Natural Enuresis Treatment
99 Ways To Stop Bedwetting
53 Minutes From Now, You'll Know Exactly How To Stop Your Child From Wetting The Bed...Without Drama Or Discipline. It's one of the hardest problems families face and can be very tough on a child's self esteem. When one of your children is a bed wetter, it can be a very sensitive topic. Even though it's a normal part of growing up, siblings can still give them a hard time.
The episodes may last for only a few seconds, or for up to 1020 min which is longer than most epileptic seizures. The child suddenly appears to waken with a gasp, loud scream or cry and with the appearance of extreme fear, agitation and panic (Table 9.5). Sweating, dilated pupils, rapid respiratory and heart rates and an increase in muscle tone are characteristic and enuresis occasionally occurs. The child may sit up or leap out of bed, utter meaningless speech, and occasionally run wildly around the room. This is more common in adolescence than in younger children, but there may be injuries through, for instance, running out of doors or jumping through windows. The child is unresponsive to questions or commands and resists restraint, often causing harm to both the patient and others. The sleep terrors may be followed by an awakening with confusion and incoherent speech, and behaviour which is identical to a confusional arousal. Sleep is then...
Psychologists are not newcomers to the arena of physical interventions. Jansen and Barron (1988), in reviewing this topic, asserted that biofeedback techniques, alarm bells for bed-wetting, galvanic skin responses, and polygraph assessments are examples of physical interventions already used by psychologists. Direct involvement of physical interventions by psychologists have also included behavior management procedures with children. The authors pointed out that even though psychologists have been active in the development of physical interventions, they have been automatically excluded from prescribing medications because they are not physicians.
The most common clinical features are snoring-like noises during sleep associated with observation by the parents or carers that the child stops breathing and is a restless sleeper 31 . Unusual sleeping positions may be adopted and there may be enuresis. Excessive daytime sleepiness is unusual, but behavioural disturbances during the day are frequent, and include irritability, hyperactivity, aggression, poor school performance with problems with reading and visual attention, and rapid mood changes. Impulsivity may be sufficient to lead to an initial diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is often
Children who start to snore or get worse between 4 and 10 years of age usually have large tonsils as a result of subclinical or clinical infections or owing to a genetically narrow airway and a normal physiological hypertrophy of Waldeyer's ring. The adenoid is still present, but usually diminishes in size before the age of 10 years. Primary enuresis and oral motor dysfunction can be the symptoms, in addition to the snoring and sleep disturbance. At the age of 4 years, there can be bite aberrations which can be related to the oral posture 17 . The earlier the condition is relieved the better is the prognosis for maxillofacial development 8 .
References to resolving problems with paradoxical interventions appear as early as the eighteenth century. In this century, Dunlap applied the technique of negative practice to problems such as stammering and enuresis. Rosen (1953), through direct psychoanalysis, encouraged psychiatric patients to engage in aspects of their psychosis in order to prevent relapse, and Frankl (1960) used paradoxical intention to help his patients revise the meaning of their symptoms. The most influential literature on therapeutic paradox, however, derives from Bateson's 1952-1962 project on communication. Bateson, Jackson, Haley, Weak-land, and others explored the role of paradoxical doublebind communications in resolving as well as creating problems. Influenced by systemic cybernetic ideas and by the work of master hypnotist Milton Erickson, descendants of the Bateson project such as Haley, Weakland, Watzlawick, Fisch, and Selvini-Palazzoli and colleagues went on in the 1970s to develop family therapy...
Enuresis, hypersomnia. b Pronounced funnel chest which had ing, no enuresis, alert and considerable weight gain developed postnatally. c Throat preoperatively. Notice the web- enuresis, hypersomnia. b Pronounced funnel chest which had ing, no enuresis, alert and considerable weight gain developed postnatally. c Throat preoperatively. Notice the web-
Parasomnias usually associated with REM sleep share a common pathophysiological mechanism related to REM sleep. Unlike sleep terrors, sleepwalking, and confusional arousals, which are all associated with SWS, nightmares are REM sleep phenomena. Sleep paralysis is its own entity but can occur in narcoleptics. REM sleep-related sinus arrest is quite rare. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is more common and can manifest in association with other disorders. Acute cases of RBD have toxic, metabolic etiologies, particularly withdrawal from ethanol (64). Chronic cases can be due to neurological disorders e.g., Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders (65), subarachnoid hemorrhage (66), pontine neoplasm (67), or narcolepsy (68) or may be idiopathic (66). Other types of para-somnias include sleep-related dissociative disorders, sleep enuresis, sleep-related groaning, exploding head syndrome, sleep-related hallucinations, and sleep-related eating disorder.
Cancer is like no other illness in that the word itself evokes fears of extreme suffering and premature death. Children may hear parents or friends talking about cancer in negative ways, resulting in wrong perceptions. Most children's experiences of cancer will be witnessed in grandparents or elderly neighbours who may well have had a debilitating illness or died. This can provoke extreme fear in children extrapolating the experience and applying it to a parent. The child may communicate this to the parent or may present with behavioural difficulties or regressive patterns such as bedwetting. It is important to use simple and honest explanation, using words, information and images in keeping with the child's age. Withholding information or giving incorrect information may lead to mistrust and subsequent emotional difficulty.
1 Anatomical abnormalities, e.g. bladder neck obstruction, ureteric stenosis. These often cause daytime enuresis or sleep enuresis after a period of continence has been established (secondary enuresis). 2 Vesico-ureteric reflux. This is often associated with detrusor instability and detrusor-sphincter incoordination which leads to enuresis.
Diabetes insipidus may be caused by histiocytosis, germinomas, surgical trauma or CNS-involved leukemia. Patients with diabetes insipidus usually present with obvious symptoms of excessive thirst and urination with nocturia or enuresis. However, diabetes insipidus may not be recognized until affected patients have dehydration during an intercurrent illness. The urine remains clear in color throughout the day. In patients with CNS-involved leukemia, severe hypernatremic dehydration can occur if the CNS lesion also affects the centers for thirst regulation.
When snoring becomes an effort, the child usually also develops increased daytime sleepiness, which is very often noticed as an increased difficulty in concentration and hyperactivity. Primary and secondary enuresis is common, and for very small children, a noticeable failure to thrive (which means low increase of length and weight irrespective of eating habits) because of influenced output of growth hormone during the disturbed sleep. The children are usually also slow eaters and have a poor appetite. Most often these symptoms momentarily vanish after treatment 1, 2 . As the condition continues to slowly develop, the parents do not always notice the problems as do visitors grandparents or day care personnel. In severe long-lasting OSA, funnel chest or other deformities of the thorax may develop (Fig. 43.1c, Video 43.1).
(34 percent), closely followed by major depression (33 percent), Tourette disorder (18 percent), oppositional defiant disorder (17 percent), and overanxious disorder (16 percent) (Fireman et al., 2001). The pattern of comorbidity found in this study was similar to that previously observed in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) pediatric OCD cohort, where only 26 percent of the pediatric subjects had OCD as a single diagnosis. Tic disorders (30 percent), major depression (26 percent), and specific developmental disabilities (24 percent) were the most common comorbidities found. Rates were also increased for simple phobias (17 percent), overanxious disorder (16 percent), adjustment disorder with depressed mood (13 percent), oppositional disorder (11 percent), attention deficit disorder (10 percent), conduct disorder (7 percent), separation anxiety disorder (7 percent), and enuresis encopresis (4 percent) (Swedo et al., 1989).
M-cholinoblockers are competitive antagonists of acetylcholine as well as other M-cholino-blockers in terms of postsynaptic M-cholinoreceptors. Parasympathetic cholinergic receptors are localized in smooth muscle of vessels, bronchi, gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder, heart, ocular muscles, most of the exocrine glands, and in the CNS. M-cholinoblockers exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects and are used for a number of different indications. They can be used for causing mydriasis or cycloplegia in ophthalmologic research. They are used in pre-operational situations for reducing salivation and preventing bradychardia. These drugs are used for reducing secretion of the gastrointestinal tract in cases of ulcers, spasms, and other gastrointestinal illnesses. They are used for reducing nasopharyngeal and bronchial secretions during respiratory and allergic illnesses, for preventing and relieving motor abnormalities, for treating childhood enuresis and reducing frequency...
Vasopressin and oxytocin are peptide hormones, mainly released by the posterior pituitary. Vasopressin has vaso-constrive and antidiuretic properties, and has been considered relevant for stress effects on blood pressure and enuresis nocturna. Recent evidence suggests that it is beneficial for psychoendocrinology not to separate the role of a given substance from its function as an endocrine messenger or a neurotransmitter. Oxytocin promotes labor in pregnant women when the baby's head distends the uterus wall, and the release of milk is initiated by the suckling newborn. Oxytocin is closely associated with social attachment and bonding, and a social partner again initiates both psychological events. Therefore, it seems that another significant individual within a reproductive context activates this substance, both as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. While oxytocin receptor functions are facilitated by estrogens, testosterone modulates vasopressin receptors. For example, it has...