The product of either of the outlined methods, 2-amino-1-phenylpropane (amphetamine) is separated into isomers using d-tartaric acid, and separating the necessary dextroamphetamine, d-2-amino-1-phenylpropane (126.96.36.199) [6,7].
Dextroamphetamine is a powerful stimulant of the nervous system that manifests its effects by releasing dopamine and norepinephrine from presynaptic nerve endings, thus stimulating central dopaminergic and noradrenergic receptors. In certain doses it strengthens the excitatory process in the CNS, reduces fatigue, elevates mood and the capacity to work, reduces the need for sleep, and decreases appetite.
Dextroamphetamine should be used with caution and only upon medicinal indication in treating narcolepsy, consequences of encephalitis, and other illnesses accompanied by apathy, drowsiness, asthenia, for temporary increase of physical and mental capacity, in treating attention deficit disorder in children, and in treating obesity.Synonyms of this drug are d-amphetamine, dexamphetamine, dexalone, tempodex, zenidex, and many others.
Methamphetamine: Methamphetamine, (+)-N-a-dimethylphenylethylamine (188.8.131.52), can be synthesized by the reduction of (-)-ephedrine by hydrogen using a palladium on carbon catalyst .
/==\ CH3 H2/Pd-C /=\ CH3 <^JHCH-CH-NHCH3 -»- ^ CH2-CH-NHCH3
Another way of making methamphetamine is by the reduction of methylbenzylketone by hydrogen in the presence of methylamine .
It possesses the same properties as dextroamphetamine and is used for the same indica-tions.Synonyms of this drug are peritin, filopon, desoxyn, methampex, and others.
Methylphenidate: Methylphenidate, the methyl ester a-phenyl-2-piperidilacetic acid (184.108.40.206), is synthesized in the following manner. Arylation of benzylcyanide by 2-chloro-pyridine in the presence of a base gives a-phenyl-a-(2-pyridil) acetonitrile (220.127.116.11). Sulfuric acid hydrolysis of the nitrile group and subsequent esterification with methanol gives the methyl ester of a-phenyl-a-(2-pyridylacetic acid) (18.104.22.168). The pyridine moiety is reduced into a piperidine by hydrogen over platinum, giving methylphenidate (22.214.171.124) [10-12].
/=\ /=\ CN /=\ 2.CH30H / HCl i>CH2"CN + C I ~
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