Anxiolytics Tranquilizers

Many illnesses are accompanied by anxiety, a worried state during which a syndrome characterized by feelings of helplessness, despair, dark premonitions, and asthenia begins to develop. It can be accompanied by headaches, increased perspiration, nausea, tachycardia, dry mouth, etc. A state of anxiety can originate from neurological reasons, and can also be of a somatopsychic nature, which is associated with pathological development in diseases of the cardiovascular system, neoplasms, hypertonia, and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Drugs used for relieving anxiety, stress, worry, and fear that do not detract attention from or affect psychomotor activity of the patient are called anxiolytics or tranquilizers. Most of them have sedative and hypnotic action, and in high doses their effects are in many ways similar to barbiturate action. However, the primary advantage of this group over barbiturates lies in their significantly increased value in terms of the ratio of sedative/hypnotic effects. In other words, the ratio between doses that reduce stress and doses that cause sleep is significantly higher in anxiolytics than in barbiturates. The primary use of tranquilizers is alleviation of emotional symptoms associated with psychoneurotic or psychosomatic disturbances, such as excitement, anxiety, worry, muscle tension, and elevated motor activity. Used independently, they are not acceptable for rapid relief of severe psychotic conditions, and are used in such cases in combination with antipsychotic drugs. Anxiolytics that are presently used in medicine are divided into two groups. They are benzodiazepines: diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, chlorazepate, galazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, alprazolam, oxazepam, prazepam, and other anxiolytics, or nonbenzodiazepine structures which are represented by meprobamate, buspirone, chlormezanone, and hydroxyzine.

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