Myopathic Muscle Histopathology And The Origin Of Abnormal Electrical Activity Detected By

Myopathic Discharges Emg

Myopathic states result in a variety of structural alterations in the muscle. Muscle fiber atrophy is typically produced by denervation, although it can be observed in the late stages of severe myopathies Fig. 8 . Muscle fiber hypertrophy Fig. 8 is observed in chronic muscle diseases, notably in the muscular dystrophies and in other longstanding disorders e.g., hypothyroid myopathy . Muscle fiber necrosis results in disruption and fragmentation Fig. 8. Chronic myopathic changes Emery-Dreifuss...

Specific Disorders Of The Brachial Plexus

Lumbosacral Plexus Schematic

Brachial plexopathies are most commonly caused by trauma, including closed traction injuries as well as penetrating trauma and dislocation of the humerus. The position of the arm and head is important in determining susceptibility of the brachial plexus structures during a closed injury with the arm down at the side, a force causing excessive shoulder depression will be transmitted to the upper trunk C5-6 roots , whereas with the arm overhead, force applied to the axilla is transmitted to the...

Electrodiagnosis Lumbosacral Plexopathies

Several principles of electrodiagnosis in lumbosacral plexopathy are similar to those described in the evaluation of brachial plexus lesions. The anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus is more straightforward again, considering lumbar and sacral plexus separately is helpful. In general, lesions tend to affect either one but rarely both the lumbar and sacral plexus. In cases of lumbar plexopathy, the patient generally presents with quadriceps weakness and the differential diagnostic considerations...

Martin Gruber Anastomosis

Martin Gruber Anastomosis

Peripheral nerve myelination begins at approximately the 15th week of gestation and continues through 3 to 5 yr of age. Therefore, for children younger than the age of 5 yr, special tables are required to evaluate NCS data. In term infants, the latency and conduction velocity values are approximately half those recorded in adults, and premature infants have even slower conduction velocities at the beginning of the third trimester, velocities are one-third of those measured in term infants. NCS...

Specific Epileptic Syndromes

Benign Rolandic Epilepsy Eeg

In contrast to seizure location and the resultant clinical manifestations, differences exist in the occurrence of epileptic syndromes in adult and pediatric epileptology. Most specific epileptic syndromes begin in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We shall start with the benign epileptic syndromes and then the malignant syndromes. Descriptions of the epileptic syndromes come from the ICES. Additional points within each syndrome are specifically referenced. The following specific...