Growing Mushrooms at Home

Mushroom Growing 4 You

This ebook from Jake White, Certified Mushroom Grower, teaches you how to grow your own mushrooms in your backyard! Since you were a kid, you have probably been told to never eat wild mushrooms But what if you had a way to grow your own wonderful-tasting mushrooms? Wouldn't that taste so much better than bland, grocery store mushrooms? Food that you grow in your own backyard tastes so much better than food from the store. Mushrooms from the store can actually be very dangerous They are as absorbent as sponges. When farmers spray pesticides all over them, they absorb every little drop. Eating store-bought mushrooms is like buying a box full of poison. Jake White can teach you how to easily grow all of the mushrooms that you want, of any kind! Learn how to grow amazing tasting mushrooms that do not have any of the bad drugs on them that store bought ones will! Read more...

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Mushrooms are eaten primarily for their flavour and textural features and are used fresh, dried, or processed by canning, freezing or pickling. However, the understanding of the causes of textural changes in mushroom tissue is incomplete and, consequentially, little information is available on the effect of raw material factors on the texture of processed mushrooms. Fresh mushrooms are easily bruised and rapidly lose weight through dehydration. Post-harvest refrigeration at 0 C and 95 RH will maintain mushrooms in good condition for five to six days. Storage for nine days at 12 C causes mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) to become spongy and tough (Zivanovic et al, 2000). Sponginess paralleled expansion of the intercellular space at the pilei surface, hyphae shrinkage, central vacuole disruption, and loss of proteins and polysaccharides, while toughening was associated with increased chitin content in the hyphal walls.

Mushroom Hydrazines

The cultivated edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus contains agaritine, -N- y-l( + and its decomposition products. Three hydrazine derivatives (the N'-acetyl derivative of 4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine, 4-methylphenylhy-drazine hydrochloride and the tetrafluoroborate form of 4-(hydroxymethyl) benzenediazonium ion), derived from agaritine, are carcinogenic in mice. Moreover, uncooked cultivated Agaricus bisporus itself is carcinogenic in mice (Toth and Erickson, 1986). Agaritine is also present in the shiitake (Cortinellus shiitake), which is a popular edible mushroom in Japan. Another edible mushroom, false morel (Gyromitra esculenta), contains gyromitrin (acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone). This compound is converted into the mutagenic and carcinogenic N-methyl-N-formyl-hydrazine and methylhydrazine under acidic conditions such as those prevailing in the stomach.


Amanita mushrooms have strong anticholinergic effects due to their concentration of ibotenic acid, muscazone, and muscimol. Clinically, intoxication takes the form of agitation, muscle spasms, ataxia, mydriasis, and even convulsions. Additional indole compounds may account for the hallucinosis that is often seen with intoxication. The genera Inocybe and Clitocybe contain muscarine and cause cholinergic excitation at all parasympathetic nerve endings except those of the neuromuscular junctions and nicotinic sites. Coprius atramentarius, or Inky Cap, is a common mushroom that is generally considered edible. Its consumption in combination with alcohol, however, results in a severe toxic reaction similar to that seen with disulfiram. The syndrome includes facial flushing, paresthesias, and severe nausea and vomiting. The responsible toxin is coprine, which acts to increase acetaldehyde blood levels.

Is Similarity Too Flexible to Provide Useful Explanations of Cognition

A final point to make about the potential overflexibility of similarity is that, although impressions of similarity can change with context and experience, automatic and generic assessments of similarity typically change slowly and with considerable inertia. Similarities that were once effortful and strategic become second nature to the organism. Roughly speaking, this is the process of perceiving what was once a conceptual similarity. At first, the novice mycologist explicitly uses rules for perceiving the dissimilarity between the pleasing Agaricus Bisporus mushroom and the deadly Amanita Phalloides. With time, this dissimilarity ceases to be effortful and rule based and becomes perceptual and phenomenologically direct. When this occurs, the similarity becomes generic and default and can be used as the ground for new strategic similarities. In this way, our cognitive abilities gradually attain sophistication by treating territory as level ground that once made for difficult mental...

Hepatic Failure in Infants and Children

FHF in infants is usually caused by an inborn error of metabolism such as galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance or tyrosemia.143 Prognosis is better for children than adults, perhaps due to the greater regenerative capacity of the liver at a younger age. Other causes of FHF include herpes virus, echo virus, Epstein-Barr virus infections and hepatitis B.27 In childhood, encephalopathy is the major complication and cause of death. In one series, 9 out of 31 (28 ) patients survived. Mortality correlated well with the severity of encephalopathy but not with patient age or underlying etiology. Most cases were of indeterminate etiology, but five were due to paracetamol overdose, halothane and amanita mushroom poisoning.144

Natural muscarinic alkaloids

Muscarine Muscarine, methylente-trahydrofuran chloride (13.1.14), was first isolated from the poisonous mushrooms Amanita muscaria. It can be synthesized in various ways from completely different substances 16-24 , particularly from 2,5-dimethyl-3-carboxymethylflurane, which undergoes a Curtius reaction, i.e. successive reactions with hydrazine and further with nitrous acid in isopropyl alcohol, which forms the urethane (13.1.9), the acidic hydrolysis of which gives 2,5-dimethyl-2H-furane-3 (13.1.10). Allylic bromination of this gives 2-methyl-5-bromomethyl-2H-furanone-3 (13.1.11), which is reacted with dimethylamine, forming (13.1.12). Reducing this compound leads to formation of (13.1.13), the reaction of which with methyl chloride gives muscarine (13.1.14) as a mixture of stereoisomers. Muscarine is a natural alkaloid that is found in a number of wild mushrooms. Despite the fact that muscarine does not have any therapeutic value, it is of interest because of its expressed toxic...

Nanobacteria and the Other Small Bacterial Forms

Producing mushroom-like fruiting bodies. Nanobacteria do show several growth forms, sizes, and social formations depending on culture conditions. Fastly growing mycoplasma forget cell division, forming very long multicellular forms. Thus, bacterial size is dependent on growth phase. Small size is not directly linked to the genomic size Myxococcus xanthus genome size 9.4 Mb (Chen et al., 1990) is among the largest, whereas mycoplasmas have the smallest genome sizes, 0.58-1.6 Mb (Barlev and Borchsenius, 1991). Chlamydia and Rickettsia have genomes of 1 Mb. Nanobacterial genome size is unknown, but quantitative Hoechst staining suggests it may be smaller than that of mycoplasmas.

Biochemical Characterization

The three classes of nuclear RNA polymerases that occur in eukaryotes were originally separated by chromatography on DEAE Sephadex.* Tbey were classified according to their distinct chromatographic properties, salt requirements, template preferences, and especially by their differential sensitivity to the toxin o-amanitin, a cyclic octapeptide produced by the poisonous Amanita mushrooms.6 In mammals, pol II is the most sensitive to a-amanitin (50 inhibition at 25 ng ml), whereas pol III displays intermediate sensitivity (50 inhibition at 20 Jig ml) and pal I is completely resistant.* In Saecbarmyces, pol III is highly resistant, whereas pol I shows intermediate sensitivity (50 inhibition at 300-600 jig ml) and pol II is again extremely susceptible (50 inhibition at 1 jig ml cc-amanitin),10,11 These differential sensitivities to a-amanitin are the standard tool for diagnosing which polymerase is responsible for transcribing any given template. More recently, a bacterial phy to toxin...

Other Disorders Of Neuronal Migration And Cortical Formation

Ulegyria is another distinct cortical anomaly. Ulegyria is best characterized as a fusion of layer 1 at the depths of sulci with relative sparing of the crests of the gyri. The fusion is frequently associated with gliosis in the cortex, neuronal loss, and obliteration of the cortical lamination. The scarring at the depth of a sulcus and sparing at the surface of the brain results in a mushroom appearance when the gyrus is viewed on cross section. These lesions have very well-defined borders and discrete islands of preserved neurons within the lesion. The histology and location, frequently in an arterial zone, have led to the contention that ulegyria arises late in gestation or in early neonatal life as a vascular injury to the immature cortex, possibly related to hypoperfusion. Ulegyria may be clinically silent or manifest as seizures, similar to those of polymicrogyria discussed earlier.

Estimated Requirements

Foods such as mushrooms, nuts, whole grains and processed meats, as well as wine and beer, are good sources of Cr. On the other hand, foods high in simple sugars such as fructose are low in Cr content and actually promote Cr losses.15 In 1989, the National Research Council recommended that the estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake (ESADDI) for Cr to be between 50 and 200 g per day.16 In 2001, the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences redefined the daily adequate intake of Cr to 35 g per day for adult males and 25 g per day for adult females.1718 These guidelines are supported by various research. Anderson and Kozlovsky18 analyzed the self-selected diets of free-living American adults and determined an average daily intake of Cr of 33 g for males and 25 g for females. Additional research by the same researchers18 reports adults living in the United Kingdom, Canada, Finland and New Zealand also fail to meet the ESADDI minimum requirement of 50 g of...

Avoiding Pesticide Residues

Remember that the good oil is olive oil. Whatever improvements may be made to the composition of cottonseed oil in the future (Chapter 5), at present all cotton products come tainted with pesticide residues. Cotton is the most generously endowed recipient of pesticides of any crop.17 Australian meat producers who fed their animals 'cotton trash' now know this to be true, and mushroom growers using 'cotton hulls and meal' instead of horse manure in their base

Dietary and Supplemental Sources

Typical human diets generally supply 40 ng g) include shellfish, mushrooms, parsley, black pepper and some prepared foods. Cereals, liver and fish tend to have intermediate amounts of vanadium (5-40 ng g). Beverages, fats and oils, fresh fruits and fresh vegetables generally contain

Reference Set Fungal Spores

B., Effect of excess carbon dioxide on growing mushrooms, J. Agric. Res. 47 599-608 (1933). 90. Seaby, D., Differentiation of Trichoderma taxa associated with mushroom production, Plant Pathol. 45 905-912 (1996). 101. Deering R., F. Dong, D. Rambo, and N. P. Money, Airflow patterns around mushrooms and their relationship to spore dispersal, Mycologia 93 732-736 (2001).

Fungal Spore Types and Their Release

Ascomycetes may actively discharge their ascospores by internal pressure of asci. Some ascomycetes, however, may dissolve their asci and release ascospores in wet masses for insect pickup and dispersal. Chaetomium species are wet-spore producers. Their ascospores are released in wet mass after their asci are dissolved.86 Wind or air movement plays an important role in spore dispersal of most spore types and basidiospores. Air movement carries and disperses basidiospores after they are ejected from basidia and fall out from between the gills of the basidioma.47 Basidiospores of Coprinus species can be carried away and dispersed by insects, which are attracted by odors produced by the mushroom and pick up slimy spore masses by contact. Although wet, slimy spore masses are likely to be picked up and dispersed by insects, they may become dry and airborne. Alternaria and unidentified ascospores and basidiospores. It was the only factor among 10 weather parameters found to significantly...

Processed fruit firming by infusion of gelling agents

Hormones Pregnancy

Among the well-known applications, the vacuum treatment of button mushroom with xanthan gum before blanching and canning has been shown to improve the weight yield and the organoleptic quality of the final product (Gormley and Walshe, 1986). Xanthan impregnation tended to decrease the shrinkage of mushroom during the blanching canning cycle and thus to reduce the product weight loss. The pre-treatment with xanthan led to a more acceptable and less tough texture of canned mushrooms. This 'softening' effect of the vacuum treatment on canned mushroom is a desirable feature since canned mushrooms often have a 'hard' texture. The benefit is due presumably to the thickening property of the xanthan gum solution (0.5-1 w w) which occupies the wide-open hyphae structure of mushroom and prevents expulsion during blanching and retorting. Some of the xanthan molecules might also be bound by the mushroom proteins. Demeaux et al. (1988) indicated that in terms of weight loss reduction of canned...

Controlling PPO and POD activity

Preparing Xanthan Gum Solution

First of all, manipulating the raw materials may control enzyme activity. Examples for this can be found in for instance the development of a potato variety in which PPO was knocked out via antisense technology (Zabeau et al., 1994), and in button mushroom that was transformed with antisense PPO-constructs (Stoop and Mooibroek, 1999). A latent mushroom preparation can be activated when the ionic strength of the buffer is decreased, for instance through dialysis (Fig. 12.5). Decrease of ionic strength stabilises intra-molecular ionic interactions, which may, therefore, be postulated to play a role in this activation process. Other factors that In addition, the pH in the micro-environment of PPO determines the activity of PPO. A decrease of the pH from 6.5 to 4.5, via dialysis, considerably activates latent mushroom PPO, measured against a non-dialysed control (Fig. 12.6). Kenten (1957) and Ichishima et al. (1984) described a similar activation for resp. broad bean and...

Other Instrumentation

Storz Hosemann Frontal

There are several other instruments commonly used during frontal recess dissections that were not detailed in the previous sections. The frontal mushroom developed by Stammberger (Fig. 3.13) has a handle, shaft, and overall appearance similar to the frontal sinus giraffes however, the distal tip is a mushroom punch. This is a through-cutting instrument that has the advantage of being able to work circumferentially, Fig. 3.13. Frontal mushroom Fig. 3.13. Frontal mushroom The Rosa frontal Kerrison (Fig. 3.14) and Hosemann frontal mushroom punches (Fig. 3.15) are more substantial instruments and can be used in the fron tal recess to remove heavier bone than the more delicate Kuhn frontal sinus punches and the frontal mushroom punch. These are commonly used to remove osteitic bone from the frontal recess and may be used instead of drills during Draf type lib and III procedures 7 .

Spirulina In Adaptive Immune Responses

Several different polysaccharide fractions have been isolated from Spirulina, some of them with molecular weights exceeding 10 million Da.14,38 These polysaccharides were shown to exhibit biological activities, such as immunomodulation and enhancement of hematopoiesis, not only in vitro but also after oral administration.36-38 This is consistent with the findings that oral administration of certain mushroom polysaccharides can enhance immune functions and inhibit carcinogenesis.39 Other fungal polysaccharides, however, are ineffective when given orally, although they show significant biological activity after intravenous or intraperitoneal administration. Humans and many animals can digest certain types of polysaccharides into small fragments or even their individual sugar constituents and subsequently absorb these oligo- or monosaccharides. It seems highly unlikely that such small fragments retain any biological activity. Many other plant, fungal, and bacterial polysaccharides

Team And Individual Expertise

Furthermore, very few mycologists have expertise in the group of molds and fungi that are found in water-damaged moldy environments. For example, there are mycologists who specialize in wild mushrooms, which are seldom found growing indoors. The mycologist who specializes in basidiomycetes, including mushrooms and wood-decaying bracket fungi and polypores, may not be familiar with ascomy-cetes and deuteromycetes, which include most microfungi growing in water-damaged environments. It is important to find the right expertise. The expertise of mycologists is different from that of virologists, bacteriologists, parasitologists, or microbiologists. Mycologists may play a role in assisting with planning a field investigation, sampling, laboratory analysis of samples, assisting with interpretation of the data, remediation, or any combination of these actitivies because they know the biology of fungi. On the other hand, mycology is a very broad field. It covers five major groups of fungi...

Interactions Between Temperature Moisture and Fungi Indoors

Basidiospores of Paxillus panuoides Fr., a mushroom likely found outdoors, were released when temperatures were above freezing, and daily peaks were usually correlated with increased T and decreased RH. Spore releases were found to increase from a temperature of 2 C, to a maximum at 37 C, but ceased at 45 C. RH treatments did not significantly affect spore release. Temperature was determined to be the stimulus for the natural spore release pattern.61 Higher counts of basidiospores might be due to higher relative humidity and lower sunshine in 1978 in Galway, Ireland.62 Li63 found that RH and dew were positively correlated with release of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba, and T values showed no significant correlation with the release of the basidiospores. Less than 0.1 of the basidiospores released infiltrated a residence nearby. Because fluctuations and changes of RH are related to temperature variations as well as moisture sources, the effects of these two parameters...


In the United States, Spain, France and Britain the majority of cases are secondary to acute viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis B. Hepatotoxic drugs are the second most common cause in the United States and Spain, whereas toxins (hydrocarbons and mushroom toxins) are more frequent in France.3,10-12 Acetaminophen and halothane were the more common hepatotoxic drugs causing SALF in Britain. The etiology is unknown or indeterminate in up to 50 of cases. In a review of 2,550 cases of FHF, survival ranged from 14-35 , except in acetaminophen toxicity, where survival was as high as 50 .13


Calamities tend to impress, and the first reference to fungi in the Greek classics is an epigram by Euripides (c. 450 B.C.) commemorating the deaths of a woman and her two children after eating poisonous fungi. During Roman times, edible fungi were a delicacy, and diverse advice was offered by authors such as Horace, Cel-sus, Dioscorides, Galen, and Pliny about how to avoid poisonous species, how to render poisonous forms harmless, and how to treat fungus poisoning. of the first printed herbals in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and some has even survived to this day. It is, however, invariably unreliable because the distribution of poisonous and edible species seems to be random. For example, the esteemed esculents Amanita cae-sarea ( Caesar's mushroom, a Roman favorite) and Amanita rubescens ( the blusher ) are congeneric with Amanita phalloides ( death cap ) and several related species (Amanita pantherina, Amanita verna, Amanita virosa) that have caused - and still do -...


Hallucinogens (psychedelics) have been used and abused since time immemorial. Many of these compounds, including mescaline (peyote cactus) and psilocybin (mushrooms), are used in religious ceremonies by Native Americans. These drugs were used actively during the 1960s and early 1970s. In the 1980s they were displaced by cocaine, but there has been a resurgence in their use, especially among teenagers.

Sphenoid Sinus

Fibrous Scarring Following Mucocele

As with frontal sinus mucoceles, initial entry may result in the expression of thin, clear fluid that resembles CSF. There may even be a pulsatile evacuation of this fluid secondary to the pressure within the sinus. Once entry has been established, the superior and lateral walls are taken flush with the skull base and the medial orbital wall, respectively. A combination of a straight mushroom and a rotating sphenoid punch does this quite nicely. The sinus is then examined endoscopically using angled endoscopes to assess the presence of carotid artery, optic nerve, or brain parenchymal exposure (Fig. 16.5).

Taste Perception

The surface of the tongue is rough because of the presence of papillae, which vary in size and shape. The largest are the circular circumvallate papillae, which contain taste buds, and these papillae form an inverted V shape at the back of the tongue. Fungiform papillae, which are mushroom shaped and also contain taste buds, are located on the tip and at the sides of the tongue (Arvidson, 1979). Moderate numbers of taste buds are present in foliate papillae, which occur in the palate and at the back of the throat. Evidence of anatomical influences on the different sensitivities between individuals has been provided by Miller and Bar-toshuk (1991) and Bartoshuk, Duffy, and Miller (1994), who correlated counts of papillae and taste buds with taste sensitivity.


Toxins account for less than 2 of FHF or SFHF.3 Amanita mushroom poisoning and industrial hydrocarbons are involved in the majority of cases. Mushroom toxicity, caused by Amanita phalloides verna and virosa, has been reported in Europe and the United States. The active agents, phallotoxins and amanatoxins, have an enterohepatic circulation and are not destroyed by cooking.100 As in acetaminophen-induced FHF, liver damage from mushroom toxicity is delayed and is usually proceeded by an 1-4 day period of vomiting and diarrhea. Amanita poisoning had a mortality rate of 22 in one series of 205 patients.101 Mortality was associated with coma and coagulation abnormalities. Emergency liver transplant can be successful in patients with FHF due to amanita toxicity.4

Other Agents

Chlorella,26 mushrooms,27,28 and agarics29 are also categorized as plants and have been suggested to have immune potentiating abilities similar to Spirulina. Although there is little scientific background or results of physicochemical analyses to support these activities, it is becoming clear that animal cells, particularly those of the myeloid lineage, are equipped with a repertoire of microbe-recognizing receptors.30 It is likely that some components of these materials can stimulate certain microbe receptors. Immune potentiation is representative of the anticancer and antiviral effects of these

The Sphenoid Sinus

Simple defects in the central sphenoid or perisellar regions can be approached either through a direct parasagittal endoscopic approach or transethmoid approach. The middle turbinate is gently lateralized and the inferior portion of the superior turbinate is resected following topical and injected vasoconstriction. Just medial to the superior turbinate within the sphe-noethmoid recess, the natural ostium of the sphenoid is identified and a wide sphenoidotomy performed using straight mushroom and Kerrison punches. Additional midline exposure is gained by resecting the posterior portion of the nasal septum and the intersinus septum. If the defect is located more laterally, a complete endoscopic ethmoidectomy is performed with perforation of the basal lamella, resection of the inferior third of the superior turbinate, and identification of the natural ostium of the sphenoid. The sphenoidotomy is extended laterally to the medial orbital wall and the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus as...

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