The Relationship between Plants Fungi and Bacteria A Summary

We have explained that the difficulty with any highly organised single organism is that the more complicated it becomes the more difficult it is to manage its chemistry within one central control unit. Bacteria developed in many forms - anaerobes, aerobes, sulfobacteria, nitrobacteria, photosynthesisers, and so on - their debris forming nutrients for other species, groups of chemotypes, managing energy and element capture differently. Though to some degree they exchanged products, even genes,...

Optimal Rates of Energy Conversion and Optimal Retention of Energy in Cyclic Steady States Content of a System

Consider again the ozone layer or a cloud. Why were they limited in content, as observed, since their development ceases with fixed form Obviously, a major consideration is the amount of effective energy they can capture and this must be equal to the amount of heat released in a given time in their cyclic steady states. In any whole cyclic system the material in the final state (say Os + 02) is the same as that in the initial state and all the energy taken in must be constantly given out but in...

First Steps in Evolution of Prokaryotes Anaerobic Chemotypes Four to Three Billion Years

First Steps The Evolution of Prokaryotes General Considerations of the Origins of Anaerobes 5.3. The Two Classes of Recognised Early Prokaryotes 5.4. The Introduction of Coenzymes Optimalising Basic H, C, N, O, P Distribution 202 5.5. Primitive Metal Reaction Centres 5.6. Metal Organic Cofactors 5.6.1. Light Absorption Carotenoids and Chlorophylls 5.6.2. Porphyrin Cofactors Their Advantages and Irreversible Metal Insertion 215 5.7. The Use of Light to Full Advantage 5.8....

Summary of Non Metal Functions in Cells

In the above, we have seen the ways in which, in principle, non-metal organic chemicals can be used to make the majority of the energised chemical components of a cell. We consider that the resultant thermodynamic flows of material and energy lead to the one major way in which energy can be optimally retained in cells in relation to the environment, while energy is degraded there or in the environment later. (The other major parts are in the concentration gradients of simple ions in cells, in...