101 Toxic Food Ingredients

101 Toxic Food Ingredients

Using this simple 4-step system is the easiest, fastest, and most powerful way to distinguish which food ingredients are toxic to your overall health and which are healthy to consume. There are hundreds, even thousands, of such toxic ingredients that food manufactures use, and it could take you months or maybe even years to dissect all of that information. This program is designed to restore your health and eliminate any Toxic ingredients that may be slowly causing your health to deteriorate. However, as a side effect, you may lose weight due to the change in your diet. If you exercise and lift weights, you may notice an increase in muscle and energy as well. You will immediately notice results within the first week of applying the concepts in this system. All you have to do is follow the proven plan I give you and you will instantly have more energy and vitality. The key is to use the alternative foods in your diet consistently to see the results. Read more...

101 Toxic Food Ingredients Summary


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Supplementary Test Systems

The assays outlined in the previous section form the basis of most test batteries within a range of regulatory guidelines concerned with the testing of drugs, chemicals, food additives, etc., for genotoxicity. However, the current testing strategies are still deficient in a number of respects. Regulatory guidelines for genotoxicity screening are a compromise. Although there are accepted tests for measuring chromosome damage in vitro and in vivo, at present there is no validated test in widespread use to detect point mutation in vivo. Studies have shown that many carcinogens induce tumours in specific tissues, hence there is also a need for an in vivo genotoxicity test that could be applied to any tissue. In addition, the need for a specific assay to detect genome mutation (i.e. chromosome loss gain) is currently under debate within some regulatory authorities. All of these areas are the subject of active research and at the present time new assay procedures are becoming available to...

Markers Of Early Response The Example Of p53 Mutations

An early example of a characteristic mutation spectrum in the human p53 gene involved hepatocellular carcinoma in South Africa and China, and exposure to aflatoxins, a well-known dietary carcinogen. In early studies it was observed that about 50 of the patients in those areas had a relatively rare mutation, a G to T transversion at codon 249 (Bressac et al., 1991 Hsu et al., 1991). This mutation was deemed to be rare because it was not previously observed in patients living in areas where food contamination by aflatoxins is not common furthermore, the same mutation could be induced experimentally by aflatoxin B1 in vitro. On the contrary, p53 mutational spectra induced by aflatoxin were not observed in rats (Hulla et al., 1993 Tokusashi et al., 1994). Another well-known example is represented by the characteristic C--- T mutations induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation at dipyrimidine sequences in the p53 gene (Brash et al., 1991).

Clinical syndromes

Most patients with C. perfringens type A food poisoning have diarrhea (92 ) and abdominal pain (81 ). Nausea (25 ), vomiting (9 ), and fever (24 ) are much less common.72 Illness is usually mild, lasting less than 24 h, but mortality has been reported in debilitated patients over age 60 in an outbreak in a psychiatric hospital.72 The incubation period is 7-15 h following ingestion of the contaminated food. The mean attack rate for persons ingesting the implicated food is 57 , with a wide range from

Rebaudioside Aenriched stevia extract

Among the sweet glycosides of S. rebaudiana leaves, rebaudioside A is the most potent sweet principle and has the most sucrose-like taste. 'Rebaudioside A-enriched stevia extract' is prepared from the leaves of an improved variety of S. rebaudiana containing greater proportions of rebaudioside A. Of the two commercialized types of'rebaudioside A-enriched stevia extract', one is produced in the usual manner according to the method ofproduction of'stevia extract', and the other is further purified by subsequent recrystallization. In the Voluntary Specifications of Non-chemically Synthesized Food Additives (Second Edition 1993), these products are classified as 'stevia extracts'.

Combined preparations of stevia sweeteners

Several preparations of stevia sweeteners used with other food ingredients have been adapted for various foods. The most common preparations are made by mixing one of the basic forms of stevia sweeteners with dextrin and or lactose, to facilitate use in foods. As preparations for modifying the taste of foods, especially salted foods, combinations of stevia extract and glycyrrhizin with dextrin, lactose, and an organic acid or amino acid are recommended. The content ratios of sweeteners to other ingredients in these preparations vary according to the sweetener manufacturer. More than 100 preparations containing stevia sweeteners are commercially available in Japan.

Definition And Standardization Of Stevioside In Korea

Stevioside is defined as those compounds having the skeleton of steviol originating from S. rebaudiana, by the Korean Standard of Food Additives published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (Ministry of Health and Welfare 1996). In addition to this definition, the product must contain 98.0 of stevioside (C38H60O18) as the major component by quantitative analysis, after being dried for two hours at 100 C. Stevioside is permitted as a food additive in distilled liquors, unrefined rice wines, confectioneries, soybean sauces, and pickles. However, it cannot be used in breads, baby foods, candies, and dairy products, or as a table-top sweetener.

Analytical methods for steviol glycosides in stevia sweeteners

Pipette For Lab The Old Type

According to the Voluntary Specifications of Non-chemically Synthesized Food Additives (Second Edition 1993), the quantitative analysis oftotal steviol glycosides in stevia extracts is performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on an NH2 column (normal-phase mode), in the following manner. About 60 to 120 mg of the sample is accurately weighed and dissolved in 80 (v v) acetonitrile to make 100ml of a test solution. About 50 mg each of stevioside and rebaudioside A, dried previously for 2 hours at 105 C are accurately weighed, and the standard solutions of both compounds are prepared in the same fashion as the test solution. The test and standard solutions are injected into an HPLC apparatus under the following conditions In the Voluntary Specifications of Non-chemically Synthesized Food Additives (Second Edition 1993), 'sugar-transferred stevia extract' (enzymatically modified stevia) is registered by levels ofboth the total steviol glycosides and the unglucosylated...

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA and Spirulina

Spirulina is sold in health food stores and similar outlets as a dietary supplement. There appears to be a lack of understanding about their regulatory status. Until 1994 dietary supplements were regulated as foods by FDA. However, with passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), Congress amended the food regulations to include several provisions that apply only to dietary supplements and dietary ingredients of dietary supplements. As a result of these provisions, dietary ingredients used in dietary supplements are no longer subject to the pre-market safety evaluations required of other new food ingredients or for new uses of old food ingredients. They must, however, meet the requirements of other safety provisions. FDA defines a dietary supplement as a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino...

Comparison Of Stevioside To Other Natural Product Highintensity Sweetening Agents

The discovery that certain naturally occurring compounds are highly sweet has also become of commercial significance. There is considerable interest in natural food ingredients such as sweeteners among consumers and manufacturers alike. Plants are well-known as the sources of sweet-tasting monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polyols, but also about 75 highly sweet compounds ('intense sweeteners') have been reported to date. Such compounds are mainly in the terpenoid, flavonoid, and protein classes, although other types of plant constituent are known to be highly sweet, such as the amino acid, monatin, the steroidal saponins, osladin and polypodoside A, and various proanthocyandins ('condensed tannins') (Kinghorn et al. 1995). The highly sweet natural products reported to date have all been reported from green plants, and they appear to be randomly distributed among monocoyledons and dicotyledons (Kinghorn and Soejarto 1989). It is entirely possible that all of the more obvious...

Probiotic Activity Of Spirulina

The immune system,134 and improvement in defense against cancer.135 It has been demonstrated that Lactobacillus population in the human gastrointestinal tract is increased by Spirulina consumption. This has the potential to improve food digestion and absorption improvement, intestinal protection against bacterial infections and immune system stimulation.92,136 Immune system modulation is due to interference on production and NK cytotoxicity.137 Because the human gut microbiota can play a major role in health, there is currently some interest in functional food ingredients that may stimulate endogenous or exogenous beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB).138 It was established that biomass from S. platensis increased Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis growth.87

Pharmacology 11 The Biologicalpharmacological Activity Of The Salvia Genus

Until the discovery of antibiotics, sage was a frequent component of herbal tea mixtures, recommended in patients with tuberculosis to prevent sudation. The essential oil of sage is still employed in flavouring condiments, cured meats, liqueurs and bitters. Besides the usage as a flavouring and antioxidant agent, sage (S. officinalis L.) leaves exhibit a range of biological activities, i.e. antibacterial, micostatic, virustatic, astringent and antihidrotic (Anonymus, 1994). Sage was found to be an active ingredient in combined plant preparations for treatment of acute and chronic bronchitis. Animal studies show hypotensive activity and central nervous system (CNS) depressant action of sage extracts (Newall et al., 1996). Because of antimicrobial effects (Dobrynin et al., 1976 Cherevatyi et al., 1980 Farag et al., 1986) and tannin-based astringent activities of sage this is used as an active ingredient of dental-care preparations. It reduces growth of plaques, inhibits gingival...

PPOs and PODs implications for food texture

It has also been reported that ferulic-acid crosslinks between cell wall polysaccharides increase the thermal stability of cell-cell adhesion and consequently the textural strength of processed vegetables (Parker and Waldron, 1995 Waldron et al., 1997a, b Ng et al., 1998). High levels of peroxidase activity have been associated with increased firmness of thermally processed green beans, but no information is available about the underlying mechanisms (Stolle-Smits et al., 2000). In processing, however, a variety of options to affect texture is offered by better control of the activity of oxidative enzyme systems such as PPO and POD during processing. A mechanistic basis is provided, that does not differ essentially from the mechanism by which PPOs and PODs may be involved in colour, in particular melanin, formation (Fig. 12.4). A variety of options exists to control PPO-activity during processing. This area has received little attention thus far, which is perhaps not surprising because...

Toxicological assessment

For the evaluation of possible toxicants so-called ADI TDI values are frequently used. For residues, e.g. from pesticides, but also for food additives, FAO WHO recommended Acceptable Daily Intake values. Likewise, for contaminants so-called Tolerable Daily Intake values can be derived. An ADI is defined as the amount of toxicant in mg kg body weight day which is not anticipated to result in any adverse effects after chronic exposure to the general population of humans, including sensitive subgroups. Adverse effects are considered as functional impairment or pathological lesions which may affect the performance of the whole organism, or which reduce an organism's ability to respond to an additional challenge 3.

Exposition To And Health Effects Of Residues In Human Milk

Abstract A great variety of drugs, cosmetics, food ingredients as well as environmental contaminants are secreted with human milk as a result of actual exposure or the accumulated body burden of the mother. Of great concern and least amenable to short-term intervention are persistent substances in the environment with long half-lives in the body due to their lipophilic properties and minimal degradation. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, namely organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) are fetotoxic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic, some are promoting carcinogens and or interfere with hormonal receptors. They pass the placenta and equilibrate among the lipid compartments of the body including breast milk lipids. Transplacental exposure is more relevant with regard to physical development and cognitive functioning of the child than postnatal exposure via breastmilk. Restrictions for production, use and...

Corticobasal Ganglionic Degeneration

With physical, occupational, and speech therapies. Passive range of motion exercises may retard the development of contractures. Ambulation becomes impaired in all individuals at some point, hence the need for gait assistance devices. Apraxia is often the most debilitating feature of the disorder. A home assessment by an occupational therapist can aid in determining which changes could be made to facilitate functional independence, although experience to date has been disappointing. Speech therapy and communication devices can optimize communication when dysarthria, apraxia of speech, or aphasia is present, although they are generally of minimal benefit. Therapists also counsel patients and families on swallowing maneuvers and food additives to minimize aspiration when dysphagia evolves. Decisions regarding placement of feeding gastrostomy tubes should be discussed before dysphagia becomes problematic.

Why Gene Cloning

In agriculture it is possible to incorporate genetically engineered traits into food crops for the improvement of food quality. The development in this area will enable the production of food ingredients with desirable characteristics directly from food crops, thus eliminating steps currently used in food processing. For example, canola plants may be modified to produce oils with specifications suitable for manufacture of margarine, eliminating the current process of blending and hydrogenation. Also explored are oils as suitable replacements of cocoa butter, the expensive ingredient used in chocolate and candy manufacturing. The nutritional value of food crops can be improved by changing the amino acid contents of seeds. Milk proteins, such as caseins, can be engineered to improve the manufacturing properties in cheese making and other dairy products. Genetically engineered soybean and canola plants produce oils with increased stability and suitable for high temperature frying and low...


Suspicion of potential carcinogens in consumer goods led to the 1958 passage of the De-laney amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which bans any food additives that cause cancer in any experimental animals in any dosage. One result has been the forced withdrawal of some products based on dubious and unrealistic experiments.

Adducts In Urine

Because some adducts are chemically unstable and cause depurination of DNA, the excreted products, modified bases, can be detected in the urine (Shuker and Farmer, 1992). Examples of this include aflatoxin-guanine adducts where food contamination by this mycotoxin is endemic (e.g. in areas of Africa and China). Ethylated bases in urine can also serve as markers of exposure to ethylating agents. The method is of less use as a biomarker of exposure to methylating agents because there are instances in which methylated bases (e.g. 3-methyl-guanine) are ingested in the diet. Another caution is that carcinogen--purine adducts in urine may derive from both DNA and RNA. Urine contains significant numbers of exfoliated bladder epithelial cells, whose DNA can be isolated and analysed for the presence of adducts. An example is the case of a worker acutely exposed to MOCA (4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline)), whose urine samples yielded significant levels of adducts in the exfoliated urothelial...

Sweetness intensity

The sweetness intensity ofa sweetener varies according to purity, temperature,pH, the content ratio, the presence of other food ingredients, and the concentration of a comparable sugar solution. In general, the sweetness multiples of high-intensity sweeteners maybe presented in terms of relative sweetness to around 2 to 6 sucrose in an aqueous solution. As shown in Table 9.4, in a sensory evaluation of relative sweetness to a 4 sucrose solution by trained taste-panelists at Maruzen Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., pure stevioside and rebaudioside A were determined as 160 times and 308 times as sweet as sucrose, respectively (Saizuka 1982 Anonymous 1994). The sweetness multiple of commercialized simple 'stevia extracts' was evaluated to be almost equal to that of isolated stevioside because they usually contain rebaudioside A and other less sweet principles together with about 50 60 stevioside. The sweetness potency of enzymatic a-1, 4-transglucosylated stevia extract is considered to vary...

Stevia extract

Soon after being introduced to the Japanese market, a simple, concentrated product of an aqueous decoction of S. rebaudiana leaves was employed, namely, 'stevia extract'. At present 'stevia extract' is made through several steps using absorbent resins to produce a white to pale yellowish powder or granule, containing stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, dulcoside A, and minor principles. According to the Voluntary Specifications of Non-chemically Synthesized Food Additives, published by the Japan Food Additive Association (1993), the content of total steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, and dulcoside A in a commercialized 'stevia extract' is standardized at a minimum level of 80 . Commercially available simple 'stevia extracts' commonly contain about 90 steviol glycosides which consist of around 50 55 stevioside, 20 25 rebaudioside A, 5 10 rebaudioside C, and 3 5 dulcoside A (Shibasato 1995).The available products are specified to have no...

Partial air drying

Partial dehydration is generally achieved by air drying. The resulting process is termed dehydrofreezing. The advantages over conventional freezing include (1) energy savings, since the water load to the freezer is reduced, as well as reduced transport, storage and wrapping costs (2) improved quality and stability (color, flavor), as well as better thawing behavior (lower drip loss). When using partial air drying, food ingredients of high water activity (aw 0.96) are generally obtained, since water removal is limited to 50-60 of the original content. To avoid browning during air drying, blanching or other treatments, such as dipping in antioxidant solutions (ascorbic or citric acid, sulphur dioxide), can be used (Torregiani, 2000). Microwave-assisted air drying methods such as microwave vacuum drying, microwave freeze-drying and microwave atmospheric pressure drying for dehydration of fruits can also be used (Funebo, 1997). Partial water removal from the food prior to the freezing...

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