Iii86

25. Cubilla, A.L., and Fitzgerald, P.J.: Morphological lesions associated with human primary invasive nonendocrine pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res., 36:2690, 1976.

26. Wilentz, R.E., and Hruban, R.H.: Pathology of cancer of the pancreas. Surg. Oncol. Clin. North Am., 7:43, 1998.

27. DiGuiseppe, J.A., Yeo, C.J., and Hruban, R.H.: Molecular biology and the diagnosis and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Adv. Anat. Pathol., 3:139, 1996.

28. Furukawa, T., Chiba, R., Kobari, M., et al.: Varying grades of epithelial atypia in the pancreatic ducts of humans. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 118:227, 1994.

29. Brat, D.J., Lillemoe, K.D., Yeo, C.J., et al.: Progression of pancreatic intraductal neoplasm to infiltrating adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 16:815, 1992.

30. Yeo, C.J., Cameron, J.L., Lillemoe, K.D., et al.: Pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer of the head of the pancreas: 201 patients. Ann. Surg., 221:721, 1995.

31. Z'graggen, K., Rivera, J.A., Compton, C.C., et al.: Prevalence of activating k-ras mutations in the evolutionary stages of neoplasia in intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas. Ann. Surg., 226:491, 1997.

32. Hruban, R.H., Peterson, G.M., Ha P.K., et al.: Genetics of pancreatic cancer: From genes to families. Surg. Oncol. Clin. North Am., 7:1, 1998.

33. Rozenblum, E., Schutte, M., Goggins, M., et al.: Tumor-suppressive pathways in pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer Res., 57:1731, 1997.

34. Griffin, C.A., Hruban, R.H., Long, P.P., et al.: Chromosome abnormalities in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 9:93, 1994.

35. Rozenblum, E., Schutte, M., Goggins, M., et al.: Tumor-suppressive pathways in pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer Res., 57:1731, 1997.

36. Caldas, C., Hahn, S.A., da Costa, L.T., et al.: Frequent somatic mutations and homozygous deletions of the p16 (MTS1) gene in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Nat. Genet., 8:27, 1994.

37. Schutte, M., Hurban, R.H., Geradts, J., et al.: Abrogation of the Rb/p16 tumor-suppressive pathway in virtually all pancreatic carcinomas. Cancer Res., 57:3126, 1997.

38. DiGiuseppe, J.A., Hruban, R.H., Geradts, J., et al.: Overexpression of p53 protein in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 101:684, 1994.

39. Hahn, S.A., Schutte, M., Hoque, A.T.M.S., et al.: DPC4, A candidate tumor suppressor gene at human chromosome 18q21.1. Science, 271:350, 1996.

40. Zhou, S., Buckhaults, P., Zawel, L., et al.: Targeted deletions of Smad4 shows it is required for transforming growth factor ß and activin signaling in colorectal cancer cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 95:2412, 1998.

41. Schutte, M., Hruban, R.H., Hedrick, L., et al.: DPC4 gene in various tumor types. Cancer Res., 56:2527, 1996.

42. Schutte, M., da Costa, L.T., Hahn, S.A., et al.: Identification by representational difference analysis of a homozygous deletion in pancreatic carcinoma that lies within the BRCA2 region. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 92:5950, 1995.

43. Goggins, M., Schutte, M., Lu, J., et al.: Germline BRCA2 mutations in patients with apparently sporadic pancreatic carcinomas. Cancer Res., 56:5360, 1996.

44. Su, G.H., Hilgers, W., Shekher, M.C., et al.: Alterations in pancreatic, biliary and breast carcinomas support MKK4 as a genetically targeted tumor suppressor gene. Cancer Res., 58:2339, 1998.

45. Teng, D., Perry, W.L., Hogan, J.K., et al.: Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Cancer Res., 57:4177, 1997.

46. Hruban, R.H., van Mansfeld, A.D.M., Offerhaus, G.J.A., et al. K-ras oncogene activation in adenocarcinoma of the human pancreas: A study of 82 carcinomas using a combination of mutant-enriched polymerase chain reaction analysis and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization. Am. J. Pathol., 143:545, 1993.

47. Goggins, M., Offerhaus, G.J.A., Hilgers, W., et al.: Pancreatic adenocarcinomas with DNA replication errors (RER+) are associated with wild-type k-ras and characteristic histopathology: Poor differentiation, a syncytial growth pattern, and pushing borders suggest RER+. Am. J. Pathol., 152:1501, 1998.

48. Lumadue, J.A., Griffin, C.A., Osman, M., et al.: Familial pancreatic cancer and the genetics of pancreatic cancer. Surg. Clin. North Am., 75:845, 1995.

49. Korc, M.: Role of growth factors in pancreatic cancer. Surg. Oncol. Clin. North Am., 7:25, 1998.

50. Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC): TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors, 4th ed. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1987.

51. Japan Pancreas Society: General Rules for Surgical and Pathological Studies on Cancer of the Pancreas, 3rd ed. Tokyo, Kanehara, 1987.

52. Dencker, H.: Symptomatology of resectable periampullary carcinoma. Acta Chir. Scand., 138:613, 1972.

53. Cujik, J., Babiker, A.G.: Pancreatic cancer, diabetes mellitus and gallbladder disease. Int. J. Cancer, 43:415, 1989.

54. Ritts, R.E., and Pitt, H.A.: CA 19-9 in pancreatic cancer. Surg. Oncol. Clin. North Am., 7:93, 1998.

55. Willett, C., Daly, W., and Warshaw, A.: CA 19-9 is an index of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in pancreatic cancer. Am. J. Surg., 172:350, 1996.

56. Bluemke, D.A., Abrams, R.A., Yeo, C.J., et al.: Recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Spiral CT evaluation following the Whipple procedure. Radiographics, 17:303, 1997.

57. Zhou, W., Sokoll, L.J., Bruzek, D.J., et al.: Identifying markers for pancreatic cancer by gene expression analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 7:109, 1998.

58. Wilentz, R.E., Chung, C.H., Sturm, P.D.J., et al.: K-ras mutations in duodenal fluid of patients with pancreas carcinoma. Cancer 82:96, 1998.

59. Berthelemy, P., Bouisson, M., Escourrou, J., et al.: Identification of K-ras mutations in pancreatic juice early in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Ann. Intern. Med., 123:188, 1995.

60. Caldas, C., Hahn, S.A., Hruban, R.H., et al.: Detection of k-ras mutations in the stool of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreatic ductal mucinous cell hyperplasia. Cancer Res., 54:3568, 1994.

61. Bluemke, D.A., and Fishman, E.K.: CT and MR evaluation of pancreatic cancer. Surg. Oncol. Clin. North Am., 7:103, 1998.

62. Inokuma, T., Tamaki, N., Torizuka, T., et al.: Value of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose and thallium-201 in the detection of pancreatic cancer. J. Nucl. Med., 36:229, 1995.

63. Goldstein, H.M., Zornoza, J., Wallace, S., et al.: Percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of pancreatic and other abdominal masses. Radiology, 123:319, 1977.

64. Cutherell, L., Wanebo, H.J., and Tegtmeyer, C.J.: Catheter tract seeding after percutaneous biliary drainage for pancreatic cancer. Cancer, 57:2057, 1986.

65. Savader, B.L., Fishman, E.K., Savader, S., et al.: CT arterial portography versus pancreatic angiography in the assessment of vascular involvement in pancreatic and periampullary tumors. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr., 18:916, 1994.

66. Stevens, P.D., and Lightdale, C.J.: The role of endosonography in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer. Surg. Oncol. Clin. North Am., 7:125, 1998.

67. Bemelman, W.A., de Wit L.T.H., Van Delden, O.M., et al.: Diagnostic laparoscopy combined with laparoscopic ultrasonography in staging of cancer of the pancreatic head region. Br. J. Surg., 82:820, 1995.

68. Callery, M.P., Strasberg, S.M., Doherty, G.M., et al.: Staging laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonography: Optimizing resectability in hepatobiliary and pancreatic malignancy. J. Am. Coll. Surg., 185:33, 1997.

69. Andren-Sandberg, A., Lindberg, C.G., Lundstedt, C., et al.: Computed tomography and laparoscopy in the assessment of the patient with pancreatic cancer. J. Am. Coll. Surg., 186:35, 1998.

70. Conlon, K.C., Dougherty, E., Klimstra, D.S., et al.: The value of minimal access surgery in the staging of patients with potentially resectable peripancreatic malignancy. Ann. Surg., 223:134, 1996.

71. Merchant, N.B., Conlon, K.C.: Laparoscopic evaluation in pancreatic cancer. Semin. Surg. Oncol., 15:155, 1998.

72. Fernandez-del Castillo, C., and Warshaw, A.L.: Peritoneal metastases in pancreatic carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology, 40:430, 1993.

73. Fernandez-del Castillo, C., Rattner, D.W., and Warshaw, AL.: Further experience with laparoscopy and peritoneal cytology in staging for pancreatic cancer. Br. J. Surg., 82:1127, 1995.

74. Warshaw, A.L., Gu, Z-Y., Wittenberg, J., et al.: Preoperative staging and assessment of resectability of pancreatic cancer. Arch. Surg., 125:230, 1990.

75. Sarr, M.G., and Cameron, J.L.: Surgical management of unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas. Surgery, 91:123, 1982.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment