Free Diet Handbook Summary

Contents: EBook
Author: Felicity
Official Website: felicitysglutenfreehandbook.com
Price: $34.95

The Gluten Free Bible An Insiders Guide To Going Gluten Free

Quick preview of the info you will have at your finger tips: What gluten is, and where to find it so you can stop wondering if you accidentally ate some gluten. The difference between gluten and wheat intolerance and how to tell if you are avoiding the right foods. Symptoms of gluten intolerance, celiac disease and wheat intolerance so you know exactly which foods could affect you. 7 ways to eat gluten free without breaking the bank save heaps on gluten free products with these simple tricks. What foods you can eat (and there is plenty to choose from!). Revealed gluten free food for vegetarians make sure you avoid these popular, gluten filled vegetarian treats. A Diy recipe for gluten free bread that doesnt need toasting, and doesnt taste like cardboard! 27 common foods you should avoid to stay gluten free steer clear of these at all costs! 3 days of meal plans to help you get started eating gluten free. 7 things the chef may not know about preparing gluten free food how to enjoy eating out without the dangers. 1 page shopping list to take to the supermarket never be caught out again. A quick guide to gluten free products so you can shop quickly and easily.

The Gluten Free Bible An Insiders Guide To Going Gluten Free Summary

Contents: EBook
Author: Gail Bennell
Official Website: www.yourglutenfreebible.com
Price: $37.00

Does Breastfeeding Affect The Risk For Coeliac Disease

Key words Breast-feeding, Coeliac disease, Epidemiology, Gluten, Prevention Abstract Coeliac disease, or permanent gluten sensitive enteropathy, has emerged as a widespread health problem. It is considered an immunological disease, possibly of autoimmune type, albeit strictly dependent on the presence in the diet of wheat gluten and similar proteins from rye and barley. There are reasons to believe that the aetiology of coeliac disease is multifactorial, i.e. that other environmental exposures than the mere presence in the diet of gluten affect the disease process. Our studies have shown that prolonged breastfeeding, or perhaps even more important, ongoing breast-feeding during the period when gluten-containing foods are introduced into the diet, reduce the risk for coeliac disease. The amount of gluten consumed is also of importance in as much as larger amounts of gluten-containing foods increase the risk for coeliac disease, while it still is dncertain if the age for introducing...

Breastfeeding And Gluten Introduction

A major finding in the two larger Swedish case-referent studies was the significant protective effect of introducing gluten containing foods while breast-feeding was still ongoing,1435 and in the former study this effect remained after adjustment both for age at introduction of dietary gluten and for quantity of gluten consumed during this period (to be published). In the Swedish family study based on silent disease this was not confirmed.36 However, the latter study was small (8 cases) and the referents were siblings ofthe cases, with the risk ofmatching for dietary habits. Furthermore, taking our increased knowledge about the immunological impact of breast-milk into account,38 it is biologically plausible that introduction of dietary gluten while the child is still breast-fed might increase the possibility of developing oral tolerance to gluten.

Age At Introduction Of Gluten

In the 1950s Dicke et al showed that presence of gluten in the diet is a prerequisite for developing coeliac disease.39 It has been discussed ifthe age at introduction of gluten into the diet affects the age at which the coeliac enteropathy develops, and, more importantly, if it has an impact on the overall risk ofcontracting the disease. Comparing English coeliac disease patients in the 1950s and 1960s, respectively, it was suggested that earlier introduction of dietary gluten resulted in earlier presentation ofthe disease.40 However, in clinical studies which also took differences in breast-feeding duration into account, no relation was found between age at introduction of dietary gluten and presentation of disease.30,31 Based on a national ecological approach it was suggested that a later introduction of gluten into the diet of infants may have contributed to the decline in incidence in England, Scotland and Ireland in the 1970s.22-24 In contrast, postponed introduction of gluten...

Quantity Of Dietary Gluten

Quantity of dietary gluten during infancy as a risk factor for coeliac disease has mainly been investigated by means of international ecological studies. Thus, several countries have been compared with respect to estimated gluten intake in healthy infants and the incidence of the disease.41-43 A higher intake of wheat gluten was reported for infants in Sweden and Italy, compared to Finland, Denmark and Estonia. Further, the first mentioned countries reported a higher occurrence ofcoeliac disease than the latter. A report from the Netherlands contradicted this in spite of a comparatively high intake of dietary gluten the incidence of symptomatic coeliac disease was low.44 However, a recent screening study revealed that the disease is much more common than previously recognised.10 Thus, it seems that the Netherlands can also be included among those countries in which a comparison using an ecological approach supports the importance of a larger quantity of dietary gluten as a risk factor...

A case study fried gluten balls

Fried gluten ball is a popular fried food in the Chinese community. Added to soups or stir-fried dishes, it absorbs mixed flavors and becomes rehydrated, tasty and very chewy. Tonnes of fried gluten ball is sold each year on the food market in Taiwan. The manufacturing process is as follows 1 wheat flour is washed with water to separate gluten from the starch 2 the wet gluten is immersed in water for 30 minutes 3 it is then collected, cut and shaped into wet gluten balls 4 wet gluten balls are then deep fried using three or four deep frying pans controlled at different temperatures 5 in the first and second frying pans, water evaporation expands the gluten balls, establishing their basic volume, shape, texture and colour During the stage of gluten extraction, as the flour is washed with water, the networked structure of gluten is gradually forming (Bietz and Wall, 1980 Huebner, 1977). Upon hydration, glutenin becomes swollen and, at the same time, absorbs gliadin together with some of...

Gluten data analysis model fitting

This example illustrates how model fitting can be used to obtain detailed, quantitative information on the solution structure of biomolecules. Here we are interested in the structure of the protein gluten, which consists of three domains a central, elongated domain flanked by two small, globular domains. (See Poon's chapter in this volume for an introduction to protein structure.) Wheat gluten proteins are of considerable interest due to their functionality in bread. They form extensive, insoluble protein networks in dough, which are stabilised by intermolecular disulfide bonds. These networks contribute to the biomechanical properties, such as strength and elasticity. The precise molecular basis for the elastic properties is, however, still under investigation. It is suggested that the central domain contributes to the elastic behaviour. In this example we present small-angle neutron-scattering experiments on the solution structure of two proteins, dB4 and dB1, which represent the...

What Can Be Learnt From The Swedish Epidemic

During the epidemic of symptomatic coeliac disease in children below two years of age the incidence reached levels higher than reported from any other country, and the decline that followed was amazingly abrupt.21 These conspicuous changes in incidence is indicative of an abrupt increase and decrease, respectively, of one or a few environmental factors influencing a large proportion of Swedish infants. We analysed this further using an ecological study design, and explored any temporal relationships between changes in early feeding patterns and changes in disease occurrence (Figure). The period of rapidly increasing incidence was preceded by i) about half the infants being breast-fed at six months of age, ii) a twofold increase in the average daily consumption of the total amount of wheat, rye and barley provided by follow-on formula, and iii) a new national recommendation at the end of 1982 to postpone introduction of gluten from four until six months of age. The rapid decline in...

Crosslinking of proteins catalysed by PPO

Oxidation of tyrosine residues in proteins or in peptides by PPO leads to the formation of, initially, an L-DOPA-structure in the peptide chain. Subsequent oxidation to the corresponding DOPA-quinone results in the formation of a reactive moiety in the peptide chain that can react with nucleophilic amino acid side chains in adjacent proteins or peptides. Similarly, phenolic or catecholic moieties linked to carbohydrate backbones can be oxidised into quinones. Nucleophilic amino acid side chains may be found in lysine, asparagine, arginine, histidine, methionine, or cystein. An example of the role of PPO as crosslinker of gluten was given by Takasaki and Kawakishi (1997). Based on the reaction mechanism that was proposed by the authors, and taking into account the cyclisation mechanism as depicted in Fig. 12.2, a generic reaction scheme can be postulated for crosslinking of proteins by PPOs or PODs (Fig. 12.4). Also the ortho-positions at the phenolic residues possess a partly positive...

Influence of raw materials

The textural properties of all cereal-based products are strongly influenced by the quality of the ingredients used and how they are combined in the formulation. In bread the key textural features come from the development of a wheat protein (gluten) network in the dough. The gluten network traps small air bubbles and retains them in the dough where they will later be expanded by the carbon dioxide gas produced from bakers' yeast fermentation (Cauvain, 1998a). Bakers refer to the formation of the gluten structure from wheat flour, water, yeast and other functional ingredients as 'development' and they commonly refer to the 'gas retention' properties of the dough. Improvements in dough gas retention yield larger volume and therefore softer loaves which are seen as fresher by the consumer. The formation of a suitable gluten structure with good gas retention properties is then essential to improving bread texture. Many ingredients can and do contribute to the necessary improvements. They...

Textural changes in bread during processing

Changes may occur to gas bubble populations during processing which have an adverse effect on bread texture. The processing stage with the greatest potential for introducing textural defects is when the dough pieces are finally shaped (moulded). At this time the rheological properties of the dough are critical in ensuring that the gas bubbles created during the mixing stage are retained in their required form. If the dough rheological properties are unsuitable then the gluten membranes may be damaged during moulding which may lead to loss of gas bubbles or coalescence of smaller ones to form undesirable larger ones (Cauvain and Young, 2000). Dough damage during moulding is most commonly manifested as dark coloured and firm patches in the crumb. The discolouration and firmness of the crumb are a direct result of the thicker cells walls which have formed.

Trends in consumer preference

Although the dried pasta sector continues to dominate sales (Anonymous, 2000 Harrison, 1999), consumers in urban centres, especially in the industrialized world, are also showing a trend towards buying convenience foods that are ready to serve and easy to prepare. For example, in the USA, it is reported that ready-to-eat and frozen main dishes will surpass homemade as the most often served main dinner item (Sloan, 2003). This trend has implications related to pasta texture since the production of frozen pasta involves heating and freezing which can affect the firmness and other textural attributes of the cooked product. An appropriate choice of shape and thickness of the cut, along with the addition of optional ingredients as noted above, can help in maintaining acceptable textural properties in the frozen pasta (Kobs, 2000). In Japan, production of cooked frozen pasta is of increasing importance because of consumer purchasing of meals in convenience stores. This trend may also...

Infant Formulas

A question is whether breast-feeding is protective or if it is early introduction of infant formula that increases the risk for coeliac disease. However, the protective effect of prolonged breast-feeding was also demonstrated in the Swedish setting, where infants were often breast-fed past six months of age.14,35 It has been suggested that a change in infant formulas, from diluted cow's milk to modern, adapted formulas more similar to human milk with regard to protein content and composition, has reduced the risk for coeliac disease. This was suggested with respect to the decline in incidence of childhood coeliac disease in Ireland,24 and the decrease in incidence of symptomatic disease in young children in Finland.25 In Sweden no decline in incidence followed the change to adapted formula.37

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is fat soluble and found in abundance in vegetable oils and wheat germ. The recommended daily allowance is 10 mg (10 IU) for men, and 8 mg (10 IU) for women. Patients at risk for the development of vitamin E deficiency include those who have the following clinical conditions hypobetalipoproteinemia or abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome) other disorders of the pancreas and liver, such as cystic fibrosis and primary biliary atresia PEM familial vitamin E deficiency due to a defect in alpha-TTP and other malabsorptive states that result in cholestasis (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease) ( . Iable.40-4 ). Pregnancy increases vitamin E serum concentrations, but premature infants often have low levels of vitamin E due to a lack of adipose tissue as well as difficulty in transplacental migration of the vitamin. The majority of patients who have vitamin E deficiency are those with severe malabsorptive states present since birth, or rare familial...

Lymphoid Tumours

Lymphoid tissue is distributed throughout the intestinal tract with notable collections in the terminal ileum known as Peyer's patches. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is organized differently from nodal lymphoid tissue in terms of both structure and function. Lymphoid neoplasms are malignant by definition and those arising in MALT are known as MALTomas and are derived from B-lymphocytes. The stomach does not normally contain lymphoid tissue, yet MALTomas are more common in this organ than the intestine (see the chapter Systemic Oncology of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract). A special type of MALToma occurs in the small intestine and affects populations around the Mediterranean and in the Middle East. The neoplastic B-lymphocytes secrete a heavy chains (a component of immuno-globulin class A) and the lymphoma is also known as a heavy chain disease or immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID). Two additional B-lymphocyte lymphomas of the intestinal tract are Burkitt...


The two key stages in the pasta process determining the cooking quality of pasta are extrusion and drying. Extrusion conditions determine the physical properties and internal structure of pasta dough. Over-heated, over-worked dough produces poor quality, sticky, slimy cooked pasta (DeFrancisci, 2003). Correct filling of the extrusion auger is essential to achieve maximum output of extruded product without excessive heating of dough (Dalbon et al., 1996). Mechanical energy is dissipated as heat. Heat, pressure and shear during extrusion make the gluten network within the dough continuous, and the dough becomes plastic and translucent (Matsuo et al., 1978). The continuity of the gluten protein network and how well it is preserved during cooking are primary determinates of pasta texture (Dexter et al., 1978 Donnelly, 1982 Zweifel et al., 2003). Accordingly, extrusion cylinders are water-jacketed with cooling water to control dough temperature and protect gluten protein functionality. If...

Manmade products

Different food materials are so-called cellular solids1 (Jeronimidis, 1991). In this type of food commodity, cellular refers to the pocket foam-like structure. The structure of these products consists of a solid phase surrounding air pockets. Examples are bread, dairy dessert foams and different types of snacks. The air pockets can be closed or interconnecting. The presence or absence of interconnections between the air pockets and the density of the material are the most important parameters affecting the mechanical properties of such products (Gibson and Ashby, 1988). The theory developed for cellular solids was successfully applied to unravel the effects of ingredients and processing conditions on the texture of bread crumb (Scanlon and Zghal, 2001). Understanding was gained by separating the effects on the air cells (size, shape, porosity) and the physical properties of the solid phase (stiffness, brittleness, starch retrogradation, gluten behaviour).

Protein and starch

A variety of proteins have been used in formulating modern batter recipes cheese powder, egg albumen, whey protein, gluten, soy protein. Some of them are prehydrolysed in order to serve different purposes. Protein is a versatile compound that can function as an emulsifying agent, a film forming agent, a structural material, and many others (Cheftel et al, 1985). Soy protein is sometimes added to meat products to improve water-holding capacity, flavour, and cohesiveness (Brewer et al, 1992 Kotula, 1976). Fibrous muscle protein tends to lose water and form aggregates that are tough and dry after prolonged cooking or frying. Mechanical fine cutting of meat to manufacture meatball (fish, pork or beef) is a good example of protein manipulation to improve water-holding capacity. After fine cutting, fibrous muscle protein molecules are smaller and less organized and thus less likely to form aggregates during cooking or frying and more capable of retaining water.