Cooper MJ Mackie CR Dhorajiwala J et al Hemorrhage from ileal varices after total proctocolectomy Am J Surg 141178 1981

High Blood Pressure Exercise Program

High Blood Pressure Homeopathic Cure

Get Instant Access

21. Hosking, S.W., Smart, H.L., Johnson, A.G., and Triger, D.R.: Anorectal varices, haemorrhoids, and portal hypertension. Lancet, 1:349, 1989.

22. Wilson, S.E., Stone, R.T., Christie, J.P., et al.: Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding from intestinal varices. Arch. Surg., 114:1158, 1979.

23. Pascal, J.P., Cales, P., and Desmorat, H.: Natural history of esophageal varices. In Bosch, J., Rodes, J. (eds.): Recent Advances in the Pathophysiology and Therapy of Portal Hypertenison. Rome, Ares Serono Symposia, 1989, p. 127.

24. Turcotte, J.G.: Portal hypertension as I see it. In Child, C.G., III (ed.): Portal Hypertension. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1974, p. 78.

25. Garcia-Pagan, J.C., Feu, F., Castells, A., et al.: Exercise, circadian variations of portal pressure and variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology, 111:1300, 1996.

26. Gracia-Tsoa, G., Groszmann, R.J., Fisher, R.I., et al.: Portal pressure, presence of gastroesophageal varices and variceal bleeding. Hepatology, 5:419, 1985.

27. Rigau, J., Bosch, J., Bordas, J.M., et al.: Endoscopic measurement of variceal hemorrhage. Gastroenterology, 96:873, 1989.

28. Feu, F., Garcia-Pagan, J.C., Bosch, J., et al.: Relation between portal pressure response to pharmacotherapy and risk of the recurrent variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. Lancet, 346:1056, 1995.

29. Goenka, M.K., Kochhar, R., Nagi, B., and Mehta, S.K.: Rectosigmoid varices and other mucosal changes in patients with portal hypertension. Am. J. Gastroenterol., <96:1185, 1991.

30. Weinshel, E., Chen, W., Falkenstein, D.B., et al.: Hemorrhoids or rectal varices: Defining the cause of massive rectal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. Gastroenterology, 90:144, 1986.

31. McCormack, T.T., Bailey, H.R., Simms, J.M., et al.: Rectal varices are not piles. Br. J. Surg., 71:163, 1984.

32. Wang, M., Desigan, G., and Dunn, D.: Endoscopic sclerotherapy for bleeding rectal varices: A case report. Am. J. Gastroenterol., <0:779, 1985.

33. Puttini, M., Marni, A., Montes, F., et al.: Effect of portosystemic shunt on hypersplenism: Clinical study of 129 patients with cirrhosis. Am. Surg., 45:444, 1979.

34. Runyon, B.A.: Patients with deficient ascitic fluid opsonic activity are predisposed to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology, <9:632, 1988.

35. Hoefs, J.C., Jonas, G.M., and Sarfeh, I.J.: Diagnosis and hemodynamic assessment of portal hypertension. Surg. Clin. North Am., 70:261, 1990.

36. Pagliaro, L., Burroughs, A.K., Soerensen, T.I.A., et al.: Therapeutic controversies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs): Prevention of bleeding and rebleeding in cirrhosis. Gastroenterol. Int., 2:11, 1989.

37. Voorhees, A.B., Jr., and Price, J.B., Jr.: Extrahepatic portal hypertension: A retrospective analysis of 127 cases and associated clinical implications. Arch. Surg., 108:338, 1974.

38. Ratnoff, O.D., and Patek, A.J., Jr.: The natural history of Laennec's cirrhosis of the liver: An analysis of 386 cases. Medicine, 21:207, 1942.

39. Burroughs, A.K., and McCormick, P.A.: Natural history and prognosis of variceal bleeding. Baillieres Clin. Gastroenterol., 6:437, 1992.

40. Grace, N.D.: A hepatologist's view of variceal bleeding. Am. J. Surg., 160:26, 1990.

41. Graham, D., and Smith, J.L.: The course of patients after variceal hemorrhage. Gastroenterology, 80:800, 1981.

42. Sherlock, S.: Esophageal varices. Am. J. Surg., 160:9, 1990.

43. Smith, J.L., and Graham, D.Y.: Variceal hemorrhage: A critical evaluation of survival analysis. Gastroenterology, 82:968, 1982.

44. Baker, L.A., Smith, C., and Lieberman, G.: The natural history of esophageal varices: A study of 115 cirrhotic patients in whom varices were diagnosed prior to bleeding. Am. J. Med., 26:228, 1959.

45. Garceau, A.J., Chalmers, T.C., and the Boston InterHospital Liver Group: The natural history of cirrhosis. I. Survival with esophageal varices. N. Engl. J. Med., 268:469, 1963.

46. Powell, W.J., Jr., and Klatskin, G.: Duration of survival in patients with Laennec's cirrhosis. Am. J. Med., 44:406, 1968.

47. Thompson, W.P., Caughey J.L., Whipple, A.O., et al.: Splenic vein pressure in congestive splenomegaly (Banti's syndrome). J. Clin. Invest., 16:571, 1937.

48. Smith-Laing, G., Camilo, M.E., Dick, R., et al.: Percutaneous transhepatic portography in the assessment of portal hypertension. Gastroenterology, 78:197, 1980.

49. Leger, L.H.: Splenoportography: Diagnostic Phlebography of the Portal Venous System. Springfield, IL, Charles C Thomas, 1966.

50. Piccone, V.A., and LeVeen, H.H.: Transumbilical portal decompression. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 125:66, 1967.

51. Reynolds, T.B., Ito, S., and Iwatsuki, S.: Measurement of portal pressure and its clinical application. Am. J. Med., 49:649, 1970.

52. McCormick, P.A., and Burroughs, A.K.: Hemodynamic evaluation of portal hypertension. Hepatogastroenterology, 37:546, 1990.

53. Mosimann, R.: Nonaggressive assessment of portal hypertension using endoscopic measurement of variceal pressure. Am. J. Surg., 143:212, 1982.

54. Staritz, M.K.H., Meyer, Z.L.M., and Buschenfelde, K.H.: The endoscopic measurement of intravascular pressure and flow in oesophageal varices. J. Hepatol., 7:126, 1988.

55. Bolondi, L., Li-Bassi, S., Gaiani, S., et al.: Doppler flowmetry in portal hypertension. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 5:459, 1990.

56. Cioni, G., Dalimonte, P., Zerbinati, F., et al.: Duplex-Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension and in the analysis of their response to drugs. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 7:388, 1992.

57. Moriyasu, F., Nishida, O., Ban, N., et al.: 'Congestion index' of the portal vein. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol., 146:735, 1986.

58. Groszman, R.J., Glickman, M., Blei, A.T., et al.: Wedged and free hepatic venous pressure measured with a balloon catheter. Gastroenterology, 76:253, 1979.

59. Reynolds, T.B.: The role of hemodynamic measurements in portosystemic shunt surgery. Arch. Surg., 108:276, 1974.

60. Swan, K.G., Howard, M.M., Rocko, J.M., et al.: Operative vasopressin and mesocaval shunting for portal hypertension. Surgery, 87:46, 1980.

61. Johnson, C.D., Ehman, R.L., Rakela, J., and Ilstrup, D.M.: MR angiography in portal hypertension: Detection of varices and imaging techniques. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr., 15:578, 1991.

62. Williams, D.M., Cho, K.J., Aisen, A.M., and Eckhauser, F.E.: Portal hypertension evaluated by MR imaging. Radiology, 157:703, 1985.

63. Conn, H.O., Smith, H.W., and Brodoff, M.: Observer variation in the endoscopic diagnosis of esophageal varices. N. Engl. J. Med., 272:830, 1965.

64. Morris, D.W., Levine, G.M., Soloway, R.D., et al.: Prospective randomized study of diagnosis and outcome in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Endoscopy versus conventional radiography. Am. J. Dig. Dis., 20:1103, 1975.

65. Gonzalez-Carbahaes, O.: Hepatopotografia por via umbilical. Rev. Sanid. Mil. Mex., 12:42, 1959.

66. White, J.J.: Uses of the umbilical vein. In Rutherford, R.B. (ed.): Vascular Surgery. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1977, p. 933.

67. Cameron, J.L., Herlong, F., Sanfey, H., et al.: The Budd-Chiari syndrome: Treatment by mesenteric-systemic venous shunts. Ann. Surg., 198:335, 1983.

68. Smith, G.W., Westgaard, T., and Björn-Hansen, R.: Hepatic venous angiography in the evaluation of cirrhosis of the liver. Ann. Surg., 173:469, 1971.

69. Lebrec, D.: Methods to evaluate portal hypertension. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am., 21:41, 1992.

70. Bosch, J., and Groszmann, R.J.: Measurement of azygous venous blood flow by a continuous thermal dilution technique: An index of blood flow through gastroesophageal collaterals in cirrhosis. Hepatology, 4:424, 1984.

71. deFrancis, R., and Primignani, M.: Why do varices bleed? Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am., 21:85, 1992.

72. North Italian Endoscopic Club for the Study and Treatment of Oesophageal Varices: Prediction of the first variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis of the liver and esophageal varices: A prospective multicentre study. N. Engl. J. Med., 319:983, 1988.

73. Tabibian, N., and Graham, P.Y.: Source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with esophageal varices seen at endoscopy. J. Clin. Gastroenterol., 9:279, 1987.

74. Grace, N.D.: Prevention of initial variceal hemorrhage. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am., 21:149, 1992.

75. Jackson, F.C., Perrin, E.B., Smith, A.G., et al.: A clinical investigation of the portacaval shunt. II. Surgical analysis of the prophylactic operation. Am. J. Surg., 115:22, 1968.

76. Pagliaro, L., D'Amico, G., Sorenson, T.I.A., et al.: Prevention of first bleeding in cirrhosis: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of nonsurgical treatment. Ann. Intern. Med., 117:59, 1992.

77. Galambos, J.T.: Evaluation of patients with portal hypertension. Am. J. Surg., 160:14, 1990.

78. Groszman, R.J., Bosch, J., Grace, N., et al.: Hemodynamic events in a prospective randomized trial of propranolol vs. placebo in the prevention of the first variceal hemorrhage. Gastroenterology, 99:1401, 1990.

79. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Variceal Study Group: Prophylactic sclerotherapy for esophageal varices in alcoholic liver disease: A randomized, single-blind, multicenter clinical trial. N. Engl. J. Med., 324:1779, 1991.

80. Lay, C.S., Tsai, Y.T., Shyu, W.S., et al.: Endoscopic variceal ligation in prophylaxis of first variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients with high-risk esophageal varices. Hepatology, 25:1346, 1997.

81. Sarin, S.K., Lamba, G.S., Kumar, M., et al.: Comparison of endoscopic ligation and propranolol for the primary prevention of variceal bleeding. N. Engl. J. Med., 340:988, 1999.

82. Conn, H.O., Lindemuth W.W., May L.J., et al.: Prophylactic portacaval anastomosis: A tale of two studies. Medicine, 51:27, 1972.

83. Resnick, R.H., Chalmers, T.C., and Ishihara, A.M.: The Boston Interhospital Liver Group: A controlled study of the prophylactic portacaval shunt—a final report. Ann. Intern. Med., 70:675, 1969.

84. Inokuchi, K.: Improved survival after prophylactic portal nondecompression surgery for esophageal varices: A randomized clinical trial. Cooperative Study Group of Portal Hypertension of Japan. Hepatology, 12:1, 1990.

85. Rodriguez-Perez, F., and Groszmann, R.J.: Pharmacologic treatment of portal hypertension. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am., 21:15, 1992.

86. Feu, F., Bordas, J.M., Garcia-Pagan, J.C., et al.: Double-blind investigation of the effects of propranolol and placebo on the pressure of esophageal varices in patients wih portal hypertension. Hepatology, 13:917, 1991.

87. Lebrec, D.: Current status and future goals of the pharmacologic reduction of portal hypertension. Am. J. Surg., 160:19, 1990.

88. Conn, H.O., Grace, N.D., Bosch, J., et al.: Propranolol in the prevention of the first hemorrhage from esophagogastric varices: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial. The Boston-New Haven-Barcelona Portal Hypertension Study Group. Hepatology, 13:902, 1991.

89. Sherlock, S.: In Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System. 7th ed. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1985.

90. Eldering, S.L., Moore, E.E., Wolz, J.R., et al.: Outcome of operations for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Arch. Surg., 115:1473, 1980.

91. Graham, D.Y.: Limited value of early endoscopy in the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Prospective controlled trial. Am. J. Surg., 140:284, 1980.

92. Peterson, W.L., Barnett, C.C., Smith, H.J., et al.: Routine early endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding: A randomized controlled trial. N. Engl. J. Med., 304:925, 1981.

93. Webb, W.A., McDaniel, L., Johnson, R.C., et al.: Endoscopic evaluation of 125 cases of upper gasrointestinal bleeding. Ann. Surg., 193:624, 1981.

94. Merigan, T.C., Jr., Hollister, R. M., Gryska, P.F., et al.: Gastrointestinal bleeding with cirrhosis. N. Engl. J. Med., 263:579, 1960.

95. Takasaki, T., Kobayashi, S., Mutu, H., et al.: Transabdominal esophageal transection using a suture device in cases of esophageal varices. Intern. Surg., 62:426, 1977.

96. Clark, G.A.: Comparison of effects of adrenaline and pituitrin on portal circulation. J. Physiol., 66:274, 1928.

97. McMichael, J.: Portal circulation I. Action of adrenaline and pituitary pressor extract. J. Physiol., 75:241, 1932.

98. Merigan, T.C., Jr., Plotkin, G.R., and Davidson, C.S.: Effect of intravenously administered posterior pituitary extract on hemorrhage from bleeding esophageal varices: A controlled evaluation. N. Engl. J. Med., 266:134, 1962.

99. Nusbaum, M., Baum, S., Sikiyalak, P., et al.: Pharmacologic control of portal hypertension. Surgery, 62:299, 1967.

100. Conn, H.O., Ramsby, G.R., Storer, E.H., et al.: Intra-arterial vasopressin in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A prospective controlled clinical trial. Gastroenterology, 68:211, 1975.

101. Nusbaum, M., Younis, M.T., and Baum, S.: Selective superior mesenteric arterial infusion of vasopressin during portosystemic shunt operation. Am. J. Surg., 127:35, 1974.

102. Mallory, A., Schaefer, J.W., Cohen, J.R., et al.: Selective intra-arterial vasopressin infusion for upper gastrointesinal tract hemorrhage: A controlled trial. Arch. Surg., 115:30, 1980.

103. Gimson, A.E.S., Westby, D., Hegarty, J., et al.: A randomized trial of vasopressin and vasopressin plus nitroglycerin in the control of acute variceal hemorrhage. Hepatology, 6:410, 1986.

104. Tsia, Y.T., Lay, C.S., Lai, K.H., et al.: Controlled trial of vasopressin plus nitroglycerin vs. vasopressin alone in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices. Hepatology, 6:406, 1986.

105. Bosch, J., Kravetz, D., and Rodies, J.: Effects of somatostatin on hepatic and systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis of the liver: Comparison with vasopressin. Gastroenterology, #0:518, 1981.

106. Wahren, J., and Eriksson, L.S.: The influence of a long-acting somatostatin analogue on splanchnic hemodynamics and metabolism in healthy subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 21:103, 1986.

107. Wahren, J., and Feli, P.: Influence of somatostatin on carbohydrate disposal and absorption in diabetes mellitus. Lancet, 2:1213, 1976.

108. Nishida, H., Giostra, E., Spahr, L., et al.: Acute effects of somatostatin, octretide, or placebo in patients with cirrhosis: A double-blind study. Hepatology, 2#:235A, 1998.

109. McCormick, P.A., Biagini, M.R., Dick, R., et al.: Octreotide inhibits the meal-induced increases in the portal venous pressure of cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Hepatology, 16:1180, 1992.

110. Albillos, A., Rossi, I., Iborra, J., et al.: Octreotide prevents postprandial splanchnic hyperemia in patients with portal hypertension. J. Hepatol., 21:88, 1994.

111. Lin, H.C., Tsai, Y.T., Huang, C.C., et al.: Effects of octreotide on postprandial systemic and hepatic hemodynamics in patients with postnecrotic cirrhosis. J. Hepatol., 21:424, 1994.

112. McCormick, P.A., Jenkins, S.A., McIntyre, N., et al.: Why portal-hypertensive varices bleed and bleed: A hypothesis. Gut, 56:100, 1995.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment