Natural Dietary Supplements

Inner Peace Formula

The formula product of nutrition blends-inner-peace is well known, it is a remedy for plants used for a wide range of problems. In oncology, it is especially recommended as a topical treatment to prevent or treat skin irritations after radiotherapy. The product is a succulent plant with many amazing uses, it is then applied topically to the skin and hair or ingested. The product can also be combined with other natural ingredients to be part of your health or beauty routine. The product is scientifically proven the ingredients used in the Inner Peace formula have been specifically chosen because of scientific studies proving that they have the power to significantly improve the health and well-being of the individual. For decades, the soothing nature of nutrition blends-inner-peace formula has been known and respected by the people who believe in naturopathy. The product has compounds such as ashwagandha, magnolia, hops,l-Theanine, Passion Flower, Panax Ginseng, Hawthorn Berry that are extremely beneficial for human health. It has 18 amino acids that work in association with other compounds of the human body to deliver numerous health benefits. It has been reported extensively that Panax Ginseng supports the immune system by enhancing the body's resistance to illness and microbial attacks. Continue reading...

Inner Peace Formula Summary


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Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA and Spirulina

Spirulina is sold in health food stores and similar outlets as a dietary supplement. There appears to be a lack of understanding about their regulatory status. Until 1994 dietary supplements were regulated as foods by FDA. However, with passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), Congress amended the food regulations to include several provisions that apply only to dietary supplements and dietary ingredients of dietary supplements. As a result of these provisions, dietary ingredients used in dietary supplements are no longer subject to the pre-market safety evaluations required of other new food ingredients or for new uses of old food ingredients. They must, however, meet the requirements of other safety provisions. FDA defines a dietary supplement as a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino...

Food and Dietary Supplement GMPs

Spirulina is regulated as food and as a dietary supplement. The latter is a subset of food and falls under FDA's regulation. As discussed earlier, Spirulina is produced under FDA GMPs for food. The FDA has recently released a separate regulation for dietary supplement GMP. Nevertheless, some companies have already attained dietary supplement GMP certification through the industry's (Natural Products Association) certification program. The two facilities in the United States are subject to inspection by federal, state, and local regulatory bodies.

Preface To The Series

The business of dietary supplements in the Western World has expanded from the Health Store to the pharmacy. Alternative medicine includes plant based products. Appropriate measures to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of these either already exist or are being answered by greater legislative control by such bodies as the Food and Drug Administration of the USA and the recently created European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, based in London. In the USA, the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act of 1994 recognised the class of phytotherapeutic agents derived from medicinal and aromatic plants. Furthermore, under public pressure, the US Congress set up an Office of Alternative Medicine and this office in 1994 assisted the filing of several Investigational New Drug (IND) applications, required for clinical trials of some Chinese herbal preparations. The significance of these applications was that each Chinese preparation involved several plants and yet was...

Summary And Conclusions

At this point, what is known about the most commonly used dietary supplement multiple vitamin-mineral products and their effects on physical performance Consumers of multiple vitamin-mineral products want to know whether the pills they are popping keep them healthy and performing at peak efficiency. Consumers want to know if multiple vitamin-mineral products are a waste of money that creates expensive sewage, as many health care professionals claim. Consumers want to know whether these products are safe and contain the amounts of nutrients listed on the label. The following points are based on the evidence to date, along with a familiarity of research from non-exercise fields In conclusion, the recommendation from a review article by investigators from Harvard Medical School published in the Journal of the American Medical Association that it appears prudent for all adults to take vitamin supplements17 is also appropriate for adults who exercise regularly. The evidence also suggests...

Multivariate analysis techniques

Dairy beverages or nutritional supplements, one may consider asking about two main texture attributes, thickness consistency and chalky or smooth. If the attribute ratings are that of perceived intensities or appropriateness level and a sufficient number of products (six or more) are evaluated by consumers, it is then possible to predict the acceptance of a product (i.e. overall acceptance or acceptance of texture) from attribute ratings. Figure 2.5 is an illustration of such a concept. In this study, 10 chocolate nutritional beverages were evaluated by 150 consumers. The objective of the study was to identify the drivers of product acceptance, including important texture attributes. The nine-point hedonic scale was used to assess the overall degree of liking by consumers while the appropriateness of the level of color, chocolate flavour, sweetness, tartness, smoothness and thickness was assessed using JAR scales. Anchors used for the JAR scales are given in Table 2.2.

Supplementation Of Thiamin

Thiamin is available in nutritional supplements and fortification in two forms thiamin hydrochloride and thiamin nitrate. Because alcohol inhibits thiamin absorption, high doses of thiamin are typically administered in the treatment of alcoholism. Thiamin supplementation may also be prescribed for those with sepsis, since infections increase cellular energy requirements and therefore thiamin requirements. To treat beriberi, thiamin administration ranges from 50-100 mg given intravenously or intramuscularly for 1 or 2 weeks. The dose can then be decreased to 10 mg until the patient recovers. A dose of 100mg d has been suggested for athletes for recovering from exercise-induced fatigue.84

Biochemical Status In Athletes

Several studies have examined the vitamin B12 status of humans and animals during training as well as the effects of vitamin supplements on such status. As noted above, recent evidence suggests a link between exercise and plasma levels of homocysteine, and by inference, a relationship with that of vitamin B12 or folate. While several studies have examined the effects of exercise on plasma homocysteine, only those that have also assessed the effects on vitamin B12 will be discussed here. Studies that have simply screened B12 status show little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Brotherhood et al.25 compared the status of numerous hematologic parameters in 40 male long-distance runners with 12 matched controls. They reported no differences between these groups in serum B12 levels. Matter et al.,26 in a study of 85 female marathoners, reported normal vitamin B12 levels. The biochemical status of 17 of the I-class athletes, characterized by Barry et al.,19 included serum B12...

Interactions With Nutrients And Drugs

Raw egg white contains the protein avidin, which has great affinity for biotin.83 Binding of biotin to avidin renders biotin unavailable for absorption,67,83 potentially triggering biotin deficiency. Hence, dietary supplements containing raw (spray-dried) egg white might impair biotin status. This may be of importance to athletes ingesting large amounts of protein supplements based on egg white.

Gender Similarities and Differences

Muscle dysmorphia, in which a patient is preoccupied with the belief that he or she is too small and inadequate in muscularity, is a form of BDD that is far more common in men than in women (Pope et al. 1997), probably reflecting societal pressures for men to be muscular (Pope et al. 2000). This form of BDD is associated with typical BDD-related behaviors, such as camouflaging with clothing (to hide one's body or make it appear larger), mirror checking, and reassurance seeking, as well as compulsive working out (e.g., lifting weights) and use of dietary supplements. Some men with muscle dysmorphia use potentially dangerous anabolic steroids. This form of BDD usually interferes with social and occupational functioning and may lead to physical injury from excessive exercise.

Calcium in Prevention of BT

Other dietary supplements may have similar or even opposite effects on BT and bacterial colonization. In fact, even the absence of the specific components of diet may affect these phenomena. Both individual components or their absence, as well as the routes by which they are administered, may affect these phenomena. The effect of the parenteral administration of foodstuffs is

Water Insoluble Organic Solvents and Solids

Medium-chain triglycerides are commonly used to solubilize water-insoluble drugs. The mixture of ethanol and fractionated medium chain triglyceride of coconut oil is sometimes used as a solubilizing vehicle. A mixture of medium-chain triglycerides, polyethyleneglycol, and propylene glycol is also used as a solubilizing vehicle. Long-chain triglycerides are also commonly used to solubi-lize lipid soluble drugs in over-the-counter soft gelatin capsules such as soybean oil solubilizes vitamin A, and corn oil solubilizes 6 mg lutein, which is a natural carotenoid dietary supplement. Peppermint oil is used for both solubility and also to impart a favorable taste, such as in over-the-counter soft gelatin capsules containing 125 mg of simethicone for gas relief.

Dietary And Supplemental Sources

Larger doses of vitamin E are popular in the U.S. in the form of dietary supplements.5 The Food and Nutrition Board in its latest dietary reference intakes for vitamin E set tolerable upper intake level (UL) for adults at 1000 mg, which is equivalent to 1500 IU of natural or 1100 IU of synthetic vitamin E.6 Supplemental doses in exercise studies have varied considerably, from 13.513 to 1200 mg per day.14 Studies evaluating vitamin E in chronic disease resulted in conflicting outcomes beneficial effects,15-17 limited effects,18 no benefit19 and possible harm.20-22 The latest meta-analysis of 19 intervention studies with vitamin E suggested that high doses of vitamin E might increase the risk of all-cause mortality.23 However, the causes of death were not reported and the plethora of data on the safety of vitamin E makes it difficult to speculate on a mechanism for the observation. In general, the meta-analysis included studies that gave vitamin E doses well above the UL. It is...

Lifestyle Interventions

Given the important link between obesity and risk for essential hypertension, a number of lifestyle modification programs have focused primarily on regaining normal body weight. One only needs to peruse best-selling book lists or examine the lead stories in popular monthly magazines to know that there are dozens of strategies proposed for losing weight, ranging from use of dietary supplements to appetite suppressants, and from daily exercise programs to various forms of surgery. Regardless of the strategies proposed, body weight is basically a function of the number of calories ingested and the number of calories expended on a daily basis. Therefore, most effective weight loss programs focus on some combination of reducing caloric intake (altered diet) and increasing the number of calories expended (exercise). In the fol The effectiveness of weight loss has also been shown to be superior to other non-pharmacologic interventions aimed at preventing hypertension. Data from over 2000...

The Hyperthyroid Diet

Stay away from caffeine, alcohol, and cigarettes, all of which may stimulate your heart. You may want to take vitamin supplements as well. (Vitamins A, D, and E are stored in body fat and can be lost through excretion if you are thyrotoxic or hyperthyroid.) When you are in balance again, you will need to cut down on your fat and calcium intake.

The Role of Individual Differences in the Association between Stress and Hypertension

Although many individual difference variables have been shown to influence the stress-hypertension relation, there are several for which the degree of influence on the stress-hypertension relation is unknown, including physical exercise, presence of diabetes and obesity, smoking, and various dietary supplements. It may be that some of these variables exert only a direct influence on risk for hypertension and subsequent cardiovascular disease rather than influencing risk for hypertension associated with stress. Certainly, additional research is warranted in these cases to determine the nature of the causal pathways operating for each individual difference variable. Obviously, even if smoking, diabetes, and obesity turn out not to be involved in the stress-hypertension link, these findings should not thwart our efforts to address the negative health effects associated with them with patients and through community-based public health efforts.

Proteinenergy Malnutrition

Nutritious food and vitamin supplements generally lead to a complete recovery. Whether PEM results in long-term growth retardation and delayed intellectual development is controversial. y This condition is best prevented by education of affected family members on proper nutrition. In the United States, hospitalized elderly are perhaps at the greatest risk for PEM, and nutritional assessments of all patients at risk should be undertaken at admission to prevent serious malnutrition and to reduce the incidence of morbidity and mortality.

Dietary And Supplemental Sources Of Selenium

Selenium in nutritional supplements includes organic forms such as selenomethionine and Se-methylselenocysteine and inorganic forms such as sodium selenite and sodium selenate. Another Se supplement is high-Se broccoli, which contains primarily Se-methylselenocysteine. Selenium-yeast is also used frequently as a Se supplement and the selenocompounds in this product have been reported to vary widely with a selenomethionine content ranging from 16.0-62.6 . There have been efforts to have a standard of 85 of the Se as selenomethionine by some companies.7 All of the supplements are useful in correcting selenium GSHPx deficiency, but selenomethionine is incorporated in a nonspecific manner into tissue proteins in place of methionine, as methionine-tRNA does not distinguish between the two amino acids.7 Thus, less Se may be available for cancer chemoprevention or other functions when the Se in supplements is provided predominantly as selenomethionine.

Therapeutic Interventions For Inflammation And Oxidative Stress In Aging

The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases increases with age and may be a result of changes in the aged microenvironment that make the brain more susceptible to insults and genetic predispositions of these disease processes. Taking into consideration the above descriptions of oxidative stress and inflammation that occur with age, it becomes evident that bolstering the immune system or finding therapeutic interventions that would shift the balance away from the chronic inflammatory state and towards the alternative inflammatory response maybe a useful strategy. Dietary supplements, as well as, pharmaceuticals have been extensively investigated for their potential as anti-inflammatories and anti-oxidants. With respect to pharmaceuticals, researchers have investigated the potential of NSAIDs in aging. While promising results were initially found with Alzheimers disease,71-73 they

Conclusions And Implications

Many, but not all, of the nutrients are better utilized by the body if they are consumed as a component of food. Unfortunately, many people do not consume nutritionally adequate diets and these individuals would benefit from taking vitamin-mineral supplements. It appears prudent for all adults to take vitamin supplements, according to a scientific review and clinical applications paper published in 2002 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.13 Athletes are encouraged to consume a nutritionally adequate diet and should consider, based on their dietary intakes and general state of health, whether they should take a multivitamin-multimineral supplement. Some evidence, though not conclusive, exists that the needs of athletes for antioxidant vitamins may be higher than of the typical population.

Spirulina And The Innate Immune System

In vitro, addition of Spirulina to macrophages obtained from the lung of cats significantly raised the percentage of phagocytic macrophages without affecting the number of particles that each of these macrophages engulfed.5 Similarly, in chicks that had received Spirulina as part of their diet (10-10,000 ppm) for 3 or 7 weeks, the proportion of phagocytic macrophages was significantly increased compared to unsupplemented controls.6 The number of ingested particles per phagocytic macrophage was not significantly affected. In another study, however, dietary supplementation of chicks with 0.5 , 1.0 , or 2.0 Spirulina for 14, 35, or 42 days significantly enhanced not only the percentage of macrophages involved in phagocytosis but also the number of phagocytosed particles per macrophage.7 These macrophages also exhibited significantly greater lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitrite than those obtained from unsupplemented animals.7 Spontaneous nitrite production (in the...

Dietary Intake And Status Assessment

Calcium salts of D-pantothenate are the typical sources of pantothenic acid in oral vitamin supplements. Dexpanthenol (pantothenyl alcohol) is a synthetic analog of pantothenic acid that is commonly used for topical applications. Dexpanthenol can be converted to pantothenic acid by mammalian cells.58

Parallels in the feeding ecology

Invertebrate prey serve as a major source of high quality protein for the baboon - as they probably served our Australopithecine ancestors (Zihlman, 1983). This difference can be explained, in both cases, by relative body size. The baboons are about the size of the early Australopithecines (i.e., roughly half the size of modern humans).3 Between vertebrate predators and prey, a primate of this size is more likely to end up as dinner than as diner. Grasshoppers, spiders, scorpions, worms, and other invertebrates are fair game that the baboon can scarcely afford to ignore - nor could such a selection be easily ignored by an ancient hominid as small as Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) or, perhaps, even Homo habilis. Incidently, shell fish and other aquatic invertebrates are to this day a welcome dietary supplement to modern humans and, in certain regions, land insects still serve as staple food.

Spirulina As A Natural Therapeutic Intervention For Inflammation And Oxidative Stress In Aging

Spirulina, is a very interesting and promising source of phytochemicals that has also shown hopeful results in dealing with age-related changes. With both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, Spirulina has the ability to supplement our internal anti-oxidant defense systems as well as control any excessive inflammation. The first known use of Spirulina as a dietary supplement came from the Aztecs more than 400 years ago. The Spanish conquistadors found the Aztecs drying the green growth, called tecuitlatl, from Lake Texcoco located near Mexico city. Today, Lake Texcoco is still plentiful in Spirulina. It has also been speculated that the Mayans specifically farmed Spirulina as a crop. Likewise, the Kanembu who live along lake Chad were found to be taking the growth form the lake and drying it for food (Ciferri and Tiboni, 1985). changes in neurotransmitter receptor function. One study examined the significant decrease in j-adrenergic receptor function in aged rats. These...

Identity And Roles Of Vitamins And Trace Minerals

Sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus (as phosphate), calcium and magnesium are macrominerals, with typical daily intakes in the gram range.58-10 Trace minerals known to be essential for humans are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, chromium, iodine, molybdenum and fluoride.5-12 Arsenic, boron, nickel, silicon and vanadium await confirmation of essentiality in humans.7 Other minerals are not considered to have essential roles or needs. Daily trace mineral requirements are in the milligram to microgram ranges, as opposed to grams or hundreds of milligrams for other essential minerals. In general, trace minerals are required cofactors for function of numerous enzymes in almost every aspect of metabolism and physiology. Roles that directly influence physical performance include oxygen binding and transport, generation of cellular energy, hormone function, antioxidant status and muscular contraction.5-12 Molybdenum and fluoride are not considered to have roles that affect physical...

Respiratory Papillomatosis

The CO2 laser treatment of laryngeal papillomas is best delivered with a microspot micromanipulator. Tracheal papillomas, in which the CO2 laser can not be precisely delivered with a micromanipulator, are best treated with a KTP laser in pediatric cases and a Nd YAG laser in the adult patient.34,35 Treatment of airway papillomas often combines laser resection with the use of systemic drugs and nutritional supplements such as interferon and indole-3-carbinol (I3C).36 I3C, found in cruciferous vegetables, has the ability to arrest the proliferative effect of estrogen in laryngeal papillomas by altering its metabolic pathway in the cytochrome P450. However, unlike interferon, I3C can not induce regression of papillomas that are already developed.

Copper Requirments Of Athletes

Because of these difficulties, the FNB could not assemble sufficient data to establish an RDA for Cu in 1989.6 Instead, they recommended an ESADDI of 1.5 to 3 mg day for both men and women over the age of 11. In 1995, a workshop was sponsored by the FNB and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, to consider new approaches, endpoints and paradigms for the assessment of mineral requirements for humans.115 Evidence was presented to suggest that the requirement for Cu might be lower than the 1989 ESADDI. Indeed, in the 2001 deliberation of the FNB, the RDA for Cu was set at 0.9 mg day.4 This is more in line with the values of 1-2 mg day set by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare.7 The RDA is based on the needs of the general population, but to date, there is no strong evidence to suggest that the Cu requirement for athletes is any different.

Worldwide Production Of Spirulina And Its Current

Currently Spirulina is used in various food application such as juice smoothies, confectionary, food bars, baked desserts, doughnuts, muffins, pasta, salad dressing, frozen desserts, snack foods, popcorn, corn chips, crackers, breakfast cereals, liquid or instant meals, instant soup, gnocchi, and even specialty beer. Spirulina is also widely used as an animal feed supplement.49 The increasing scientific and clinical evidence for its nutritional and potential health benefits50 is also attracting its use as a functional food in addition to its already established use as a dietary supplement.


Stevia rebaudiana powdered leaf has been used for over a century in Paraguay to sweeten beverages, although this practice seems only ever to have been conducted on a relatively small scale. Larger quantities of S. rebaudiana products have been used increasingly for about a quarter of a century in Japan, with there being many Japanese foods and beverages containing stevioside now available. Within the last few years stevioside has begun to be used extensively in South Korea in the formulation of the alcoholic beverage, soju, for domestic consumption. Stevioside is available for the sweetening of several different types of products in Brazil, including soft drinks. In addition, S. rebaudiana products are used as dietary supplements in the United States and countries such as Italy in western Europe. Despite this widespread use in several different parts of the world, no evidence of adverse reactions due to the ingestion of S. rebaudiana extracts of stevioside by humans has appeared in...

Problems with use

The availability of melatonin varies between countries. It is taken regularly by several million people in the USA where it is classed as a nutritive or dietary supplement. This does not require review of the quality of the preparations by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and one study showed that one-third of the brands contained no melatonin and in 75 there was significantly less than advertised. Most melatonin is synthesized, but some is prepared from bovine pineal glands.


Total B12 intake by athletes does not seem to be much different from that of other groups that are active consumers of balanced diets and vitamin supplements, although such intake would be above those of the general population. Barry et al.19 surveyed the reported intakes of 108 international-(I) class athletes and of 35 club- (C) class athletes (involving both endurance and strength sports) using weighed inventories over 3 alternative days. I- and C-class males consumed 19 and 13 g of B12 d (much higher than the existing RDA of 3 g, probably due to a high meat consumption), while I-and C-class females consumed 3 and 6 g d, respectively. About 50 of both groups of athletes were active consumers of some type of vitamin supplement. Singh et al.20 recorded the 4-d dietary records of ultramarathoners, who averaged 67 miles wk in training. The estimated vitamin intake from food alone was 4.5-6 g of B12 d (compared with the existing RDA of 2 g). Because 70 of this population used vitamin...


Uptake of pantothenic acid into intestinal cells is mediated by the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT).4 This transporter has similar affinity for pantothenic acid, biotin and lipoic acid.4-6 At high intestinal concentrations of pantothenic acid, absorption by passive diffusion is quantitatively more important than active transport.7 It remains unknown whether bacterial synthesis in the intestine contributes substantially to pantothenic acid supply. Note that SMVT is also expressed in the colon, where the bulk of intestinal microorganisms reside. If microbial synthesis of pantothenic acid is substantial, balance studies in humans may have underestimated pantothenic acid turnover and requirements. The bioavailability of pantothenic acid from dietary sources is about 50 compared with synthetic pantothenate from vitamin supplements.8 If supraphysiological doses of synthetic pantothenic acid (10-100 mg day) are ingested orally, about 60 are excreted into urine.9


Both pantothenic acid and biotin serve as essential coenzymes in the metabolism of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and other intermediates. In addition, biotin plays a role in cell signaling and chromatin structure. Both pantothenic acid and biotin are ubiquitous in human diets, and signs of frank deficiency are rare. Some compounds have been identified that interfere with the normal metabolism of pantothenic acid and biotin. For example, use of anticonvulsants interferes with biotin metabolism. Individuals treated with these drugs may want to consider using vitamin supplements.

Statistical tests

Or did not receive nutritional supplements during pregnancy, a parametric test might assume that the underlying distribution of birth weights was normal (Gaussian). Non-parametric tests make no assumptions of this kind. The advantage of parametric tests is that they allow stronger conclusions, provided that the assumptions which they make can be accepted.


The risk of vitamin D toxicity is related to the underlying potential cause. Excessive sunlight does not lead to vitamin D toxicity (however, skin cancer is a real risk from exposure to the sun). Overindulging in oral sources (dietary supplements) of vitamin D in infants can lead to anorexia, nausea, renal insufficiency and failure to thrive. In adults, excessive vitamin D intake can lead to hyper-calcemia and possible calcification of soft tissue.13 Certain people who live in areas where they are not exposed to more than a minimal amount of sun or who are agoraphobic may benefit from dietary supplementation with vitamin D. Vitamin D is found in fatty fish, meats, liver, butter and fortified foods. The recommended daily intake for men and women is 5 g d. The upper limit for safe intake is 50 g d.14 Currently, there appears to be no benefit, no ergogenic effect of vitamin D deficiency. Toxicity appears to occur at doses > 40,000 IU

The Editors

Driskell co-edited the CRC Press books Sports Nutrition Minerals and Electrolytes with Constance V. Kies. In addition, she authored the textbook Sports Nutrition and co-authored an advanced nutrition book, Nutrition Chemistry and Biology, both published by CRC Press. She co-edited Sports Nutrition Vitamins and Trace Elements (first edition) Macroelements Water, and Electrolytes in Sports Nutrition Energy-Yielding Macronutrients and Energy Metabolism in Sports Nutrition Nutritional Applications in Exercise and Sport, Nutritional Assessment of Athletes, Nutritional Ergogenic Aids, and the current book, Sports Nutrition Vitamins and Trace Elements, 2nd edition, all with Ira Wolinsky. She has published more than 130 refereed research articles and 12 book chapters, as well as several publications intended for lay audiences, and has given numerous presentations to professional and lay groups. Her current research interests center around vitamin metabolism and requirements, including the...

What Is Spirulina

In its taxonomic use, Spirulina is a name used to describe mainly two species of Cyanobacteria, A. platensis and A. maxima, that are commonly used as food, dietary supplement, and feed supplement. These and other Arthrospira species were once classified by Geitler1 who combined all species forming helical trichomes into a single genus, Spirulina. Before Geitler, Gomont2 had in fact placed the two genera as separate on the basis of the presence of septa or divisions in the trichomes, the Spirulina species being without septa and the Arthrospira species with septa. Recent detailed studies of morphological, physiological, and biochemical examination of representatives of these genera have shown that these two genera are distinctively different and that the edible forms commonly referred to as Spirulina platensis have little in common with other much smaller species such as Spirulina major.3-5 This distinction has also been borne out by results from the complete sequence of the 16S rRNA...

Alcoholic Neuropathy

Attempts to control for the influences of alcohol and nutrition have yielded conflicting results. Alcoholics with neuropathy were allowed to continue drinking while receiving a nutritious diet with vitamin supplementation, and all noted improvement in symptoms. y Hallet and co-workers were unable to produce neuropathy in monkeys after 3 to 5 years of a high alcohol diet. 100 However, Behse and Buchthal reported 37 cases of alcoholic neuropathy in patients drinking about 3 L of thiamine and pyridoxine-fortified beer daily, the equivalent of 100 ml of ethanol. y Fourteen of 37 (37 percent) had marked weight loss. All patients had normal serum vitamin levels, except for one with thiamine deficiency and three with folate deficiency. The pattern and severity of the neuropathy did not differ between those with and without adequate nutrition. Similarly, Monforte and colleagues found no relationship between the nutritional status and the incidence of autonomic and peripheral neuropathies in...

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