The stomach originates as a dilatation in the tubular embryonic foregut during the fifth week of gestation. By the seventh week, it assumes its normal anatomic shape and position by descent, rotation, and further dilatation, with disproportionate elongation of the greater curvature. Following birth, the stomach is easily recognizable as the pear-shaped, most proximal abdominal organ of the alimentary tract ( Fig. 1-1 ). The region of the stomach that attaches to the esophagus is called the cardia. Proximal to the cardia is the physiologically competent lower esophageal sphincter. The pylorus connects the distal stomach (antrum) to the proximal duodenum. Although the stomach is fixed at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and the pylorus, the large mid portion is mobile. The superior-most part of the stomach is the floppy, distensible fundus. It is bounded superiorly by the diaphragm and laterally by the spleen. The largest portion of the stomach is the body (corpus). The body contains the bulk of gastric parietal cells and is bounded on the right by the relatively straight lesser curvature and on the left by the longer greater curvature. At the angularis incisura, the lesser curvature abruptly angles to the right. This marks the end of the body and the beginning of the antrum, which extends to the pylorus. Another important anatomic angle (angle of His) is the one that the fundus forms with the left margin of the esophagus.
Liver Celiac trunk
Liver Celiac trunk
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.