Islet transplantation as a procedure to induce insulin independence is still a long way from benefiting the population of more than 1 million type 1 diabetic patients in the United States. In addition to the problems involved with immune suppression, a remaining, significant obstacle is the scarcity of human organs for transplantation. For the last 5 years the number of donated pancreases (approximately 6000 per year) has changed little, and of those, only 50% could be expected to produce islet yields suitable for clinical purposes. Also, most transplant recipients require two or more organs to obtain a sufficient islet mass for insulin independence.
Alternative sources of p cells are necessary for endocrine replacement if diabetes is to be a target for cell-based insulin therapies. Potential endocrine replacements from human tissue include adult p cells expanded with growth factors and extracellular matrix components (38,39), putative endocrine precursors from adult pancreases such as ductal cells (40), and fetal pancreatic progenitor cells (41). All of these, however, have limited growth potential. Genetically modified p cells containing transduced oncogenes can be expanded indefinitely, but in addition to their abnormal karyotype, problems with stability and functionality remain a problem (42). An ideal cell replacement for insulin deficient states would be one that has the following properties: unlimited supply, normal karyotype, and functionality of the mature p cell. Embryonic stem cells fulfill the first two criteria, and possibly the third, if they can be induced to differentiate efficiently into mature p cells and release insulin appropriately in response to glucose.
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.