Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

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Reduction potentials in 2015 and what are associated costs

23 The presented cost data concern direct emission reductions only. Taking into account energy efficiency improvements may result in even net negative specific costs (savings). HFC mixtures and hydrocarbons (HCs) (for small systems) are used as alternatives for HCFC-22 in developed countries. For those applications where HCs can be safely applied, the energy efficiency is comparable to fluorocarbon refrigerants. Future technical developments could reduce refrigerant charge, expanding the applicability of HCs. 5 Hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon blends, which have been used to a limited extent, present suitable thermodynamic properties and permit high energy efficiency. However, the safety and liability concerns identified by vehicle manufacturers and suppliers limit the possible use of hydrocarbons in new vehicles. 6.4.4

The Process Of Ligand Recognition

The conformational energy space for the protein defines the accessibility of different protein conformers. If the native state of the protein is characterized by multiple minima, with low energy barriers separating the different conformations, the lock and key model would be far from a reasonable representation. A complete flexibility on the part of the protein corresponds to an induced fit mechanism and, in that case, the protein could adapt to the shape and requirements of the ligand. When looking at the protein as an ensemble of different conformations in thermo-dynamic equilibrium, the binding pocket is observed to be flexible because it can exist in the different states that coexist in equilibrium, from which the ligands can select the most favorable conformation. Therefore, in general, the structural conformation of the binding site is dictated by the ligand, as it optimizes its interactions with the ensemble of conformations that the protein can assume.12

Constraints and Computations

Are often specified exactly, for example, and most structure-producing programs attempt to minimize the conformational energies of the structures they produce. In fact, some of them can fold nucleic acid sequences into compact conformations in the total absence of experimental information The contributions made by these programs to published structures would not be objectionable if one could be sure that they are capable of evaluating conformational energies accurately, but they are not, and it would take an entire treatise to explain why. Thus in addition to helping these programs select the right conformation from the set of low energy alternatives, the experimental data also have to keep them honest.

Methods to Quantify EE and Physical Fitness in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Levels of voluntary physical activity can be assessed using questionnaires. A series of validated questionnaires has been reviewed by Kirska and Caspersen 39 . The Diabetes Prevention Program 9 and our study 12 used the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire 39 . Energy expenditure was calculated as the product of the duration (hours x week) of the different activities weighted by an estimate of metabolic equivalent (MET) of each activity. The major limitations of calculating EE through questionnaires are (1) it is not possible to rule out that some patients might over report their amount of physical activity (2) not all patients are willing to compile a diary (3) to convert the questionnaires filled by patients into METs is time consuming. The recent availability of wearable body monitoring devices might overcome these drawbacks and offers a direct measurement of free-living activity more feasible and accurate than previous methods. One such device, the SenseWear ArmBand (BodyMedia,...

Where do GHG emissions occur that are related to the use of ODSs and their substitutes

The indirect GHG emissions of applications of ODSs and their replacements are the GHG emissions related to the energy consumption (fuels and electricity) during the entire life cycle of the application7. This effect is different from the indirect negative radiative forcing of ODSs discussed in preceding sections.

Propagation Of The Action Potential

The consequence of an action potential occurring in a local area of membrane is to depolarize that area. Local current spreading from that area depolarizes the surrounding resting membrane to an extent greater than necessary to cause neighboring voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels to open, resulting in the changes in sodium and potassium conductance that then produce the action potentials in these neighboring areas. This wave of depolarization occurs in a continuous fashion in unmyelinated fibers. The rate at which action potentials traverse an unmyelinated axon is determined by both the total amounts of ions traversing the membrane (ion flux), as well as the resistance to current flow within the axon. Both of these factors are a function of axon diameter the larger the axon, the more ions flow into it, and the easier it is for current to flow along it. The relationship between fiber size and conduction velocity in nonmyelinated axons is nonlinear, which implies that very...

Evolution of a System going away from Equilibrium

Now, whatever else occurs, the creation of a flow system of some permanence (Table 3.5) is about the use of energy to create new energised steady states of material. The general chemical effect of energy absorption is to create charge separation, i.e. separation of oxidised and reduced materials. To all intents and purposes, therefore, the expanded ecological evolution which has occurred on the Earth's surface can only be due to its increasing absorption of energy causing redox separation as is seen between organisms (reduced) and the environment (oxidised). Three such natural sources of energy are high-energy heat and chemical energy from the interior of the Earth and high-energy light from the Sun, all of which would be dispersed constantly as low-energy heat in the atmosphere in the absence of chemical absorption and reaction but with lower efficiency. Gravity acting on all material is a fourth, but it, like low-energy heat, cannot generate chemical synthesis directly much although...

Which assessment tools can provide information on technology choices

Specific Energy Consumption (relative to mean ( 100 ) of all supermarkets) Figure TS-10. Variance of direct and indirect emissions within equipment populations. Annual leakage rates of mobile air conditioning systems in a fleet of passenger vehicles (left panel, n 276). Specific energy consumptions expressed as percentage of the mean for a group of standard layout supermarket refrigeration units (right panel, n 227). Analyses of sectoral and global emissions and emission reduction potentials are based on extensive databases on equipment populations and other product distributions that comprise field data on substance emissions and energy consumption. These databases should ideally be consistent and compatible with national GHG emission inventories. Information on fluid sales to the different parties involved in the subsector will need to be made available. The improvement of these fairly comprehensive data sets for analysis in support of robust sectoral policies requires significant...

Pool Formation in Classical Pathways

12, high-energy conservation pool (2C6 + 3C6 P + 4C6 P2 + 2C3 P1 + 2C3 P2 + C3 P + AP3) 14, low-energy conservation pool (2C6 + C6P + C3P + 2C3 + AP2) and l2 and l4 form energy conjugates to each other representing the high- and low-energy occupancy in the system. l5 corresponds to l3 in example V. The incorporation and exchange of phosphate thus results in four different convex basis vectors, each representing different aspects of the complex role of phosphate in energy metabolism (e.g., high-energy phosphate and standalone inorganic phosphate, as shown here). Note that the phosphate in AP2 does not appear in the conservation of the elemental P, l3, since AP2 interacts as a whole moiety and is never reduced to other chemical moieties in this reaction network. In addition, the pool maps readily illustrate the reaction contributions to the conservation of biochemical moieties, such as shown by the pool map of l5 that involves only v4, v5, and v6.

Analysis of conformational changes in proteins

Computationally, the problem of finding one possible reaction path between two macrostates corresponds to identifying a low-energy path on the potential energy surface of the protein between two representative end-conformations. A continuous path can be represented by a series of points in conformational space P r0, ri, , rM 1, rM and some predefined way of interpolation between adjacent points, e.g., linear or spline interpolation. Here, r0 and rM are the given reactant and product endstates whereas the intermediate points have to be found. Starting from an initial guessed path, the intermediate points can be optimised locally using different methods to obtain a low-energy reaction pathway. The penalty function methods require a number of constraint terms to be added to the cost function (1) constraints to remove the relative rigid-body translations and rotations of the structures along the path (to yield meaningful values for r k+i - rk ), (2) equidis-tance constraints to avoid an...

Hormones Mood and Cognition

Similar observations are reported with thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), which are crucial for normal brain development and function. Hypothyroidism during fetal life (a condition known as cretinism) produces short stature, sexual immaturity, and severe mental defects in afflicted individuals. In adulthood, hypothyroidism is often associated with depression, bipolar disorder, low energy, appetite and sleep changes, poor concentration, memory impairments, and apathy. The similarity of these symptoms with clinical depression routinely prompts clinicians to test thyroid functions to distinguish between the two conditions. The reverse interaction between affective illnesses, particularly major depression, and thyroid hypofunction has also been documented recently. As with cortisol, hyperthyroidism (as in Grave's disease) presents with several psychiatric symptoms including insomnia, irritability, agitation, major depression, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, paranoia, and most often,...

Intrinsic features of robust systems Evolvability and tradeoffs

Disease often reflects systemic failure triggered by a fragility of the system. Diabetes mellitus is an excellent example of how systems that are optimized for near-starving, intermittent food supply, high energy utilization lifestyle, and highly infectious conditions, are fragile against unusual perturbations such as high energy content foods and low energy utilization lifestyle 17 . Due to optimization to the near-starving condition, extensive control to maintain minimum blood glucose level has been acquired

Preliminary Observations During The Robot Construction

Compare a number of criteria to decide between different control principles, such as manufacturing costs, energy consumption, robustness, flexibility, modularity, time required for implementation and training, etc. Coming back to the point of departure of our project, the medical aim, we would like to mention an important additional aspect. We see our project also as an important step towards the construction of neural protheses and orthoses (exoskeletons in the form of shells around body segments, equipped with motors that guide, perform, or assist segment movements). For instance, we consider it realistic to build, on the basis of our robot, an exoskeleton for equilibrium control during behavior, for substitution of the whole stance system (in paraplegic patients) or parts of it (in case of sensor loss, etc.). We hold that a control system that is constructed to resemble the human one has a much better chance to fit into human behavior and to gain compliance from patients than an...

For Sensorimotor Coordination

Sensorimotor control normally requires appropriate temporal and spatial cooperation of several muscles in order to cope with a given behavioral task - an aspect that is called sensorimotor coordination. The principles underlying the coordination are still not well understood. There is considerable work on learning motor patterns related to certain task optimizations, such as minimizing energy consumption or improving movement accuracy and speed, etc. But so far these mechanisms shed little light on the organizing principles of coordination. We hold that the here described sensorimotor control principle, i.e. a control by internal sensory reconstruction of the outside physics, is an instrumental constituent of the coordination. To give an example A transient platform tilt in our scenario

Executive Summary

An overview is given of the key approaches used to compare the lifetime, and the direct and indirect emissions of different types of systems. These range from the modelling of partial or complete systems to measured values of individual systems or of representative equipment populations. There can be significant differences between the results from different approaches and therefore relevant policy comparisons can only be made if there is maximum transparency and a harmonization of assumptions. Reference values for emissions from energy consumption in the production of fluids and products are given along with values for CO2 emissions from electricity generation for the national electricity grids. These values differ significantly over time and between regions, suggesting that great care should be taken if results of system comparisons based on total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) or Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are transferred to related applications or other regions. The benefits of...

Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

Volitional, but unintentional lack of sleep, is often chronic and a result of the excessive social and occupational demands of modern life and inadequate sleep hygiene. Excessive daytime sleepiness is the chief complaint, associated with a host of secondary symptoms such as fatigue, low energy, poor concentration, inattention, irritability, and dysphoria. The nocturnal habitual sleep period is shorter in duration than expected for age, leading to the common habit of sleeping in on weekends to ''catch up.'' Polysomnography features include a short sleep onset latency, high sleep efficiency, and prolonged total sleep time if allowed to sleep in. A short sleep latency with or without multiple sleep onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep periods (SOREMPs) is typically observed on multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT). 98. Webb WB, Agnew HW, Jr. Effects on performance of high and low energy-expenditure during sleep deprivation. Percept Mot Skills 1973 37(2) 511-514.

Energy System Used In Various Sport Such As Phosphagen System Almist Entirely

Muscle Glycogen Replenishment

What Types of Sports Use Which Energy Systems By considering the vigor of a sports activity and its duration, one can estimate closely which of the energy systems is used for each activity. Various approximations are presented in Table 84-1. Energy Systems Used in Various Sports 2. The enzymes that promote rapid release of energy from the phosphagen and glycogen-lactic acid energy systems are two to three times as active in fast-twitch fibers as in slow-twitch fibers, thus making the maximal power that can be achieved for very short periods of time by fast-twitch fibers about twice as great as that of slow-twitch fibers.

Introduction To Radiotherapy

RT involves the use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of malignant disease. Conventional external-beam treatments are administered with high-energy photon beams, typically with energy of 1.25 megaelectron volts (MV) to 15 MV or higher. These energies significantly exceed those of x-rays used in diagnostic radiology. The high energy of therapeutic radiation beams enables the treatment to penetrate the body and to be used to treat deep tissues. Depending on the actual energy, only several percent of the energy of the photon beam is absorbed per centimeter of tissue. Routine availability of high-energy radiation sources in the years after World War II dramatically increased the clinical usefulness of RT. Previously, only low-energy radiation sources, which emitted radiation that was absorbed to a significant extent by superficial tissues, were widely available. These low-energy beams required that an excessive (and often toxic) dose of radiation be delivered to the surface of the...

Forearm Exercise Testing

In the nonfasting individual, the energy requirements of skeletal muscle are met by the metabolism of either carbohydrate (e.g., glycogen, glucose) or lipid (e.g., free fatty acids). The principal source of carbohydrate for skeletal muscle metabolism is intracellular glycogen, which is ' formed from blood glucose, via glycogenesis, and stored within the myocyte. When energy is required, glycogen is hydrolyzed to glucose (glycogenolysis) and then to pyruvate (glycolysis). In addition to pyruvate, glycolysis also generates ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD + ). Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate is subsequently metabolized to acetyl-CoA. The latter compound enters the Krebs' (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, yielding further molecules of ATP and NADH, as well as flavin adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (FADH 2 ). The reducing equivalents generated by glycolysis and the Krebs' cycle (i.e., the NADH and FADH 2 ) enter...

Energy Output Affect

Even in sedentary individuals who perform little or no daily exercise or physical work, significant energy is spent on spontaneous physical activity required to maintain muscle tone and body posture and on other nonexercise activities such as fidgeting. Together, these nonexercise activities account for about 7 per cent of a person's daily energy usage.

Results And Discussion

Taurine Transporter

Superimposition of minimum energy structures of taurine + TAHS and Taurine + CAHS. The molecular-mechanic calculations were performed, in vacuum, with the Macromodel 5.0 program using MM2 as force field. Low energy conformers were determined by full energy minimisation, performed on initial conformers generated at random by using a Montecarlo Multiple Minimum (MCMM) algoritm. Black CAHS or TAHS white taurine.

Applicable diagnostic categories

B., he did not look profoundly depressed but reported that his low mood began within a few days after the stroke. The depression was more severe on some days than it was on others but it had continued at some level for the past 7 months. Although the patient's father had died 2 months after his stroke, his grief did not seem to be excessive or to be a cause of his prolonged depression. Mr. B. reported symptoms of anxiety, tension, restlessness, worry, low energy, and loss of interest in activities that he previously enjoyed such as eating out or shopping. He also felt hopeless but did not report a change in his appetite, sleep, or ability to concentrate.

Psychological Tests in Personnel Screening

The use of personality tests in employment screening has a long tradition the first formal use of a standardized personality scale in the United States was implemented to screen out World War I draftees who were psychologically unfit for military service (Woodworth, 1920). Today, personality tests are widely used for personnel screening in occupations that require great public trust. Some occupations, such as police officers, airline flight crews, fire fighters, nuclear power plant workers, and certain military specialties require greater emotional stability than most other jobs. Maladaptive personality traits or behavior problems in such employees can result in public safety concerns. For example, someone who behaves in an irresponsible manner in a nuclear power plant control room could significantly endanger the operation of the facility and the safety of the surrounding community. The potential for problems can be so great in some high-stress occupations (e.g., air traffic...

Postpartum Thyroiditis Blues or Postpartum Depression

Symptoms of maternal blues are frequent crying episodes, mood swings, and feelings of sadness, low energy, anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, and irritability. Women who experience these should find comfort in knowing that they are normal and will pass on their own in a couple of weeks. It's akin to a whopper PMS phase. Maternal blues are most likely caused by enormous hormonal shifts in your body. An enormous lifestyle shift may also trigger these feelings because of an increase in stress and responsibility, worry about your newborn, physical discomfort associated with your postpartum physique, and possible exhaustion following labor and delivery.

Perception of spousal and nonspousal social support among 76 Australian patients in a stroke rehabilitation hospital

These findings, however, do not address the issue of whether these restricted social contacts following stroke are a cause of depression or whether they reflect the consequences of depression (i.e., social withdrawal, low energy, decreased interest), or whether they may be related to another factor.

Exercise in the Treatment of Obesity

Physical exercise is known to be an effective therapy for overweight and obesity 1 in fact, exercise, when combined with dietary advice, enhances weight loss 2 and prevents weight regain 3, 4 . An increase of physical activity, which induces an increase of exercise-induced and resting energy expenditure, can effectively counterbalance the reduction of energy consumption determined by decreased food intake 1 , while preventing the reduction of lean mass associated with weight loss 5 . Furthermore, the increase of activity level determines an improvement of insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, lipid profile, and blood pressure, as well as a reduction of several inflammatory markers, leading to a substantial decrease of long-term cardiovascular risk 1,6 . In patients already affected by obesity-associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia, physical activity is associated with an improvement of blood glucose, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and...

Conventional Twodimensional Radiation Therapy

The arrangement of radiation portals is dependent on the planned total dose, the energy levels of radiation, and the shape of the target volume. Because of the scatter irradiation of low energy beams and the large penumbra of a 60Co unit, high energy beams (10 to 25 MV photon) are preferred for curative radiation therapy, with an aimed total dose of 66 to 68 Gy.

Glycoprotein Analysis

However, have altered these general considerations in very significant ways. Leading the way has been electron capture dissociation (ECD)29-31 adaptable to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) instruments with high magnetic fields, and more recently, the exciting developments of ion-ion chemistry for less-expensive instruments including electron transfer dissociation (ETD).32 This latter advance provides for the first time low-energy electrons with high-ionization efficiencies for nonergodic radical bond cleavage. The radical initiated fragmentation is bond specific, homogeneous, abundant in large polypeptides, and dominated by N-C bond cleavage, preferentially giving N-terminal (C-type) fragments (Figure 18.3).33 These products are in contrast to the more sequence-specific, vibrationally induced CO-N backbone fragments that produce b and y ions. Most interestingly, both ECD and ETD fragments have been found to retain labile PTM groups, such as O-, and...

Light therapy phototherapy luminotherapy

Bright lights in the bathroom, bedroom and kitchen, and encouragement to walk to work may help, but sitting by a window and exposure to ordinary indoor electric light are insufficient. Light therapy is best delivered from a fluorescent light which is situated on a white or light-coloured surface to increase reflection, or from a visor or mask which can be worn on the head. Fluorescent bulbs are more energy-efficient and produce less heat, but are noisy and flicker. They have diffusers which enable the light to reach a wide area of the retina, in contrast to incandescent light bulbs which tend to give a point source, which stimulates a smaller area of the retina and has less effect. It is usual for the light source to be 1 m from the patient and at eye level. The light does not need to be directed along the line of gaze, and its projection onto the nasal side of the retina inferiorly may produce more melatonin suppression than other orientations.

Step Wise Strategy in Patient Management

One portion of 111In-Octreoscan for single use contains 10 g of peptide with 200 MBq radioactivity. This amount of radioactivity is adequate for planar and SPECT examinations. In the examinations with 111In the medium-energy collimator should be used. The energy window should be centered over both 111In photon peaks (172keV and 245keV) with the window width of 20 . Because of a relatively long effective half-life and interfering background radioactivity planar and SPECT studies are preferably performed 24 h after injection of radiopharmaceuticals. Presently, scintigraphy with the 99mTc-tracer have increased meaning and use in practice. Patients, before administration of radiopharmaceutics are advised to drink fluid and to be well hydrated. The preferred radioactivity is 760MBq. The examination takes place 90 min after radiopharmaceutics administration and at first AP and PA scans of whole body should be made. 120-180 min after radiopharmaceutics administration chest SPECT and abdomen...

Physical and Topological Aspects of the Information Metabolism Theory

Thus, it is a thermodynamic version of the energy conservation law. The second thermodynamic principle says in what way entropy changes in physical processes. As it was mentioned, entropy can be defined in two different ways. In statistical physics it is specified as a function of the number of states possible to occupy taking into account the probability of occupying different states. In thermodynamics the increment of entropy is defined as increase of heat on a temperature unit. It could be shown that these approaches are equivalent. Both definitions are founded on the assumption that a system is in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. It should be noted that entropy is also connected with notions of chaos, order and information transmission. Entropy reaches the maximal value in chaotic systems, where all states are equally probable, and the minimal one, i.e., equal to zero, in maximum ordered systems, which occupy only one state. The second thermody-namic principle says that all...

Simplistic Strategies by Nanobacteria

The survival strategy of nanobacteria indicates that small is efficient in these ways minimize synthetic systems, energy consumption, pumps scavenge nutrients when they are available endure deadly attacks but eat up nutrients from dead bystanders and have a strategy for surviving in very hostile places that kill normal bacteria (hot springs) or places providing all nutrients (primordial soup, blood).

Properties of CNS in Relation to Behavior

According to Nebylitsyn (1972a), the role of temperament in human behavior is particularly pronounced when the balance between organism and environment is disturbed, which occurs in stressful situations. Gurevich (1970 Gurevich & Matveyev, 1966) conducted a field study that exemplifies this line of thinking. The authors demonstrated an interrelation between CNS strength as measured by laboratory methods and performance efficacy of operators during a breakdown in a power plant. Under these conditions, which may be characterized as extreme stress, the behavior of operators representing a weak type of CNS was disorganized, especially as regards perception, memory, and thinking. On the other hand subjects with a strong CNS displayed considerable endurance in the face of stress.

Materials and Methods

Group II (low-energy) After low-energy SWA (Group I), vacuolic swelling of the axons was visible along the time axis. In some cases the intercellular matrix was assessed as slightly extended (Fig. 3.2). No interruption or clear damage to the sciatic nerve was identified. Walking ability remained unchanged in all animals.


The literature does not allow for an estimate of overall indirect6 GHG emissions related to energy consumption. For individual applications, the relevance of indirect GHG emissions over a life cycle can range from low to high, and for certain applications may be up to an order of magnitude larger than direct GHG emissions. This is highly dependent on the specific sector and product application characteristics, the carbon-intensity of the consumed electricity and fuels during the complete life cycle of the application, containment during the use-phase, and the end-of-life treatment of the banked substances. 3.2, 4 and 5

Nuclear Coupling

Homonuclear J coupling comes from interaction between nuclei with the same gyromag-netic ratio, y , whereas heteronuclear J coupling comes from those with different y . According to the Dirac vector model, the low energy state is that in which the magnetic moments of nuclei A and B are in antiparallel configuration to the magnetic moments of their bonding electrons (Figure 1.11). Since A and B are bonded, the electron of spin B in the bonding pair is also in antiparallel configuration with the electron of spin A. As a result, the nuclear spins A and B are antiparallel in the low energy state. If both A and B have positive gyromagnetic ratios such as in a CH bond, the effect of the coupling in which nuclei A and B are in antiparallel configuration stabilizes the low energy state, resulting in positive J. Another example is J


The literature does not allow for an estimate of overall indirect GHG emissions related to energy consumption. For individual applications, the relevance of indirect GHG emissions over a life cycle can range from low to high, and for certain applications may be up to an order of magnitude larger than direct GHG emissions. This is highly dependent on the specific sector and product application characteristics, the carbon-intensity of the consumed electricity and fuels during the complete life cycle of the application, containment during the use-phase and the end-of-life treatment of the banked substances. Table TS-7 presents examples of the ranges found in the literature with respect to the proportion of direct emissions to total GHG emissions for applications using HFCs. For applications using other substances, these proportions may differ significantly. The relatively old vintage stock of refrigeration equipment using CFCs may, in particular, provide a larger share of direct...


Fig. 2.3 Semiquantitative evaluation of intraindivi-dual changes of the Achilles tendon according to Table 2.1. a Group I (low energy density). b Group II (medium energy density). c Group III (high energy density). Grade 0 no change Grade I possible change Grade II definite change

Goals Of Treatment

While low-velocity, low-energy injuries can often be treated nonoperatively with local wound care and outpatient management, soft tissues play a more important role in the management of high-energy fractures. Surgery is essential to correct displacements, restore vascu-larity, and repair tissue but may have to be delayed because of the condition of the soft tissue. Preliminary stabilization can be carried out using an external fixator to prevent contractures and maintain alignment, until the soft tissue is in a condition to accept definitive surgery. Control of infection is vital, as the development of deep infection is a major risk factor for amputation. Antibiotics are probably only required for grossly contaminated wounds, but as it is difficult to assess the degree of contamination most surgeons will use routine prophylaxis. High-energy injuries require aggressive irrigation and debridement and a search for foreign material.


Cancer and leukaemias, reflecting the nature of their exposure. Many worked with radium, a bone-seeking isotope. Others studied relatively low-energy X-rays where skin would be the primary tissue exposed. Radium dial painters were a group (mostly women) who painted watch dials with a radioactive solution. In the course of their work, they ingested radium. The radium deposited in bone, resulting primarily in higher incidences of bone cancers. Uranium mineworkers inhaled radon gas. The a-radiation exposure resulting from that inhaled radon led to a higher incidence of lung cancer. Thorotrast was a contrast agent used in the late 1920s and early 1930s. It is a colloidal preparation of thorium-232 dioxide that tends to concentrate in the liver. Thorium is an a-emitter. Excess liver cancers and leukaemias were seen in these patients. During the late 1930s, patients in the UK with ankylosing spondylitis were treated with radiation to reduce bone pain. An excess of leukaemias has been...

Method of Evaluation

Low-energy ESWT was felt as unpleasant by all patients, though not as unpleasant as the local infiltration all patients had received during the various and unsuccessful treatment regimes prior to the current study. No patient discontinued the shock wave procedure because of severe pain. No side effects were seen at any follow-ups. There were no hematomas, infections or abnormal neurological findings.

Multiple pathways

When a single low-energy path has been found, it is in general not known whether it is just one example of a number of different paths. It has been shown that the MaxFlux method above can be used to identify slightly different pathways in small peptides (Huo and Straub 1999) and even short pathways in moderately sized polypeptides (Straub et al. 2002) by varying the initial guess. However, as yet no general method exists for systematically generating many different minimum energy pathways in large molecules. Such a

Cyclothymic Disorder

Cyclothymic personality, or Cyclothymic Disorder, as it is called in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association, 1994), is characterized by recurrent and intermittent mood episodes in which the individual oscillates or cycles between periods of depression and hypomania, with or without normal periods in between. Cyclothymic depressions include symptoms such as sadness, anhedonia, low energy, pessimism, poor concentration, and sleep and appetite changes resembling those observed in episodes of major depression, whereas cyclothymic hypomanic periods involve symptoms such as euphoria high energy or activity talkativeness high self-confidence or grandiosity decreased sleep and impulsive, reckless behaviors typically observed in mania. However, unlike major depression and


A study in Embu, eastern Kenya, also reported a high prevalence of stunting in the second year with onset dating back to infancy.15 Apart from low energy density, the typical diets in Embu and Marachi Central had a phytate zinc molar ratio of 28.16 Breast milk intake in our sample reduced this ratio to 24, which is still above the level (15) at which improvement in zinc bioavailability would be expected.l7Moreover, total zinc intake was only one-third of estimated requirements, and breast milk, being low in zinc at that stage oflactation, could not adequately compensate for the deficiency in the diet.

Dysthymic Disorder

Mood (i.e., depressed most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years). In addition, the individual must experience at least two of the following six depressive symptoms low self-esteem, feelings of hopelessness, low energy or fatigue, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, sleep disturbance (insomnia or sleeping too much), and appetite disturbance (poor appetite or overeating). The symptoms must be persistent (i.e., the individual is never without depressive symptoms for more than 2 months at a time during this period), have a gradual (or insidious) onset, and cause significant distress or impairment in social or occupational functioning. Finally, the diagnosis cannot be made if the individual has a psychotic or bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder, or if the symptoms are due to medication, substances of abuse, or a general medical condition (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised DSM-III-R American Psychiatric Association,...

InWell Sonication

High throughput in-well sonication has been applied to dissolve compounds that are insoluble in DMSO in 96, 384, and 1536 well formats (Oldenburg et al., 2005). Compounds that precipitated from DMSO stocks, due to either water uptake that reduced solubility or low instrinsic solubility that promoted crystallization, can be re-dissolved by low energy sonication. Sonication can accelerate compound dissolution in seconds and, in some cases, drive the solution to supersaturation, due to energy input and elevated temperature. This process can bring many precipitates back into solution and has no effect on compound stability. Sonication of DMSO stocks or concentrated aqueous solutions can improve HTS hit rates and enhance biological assay results.


X- and 7-rays, UV radiation, microwaves and RF radiation are all forms of electromagnetic radiation. EMFs are not electromagnetic radiation, but mixtures of electric and magnetic fields. These fields emanate from electric power lines and all devices that use electricity. Electricity is usually delivered as alternating current. The resulting EMFs are of extremely low frequency and low energy. At the atomic level, weak electric and magnetic fields are too small to produce chemical changes by themselves. However, EMFs might act to modify biological processes by causing small changes in the frequency of events that trigger different signal transduction pathways. In this regard, all aspects of a field, including its frequency, amplitude and pattern, may be important.


Social characteristics are usually presented toward the end of each list. Although they are not given as much significance as pheno-type characteristics, they are presented as consequentially creating differences in semen. These differences imply that semen can indicate a donor who smokes, rides a motorcycle, or would work at a nuclear power plant. Thus the inheritance of acquired characteristics is assumed. This conditions the client's perception of the semen. As clients perceive semen as being invested with important social

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