A Cured Meat Guide for Everyone
Some of the other compounds which have been shown to inhibit lung carcinogenesis by NNK include butylated hydroxyanisole, an antioxidant used in food preservation, (+)-limonene, a constituent of orange juice and other citrus products, and diallyl sulfide, a constituent of garlic. Inhibition of NNK carcinogenesis has also been observed in animals treated with green and black tea, as well as its major polyphenolic constituents. Inhibitors of lung tumorigenesis induced by BaP include -naphthoflavone, butylated hydroxyanisole, ethoxyquin, diallyl sulfide and mjo-inositol. It seems likely that properly designed combinations of some of these inhibitors will be effective chemopreventive agents against lung cancer in humans.
SCC is virtually nonexistent in western and northern Africa. It also remains relatively rare in most of North America and Western Europe. In contrast, a high-risk zone extends from eastern Turkey through the southern former Soviet Union, Iraq, and Iran to northern China. High-risk areas also include Chile, the Transkei region of South Africa, Japan and regions of France and Brazil. Even in China, where 60 of oeso-phageal cancers develop, widespread differences in incidence and mortality exist. These high-risk foci have been explained on the basis of local food preservation practices that favour the generation of carcinogenic nitroso compounds from mould growing in pickled vegetables. Familial clusters of SCC of the oesophagus have been observed in Chinese high-risk areas. This can be attributed to shared environmental hazards, or to a common genetic influence.
Until the discovery of antibiotics, sage was a frequent component of herbal tea mixtures, recommended in patients with tuberculosis to prevent sudation. The essential oil of sage is still employed in flavouring condiments, cured meats, liqueurs and bitters. Besides the usage as a flavouring and antioxidant agent, sage (S. officinalis L.) leaves exhibit a range of biological activities, i.e. antibacterial, micostatic, virustatic, astringent and antihidrotic (Anonymus, 1994). Sage was found to be an active ingredient in combined plant preparations for treatment of acute and chronic bronchitis. Animal studies show hypotensive activity and central nervous system (CNS) depressant action of sage extracts (Newall et al., 1996). Because of antimicrobial effects (Dobrynin et al., 1976 Cherevatyi et al., 1980 Farag et al., 1986) and tannin-based astringent activities of sage this is used as an active ingredient of dental-care preparations. It reduces growth of plaques, inhibits gingival...
Thermal inactivation of PODs during heat treatment of fruit and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated, since the action of these enzymes may cause adverse changes of colour and flavours during food preservation. Moreover, PODs are generally used as indicator enzyme to assess the effectiveness of heat treatment.
Many apples and smoky things (e.g., smoked meats, cheese, fish) are often quite good tasting. If you agree with our assessment that smoky apples are likely to be bad tasting, that is probably because you imagine a way in which apples could become smoky (being caught in a kitchen fire, perhaps) and you infer that under these circumstances the apple would not be good to eat. The upshot is that the properties of a combination can depend on complex inductive or explanatory inferences (Johnson & Keil, 2000 Kunda et al., 1990). If these properties affect the typicality of an instance with respect to the combination, then there is little hope of a simple model of this phenomenon. No current theory comes close to providing an adequate and general account of these processes.
Chinese and in some other parts of Asia, the viral association is 100 . These associations (see Introduction), largely based on clinical, epidemiological and serological approaches, have now been known for nearly half a century. What still is not known, however, is the precise contribution of EBV to these diseases, whether causal or merely contributory. If contributory only, in no case has the corresponding co-factor(s) been definitively identified, although there are candidates such as malaria for BL and smoked, salted fish consumption for NPC. What is firmly established, however, is the fact that the geographical, racial and age incidence of individuals that develop these EBV-related malignancies are totally distinct (Figure 9).
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe whose natural habitat worldwide is soil, dust and marine sediments, and consequently, it is frequently found in a wide variety of fresh and cooked agricultural products. Spores of some C. botulinum strains can survive boiling for several hours, which enables the organism occasionally to outlast human efforts at food preservation. In contrast, botulinum toxin is heat-labile and is easily destroyed by heating at 80 C or above for 5-10 min. Little is known about the ecology of neurotoxigenic strains of C. butyricum and C. baratii.
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