Personal Guidebook to Grief Recovery
Death and major loss in general usually result in the process of bereavement or grieving. Grief is defined as a person's emotional reaction to the event of loss, and as a process of realization, of making real inside the self an event that has already occurred in reality outside. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) of the American Psychiatric Association defines bereavement as a psychiatric disorder if it includes symptoms characteristic of a major depressive episode . . . such as insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss . . . that last at least 2 months after the loss. As C. S. Lewis suggested in his 1961 book A Grief Observed, grief is a type of experience that most people anticipate with dread. Lewis himself died within two years of the death of his wife Joy, and it is believed that Lewis's profound grief hastened his death. In principle, however, grief is an adaptive reaction and essential to recovery. Scholars have argued that grief instinctively...
Feelings, which courses between the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) of the mesencephalon (3) a RAGE (or defensive aggression) system, running approximately in parallel to FEAR circuitry, that promotes aggressive acts and feelings of anger and irritation (4) a separation distress or PANIC system that triggers separation-induced crying (perhaps foundational for human grieving, sadness, and depressive moods related to loss) and elaborates bonding urges related to social attachments (5) several LUST systems that contribute distinctly to female and male sexuality and associated erotic feelings (6) a CARE system to promote maternal nurturance and presumably feelings of love and devotion (7) a PLAY system that instigates youthful rough-and-tumble playfulness and other ludic activities (e.g., laughter) that may be primal brain ingredients for joyful affect.
We all find bad news distressing, but how we react depends on our personalities and circumstances. Young (2001) discusses how some individuals experience the 'grief' process at different stages, for example when they embark on the investigation trail for a possible diagnosis of cancer, or when they are given the diagnosis of cancer. It is not only the patient who requires time and support, but also their family and friends for the entire patient journey - a journey that is unique for every individual and carer (DoH, 2000a Wheeler, 2006).
Costs are usually divided into three broad categories in the economic evaluation direct, indirect and intangibles. Direct costs are resource costs that are attributable to the intervention under study, including side effects or other current and future consequences. Indirect costs are used to refer to the productivity losses or other losses related to illness and death (Gold et al, p 179). Indirect costs in economic evaluations should not be confused with the indirect cost terminology used in accounting which refers to overhead costs of the production of some good or service. Intangible costs are costs for which (at least currently) no economic value can be ascertained. These would include costs such as pain, anxiety and grief. These are generally included through quality-of-life or utility measurements.
There is evidence to suggest that men who reject the option of sperm banking and remain childless later regret their decision (Cella and Najavits 1986). Infertility represents a major loss event and is emotionally painful, predisposing to depression in later years (Parkes and Markus 1998). This grief may be hidden and unacknowledged, representing a loss of potential rather than existing children. We do not know if infertility following cancer treatment is more traumatic than that of isolated infertility. It may be that
Petrarch, often considered the first modern Man, lived through three episodes of the Plague in Italy, lost many loved ones, and through his intensely personal poetry embodied the anxieties and grief of the time. Born in Arezzo, near Florence, in 1304 to Ser Petracco, a notary and friend of Dante, young Francesco was exposed to classical Latin literature, which shaped his future life as a humanist scholar. In 1313 his family moved to Avignon, then the seat of the papacy, and eventually to nearby Carpentras, where Francesco was formally educated. He went on to law school in Montpellier, France, and in 1323 to Bologna, Italy, for legal studies that left him hating scholastic education and lawyers in general. After his father's death and subsequent events deprived him of both support and inheritance, he joined the clergy and went to Avignon Babylon of the West to seek a position. Here he gained the patronage of Cardinal Giovanni Colonna, on whose behalf he traveled to Rome and around...
For the individual living through this, the emotions piled on fear, grief, anger, guilt, fatigue. The Italian poet and author Giovanni Boccaccio catalogued many human responses in the Introduction to his Decameron, which was set in the midst of the first epidemic in Florence. Some fled to avoid the horrors and preserve their health some repented, prayed, and tried to help as best they could still others lost their inhibitions and drowned their fear in merry-making and immoral excess. In certain places people openly blamed others in their midst for the pestilence and deaths the immoral, the poor, foreigners, or Jews. People sometimes joined together to take what they considered positive actions in the face of the threat of epidemic. When groups within a society take actions that reflect what are normally individual psychological responses to events (fear, hope, hatred, blame-placing), then one may call them psychosocial responses. From an outsider's viewpoint these might be very...
The death tolls were unprecedented as far as observers were concerned, and the extreme measures taken were often unsettling. Gregory continues, s ince soon no coffins or biers were left, six and even more persons were buried in the same grave. One Sunday, three hundred corpses were counted in St. Peter's basilica at Clermont, France . 10 The effects in and around Constantinople were clearly devastating when leaving home people wore identification tags in case they died away from friends or family people ceased working and crops went unharvested Justinian had mass graves dug across the Golden Horn at Galata.11 Paul records that in Italy, Everywhere there was grief and everywhere tears. For as common report had it that those who fled would avoid the plague, the dwellings were left deserted by their inhabitants, and the dogs alone kept house . . Sons fled, leaving the corpses of their parents unburied parents forgetful of their duty abandoned their children in raging fever. 12 Procopios...
Several emotional states, such as grief and obsessive love, have some of the same properties as addiction (Sabini and Silver, 1998 Elster, 1999). They are conditions in which the individual is overcome with emotion. The root meaning of the passions or the emotions is being overcome, and these states are characterized by the experience of being rendered passive and unable to act effectively. This represents the addicted state but surely does not represent all emotional states (Sabini and Silver, 1998 Elster, 1999). Emotional adaptive behavioral responses evolved, in my view and that of others (e.g., Ekman, 1992 Panksepp, 1998 Lane and Nadel, 1999 Davidson et al., 2000), because they confer cognitive information processing and successful problem solving (Darwin, 1872 Marler and Hamilton, 1966 Schulkin, 2000). They are not just passive confused states that render action incoherent.
Phantom limb pain is difficult to manage, with no individual treatment gaining universal acceptance. Treatment approaches for phantom pain include surgery, pharmacological management, physical therapies, and psychological interventions. Surgical procedures that attempt to cut or ablate the pain pathways have little if any benefit. However, surgical implantation of electrodes to stimulate the spinal cord and various parts of the brain may be of value in treating patients with phantom limb pain that is unresponsive to other treatments (Saitoh et al., 2000). Pharmacological management of phantom limb pain can involve drugs from many different classes, such as tricyclic antide-pressants, opioids, benzodiazepines, antiarrythmics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, peptides (e.g., calcitonin), and NMDA-receptor antagonists (e.g., ketamine). In all cases, successful management in small-scale studies has been reported. Drug combination therapies are also used. In addition, regional anaesthetic...
B., he did not look profoundly depressed but reported that his low mood began within a few days after the stroke. The depression was more severe on some days than it was on others but it had continued at some level for the past 7 months. Although the patient's father had died 2 months after his stroke, his grief did not seem to be excessive or to be a cause of his prolonged depression. Mr. B. reported symptoms of anxiety, tension, restlessness, worry, low energy, and loss of interest in activities that he previously enjoyed such as eating out or shopping. He also felt hopeless but did not report a change in his appetite, sleep, or ability to concentrate.
In English, in the great majority of cases of a cognate noun and verb, the verb is derived from the noun. However, the verbs of thinking buck this trend. The Oxford English Dictionary allows that the following nouns all are derived from the corresponding verbs thought, belief, desire, concept, intention, emotion, feeling, fear, admiration, doubt, memory, heed, hope, attention, recognition, cognition, decision, opinion, anticipation, grief, regret, purpose. And I presume there are others. In everyday talk, these nouns seem to function mostly as act nominalizations, although sometimes, when accompanied by metaphor, they can look a bit like metaphorical accessory nominalizations. For instance, see the list of metaphor-plus-nominalized-verb combinations in my introduction to the colloquial thinking vocabulary in chapter 8. What is most interesting, however, is what the dictionary says about the origin of the noun mind.
As discussed earlier in this book, cancer is a group of diseases, with some forms of malignancy, such as basal cell carcinoma of the skin, carrying an excellent prognosis for the patient (Ketcham and Loescher, 2000). However, the word 'cancer' has been used. As health professionals we must not be complacent when using the word 'cancer'. It is important that the diagnosis is imparted to the patient, and their families and carers, with tact and adequate explanation of its potential implications, even if it is a form of the disease that responds well to treatment (DoH, 2000a Young, 2001). Cancer instils fear in most individuals affected. Many patients, together with their family and friends, experience feelings of uncertainty about their future. Young (2001) discusses how patients want honest and positive answers. Is the disease treatable If so, what will the treatment involve - surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy What is the likelihood of the success of the treatment Will the cancer, or...
Terms used to classify emotions generally include happiness, love, grief, guilt, and joy. However, most of these are impossible to define with sufficient operational rigor to permit scientific study, especially when animal models are used to unravel the neural and endocrine contributions to the emotional state and accompanying behavior. This is because these categories of emotion have not been constructed and refined from empirical observation. Rather, they are words taken from everyday language that describe either
The James-Lange theory of emotions has been the subject of considerable scientific debate since its publication by James in Principles of Psychology (1890). Portions of James's theory had been formulated by the Danish physiologist Lange in 1885. James combined his views with those of Lange, and credited Lange in the name of the theory. It offers a physiological explanation of the constitution, organization, and conditioning of the coarser emotions such as grief, fear, rage, and love in which everyone recognizes strong organic reverberations, and the subtler emotions, or those whose organic reverberations are less obvious and strong, such as moral, intellectual, and aesthetic feelings (James, 1890, p. 449).
The content of post-test counselling depends on the HIV test result.The aims are to discuss the result, share information, provide support, and encourage future safe sexual behaviour. Always ensure confidentiality. Break the news openly and sympathetically. When someone has a positive HIV test result, common reactions at different times may include shock, anger, guilt, grief and depression. People will need continuing support.
Psychologists provide therapeutic services for police officers who are under stress, such as grief counseling for police officers and families. The need for counseling may stem from officers who are injured or killed in the line of duty. Police psychologists provide family counseling, counseling services for the children of police officers, and drug and alcohol counseling. Police psychologists assist in establishing peer counseling teams within the law enforcement agency (Kurke & Scrivner, 1996). Some psychologists offer psycho-educational evaluations for officers' children to address issues that may peripherally affect the officer's ability to discharge sworn duties.
The reality of the involvement of many family members differentiates HIV from other conditions. Parents, who are often pivotal in the development of identity for evolving youth, may be less available because of the severity of their own illness. When a parent dies of AIDS and their child is in the custody of another caregiver, the child may be subjected to a preconceived notion about their sexuality, tainted by the awareness that their parent died of HIV. This knowledge, consciously or unconsciously, may influence the caregiver's perceptions of how children, teens and young adults who are HIV-positive should act. The family issues surrounding grief and bereavement also play a role in how children and young people who are HIV-positive see themselves in relationship to their parents, their health status and the world.
The most common initial reaction to single parenthood is depression. Often the parent feels victimized, alone, and angry. He or she tends to worry about unpredictable income and poor housing and to feel inadequate (Miller, 1980). Other emotional reactions experienced by single parents include guilt or a sense of failure about a marriage breakdown, grief, fear, anxiety, confusion, and, in some cases, relief (Burgess & Nystul, 1977). The advent of single parenthood may also result in increased strain on the single parent's time, energy, emotions, and ability to work (Burgess & Nystul, 1977).
When the course is chronic, hypochondriasis may appear similar to lifetime obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or a personality disorder. When the course is intermittent (Barsky et al. 1990) or of new onset, the physician should search for predisposing stressful life events as the cause (e.g., the sudden death of a loved one). Henry Maudsley, the great British anatomist of the 19th century, referred to this type of grief-induced hypochondria in poetic terms The sorrow that has no vent in tears makes other organs weep.
Dealing With Sorrow
Within this audio series and guide Dealing With Sorrow you will be learning all about Hypnotherapy For Overcoming Grief, Failure And Sadness Quickly.